NR 505 Research Summary

Sample Answer for NR 505 Research Summary Included After Question

NR 505 Research Summary

NR 505 Research Summary

PICOT Question:  

  1. Designate each P I C O T: IGNORE 
  1. Write out in the PICOT sentence format.  

In type 2 diabetics between the ages of thirty and fifty (30-50) years old, how does the effect of a reduced daily caloric intake of 1500-2000 and 1200-1800 for males and females respectively and a 30-minute increase in physical activity affect hemoglobin A1C compared to those without diet or activity modification within an eight (8) week period.” 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NR 505 Research Summary

Title: NR 505 Research Summary

Article 1 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Rallis, S. (2019). Optimizing glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients through the use of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketogenic diet: a review of two patients in primary care. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy, 12, 299. 
Purpose  The aim of this study was to find out the how the use low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketogenic diet in optimizing glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients  
Research Method  The participants were given a low caloric and high ketogenic diet and followed up for 3 months to monitor their glycated hemoglobin levels  
Participants  The participants in this study were 2 females aged 65 and male aged 52 years  
Data Collection  Collected collection was done by taking labs to examine the progress of the patients  
Study Findings  The studies showed that a low carbohydrate diet coupled with a ketogenic diet led to an increase in glycemic control as evidenced by the significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin and weight reduction as they the two patients were overweight. On top of that, there is a reduction in the sulfonylureas and secretagogues.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The major limitation of the study is that there was no assessment of long-term sustainability. On top of that, it is not clear if the observed metabolic improvement was because of low carbohydrate or high fat diet.  
Relevance to PICOT  The study seeks to find out the effect of low caloric intake on diabetes type 2 management  

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Article 2 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Tay, J., Luscombe-Marsh, N. D., Thompson, C. H., Noakes, M., Buckley, J. D., Wittert, G. A., … & Brinkworth, G. D. (2015). Comparison of low-and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 102(4), 780-790. 
Purpose  The aim of this study was to find out the effects of very-low-carbohydrate, high-unsaturated fat, low-saturated fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on glycemic control as well as cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type diabetes. 
Research Method  Randomized controlled trial  
Participants  115 obese adults with T2D with glycated hemoglobin levels of 7.3 + or -1.1% 34.6 + or – 4.3 
Data Collection  Data collection entailed measurement of glycemic control through monitoring the levels of glycated hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids profile.  
Study Findings  The findings of the study have it that both diets achieved a significant reduction in body weight.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The study hard increased rates of participants withdrawing from the study. It can be explained from the fact that patients were required to maintain a strict diet and exercise. On top of that, the study had few participants which makes the findings questionable. The sustainability of the diet could not be determined since the patients were not followed for more than 1 year.  
Relevance to PICOT  In both the current study and the PICOT provided the patient population is diabetic patients while the intervention is a very low carbohydrate diet and a high saturated fat die with the expected outcome being a reduction in body weight.  


Article 3 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Chen, C., Zeng, Y., Xu, J., Zheng, H., Liu, J., Fan, R., … & Zhou, Y. (2016). Therapeutic effects of soluble dietary fiber consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 12(2), 1232-1242. 
Purpose  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soluble dietary fiber on glycemic control and lipids profile among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients  
Research Method  Randomized, double-blinded trial  
Participants  120 patients at the Xinquiao Hospital diagnosed with DM2 
Data Collection  Data was collected by measuring the body weight, blood pressure as well as waist and hip circumference before and after administrations of the soluble fiber diet.  
Study Findings  The study findings showed that MNT had the capacity to reduce 2-h blood glucose as well as insulin levels.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The duration of the trial was only one

month which questions the long-terms sustainability of the diet.  

Relevance to PICOT  In both the PICOT and the current study is that diet rich in soluble fiber was the intervention with the patient population of DM-2 patients with obesity.  

Article 4 NR 505 Research Summary

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Monteiro-Lago, T., Cardoso, M. D., Henriques, I., Mello, D. B., Fortes, M. S. R., Vale, R. G. S., & Rosa, G. (2019). Impact of eight weeks of concurrent training on obesity-related biochemical parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors: a case report. Advances in Obesity, Weight Management & Control, 9(4), 98-103. 
Purpose  The study intended to examine the effect of concurrent training on the biochemical parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors which are associated with obesity.   
Research Method  Case report  
Participants  A volunteer who did not take part in regular physical exercise and was in class 1 obesity took part in the study.  
Data Collection  Such body compositions during pre-and post-intervention were measured as total body mass, height, waist circumference as well as hip circumference.  
Study Findings  The eight weeks concurrent training program lowered cardiometabolic risk as well as positively altering the biophysical and biochemical variables.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  Poor exercise regimen adherence by some of the participants which could have altered the results of the study.  
Relevance to PICOT  The current study had diet and exercise intervention.   


Article 5 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Kuwata, H., Okamoto, S., Seino, Y., Murotani, K., Tatsuoka, H., Usui, R., … & Yabe, D. (2018). Relationship between deterioration of glycated hemoglobin‐lowering effects in dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor monotherapy and dietary habits: Retrospective analysis of Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Journal of diabetes investigation, 9(5), 1153-1158. 
Purpose  The research study was meant to examine the relationship between the reduction in glycated hemoglobin’s lowering effects in monotherapy with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor as well as macronutrient intake in people with type 2 diabetes.    
Research Method  Retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with type 2 DM visiting the Kansai Electric Power Hospital in Osaka, Japan in the period 1st September 2006 to 30th June 2017.  
Participants  A total of 65,323 medical records were reviewed.   
Data Collection  Total caloric intake was measured and then compared with the levels of glycated hemoglobin.   
Study Findings  There was a strong link between deterioration of the HLE in DPP4i monotherapy with dietary SF intake in type 2 diabetes patients.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  `There were no well-defined rules to guide the changing prescription of the antidiabetic drugs which is suspected to have the study population. There was a discrepancy in the two groups because of dietician’s encouragement that patients taking DPP4is to take PUF instead of SF depending on the past reports.     
Relevance to PICOT  In both the PICOT and the current study, the patient population is patients with type 2 diabetes with the intervention being diet and anti-diabetic drugs.   

Article 6 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Velázquez-López, L., Muñoz-Torres, A. V., García-Peña, C., López-Alarcón, M., Islas-Andrade, S., & Escobedo-De La Peña, J. (2016). Fiber in diet is associated with improvement of glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of diabetes research, 2016. 
Purpose  The intent of the study was to find out the relationship between dietary fiber on the existing diet with glycated hemoglobin levels, lipids profile in patients that have diabetes type 2.  
Research Method  Cross-sectional survey  
Participants  395 patients  
Data Collection  Data collection was done using a food frequency questionnaire which had been validated and currently being employed by the Mexican National Health and Nutritional Surveys.  
Study Findings  In the study there was no relationship between the consumption of proteins with enhanced control of blood sugar levels.  On the other hand, an increased intake of carbohydrates was associated with reduced body weight. Increased intake of saturated fat was linked with lower amount of HDL-c as well as elevated body weight.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The researchers did not clearly state the limitations of the study  
Relevance to PICOT  Both this study and the PIOCOT the intervention is the diet rich is both proteins and carbohydrates with the expected outcomes being a change in the levels of glycated hemoglobin.   


Article 7 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Shiau, J. Y., So, D. Y., & Dent, R. R. (2018). Effects on diabetes medications, weight and glycated hemoglobin among adult patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes: 6-month observations from a full meal replacement, low-calorie diet weight management program. Canadian journal of diabetes, 42(1), 56-60. 
Purpose  In this study a 6 months weight-management program bearing full meal replacement, low calorie diet in line with a protocol with DM-2 patients for reducing the use of diabetes medications.   
Research Method  Retrospective cohort study  
Participants  A total of 317 patients with diabetes type 2 and obesity who were on medications.  
Data Collection  The levels of reduction in the hypoglycemic agents was monitored.  Data was prospectively collected from a registry.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The fact that this study is a retrospective cohort study, the criteria for the choice of the initial diabetes drugs is not straightforward.  
Relevance to PICOT  In both the PICOT and the current study, the patient population is diabetic patients while the intervention is a low caloric diet. The expected outcomes are a reduction in the levels of glycated hemoglobin.  

Article 8 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Barreira, E., Novo, A., Vaz, J. A., & Pereira, A. M. (2018). Dietary program and physical activity impact on biochemical markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Atencion primaria, 50(10), 590-610. 
Purpose  Examine the effectiveness of implementing independently or combined dietary as well as exercise regimen on the plasma glucose values as well as lipid profile among patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus  
Research Method  Systemic review  
Participants  30 randomized controlled trials were included which concentrated on physical activity as well a dietary intervention.   
Data Collection  PubMed/Medline database-papers published between 2010 and 2016. 
Study Findings  The articles that were reviewed had their findings showing that the use of physical activity regimen combined with higher intake of vegetables, grains and fruits.  
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The relationship between the supplementation as well as glycemic and lipid profile among the type 2 diabetes patients had uncertain development in majority of the studies.  
Relevance to PICOT  There is low caloric diet intervention and the patient population is diabetic patients.  


Article 9 

Full reference for article (APA Format)  Hatamoto, Y., Goya, R., Yamada, Y., Yoshimura, E., Nishimura, S., Higaki, Y., & Tanaka, H. (2017). Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels. Journal of Applied Physiology, 123(2), 278-284. 
Purpose  The purpose of this study was to find out the impact of varied exercise timing on the levels of postprandial glucose levels in patients with Diabetes type 2.  
Research Method  Crossover design with different trials being 5 days apart randomly.  
Participants   A total of 11 active men were employed in this study.  
Data Collection  Blood glucose levels were monitored using the glucose monitoring device.  
Study Findings   
Limitations (State why the limitations)  The study did not elucidate the method through which brief periodic exercise was effective in lowering at lowering the PPG levels. On top of that, there was no significant difference between exercise trials and the controlled study.  The participants of study were young active men which makes it is not applicable to the rest of the population.   
Relevance to PICOT  The study is related to the intervention in the PICOT which is physical exercise  

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