# MATH 225N Week 1 Discussion: Basic Statistics Data Used in Everyday Life

## MATH 225N Week 1 Discussion: Basic Statistics Data Used in Everyday Life

MATH 225N Week 1 Discussion: Basic Statistics Data Used in Everyday Life

In Week One we studied several methods of sampling including cluster, systematic, stratified, convenience, and simple random sampling.  We strive to have so-called “unbiased” samples.  Another method for gathering and collecting data is a so-called “census.”

We learned about qualitative ( categorical ) variables and quantitative variables.  We learned about nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio levels of measurement.

We learned a little bit about observational studies and we learned a little bit about ( scientific ) experiments.  We learned about placebos and about control groups and experimental ( treatment ) groups.  We learned about “blinding” and most particularly about so-called “double blinding.”

We started to study shape, center, and spread of distributions of variables.

Some common shapes are symmetrical ( bell shaped ) , skewed left, skewed right, uniform, bimodal, and multi modal.

We started to foreshadow the extensive use of various Excel spread sheet calculators during the course ( please see Files along the left of the computer screen and then click around in various places to find them ) and the potential to use the TI 84+ graphing calculator for many of the needed calculations in the course ( check your e-mail for a link to a free 90 day trial / download straight to your desktop ) .

Thanks Friends and please get off to a very fast start in Week 2 and again in Week 3 !!  You want to allow time and energy to actually start working on Week 4 Knewton Homework Assignments before Week 4 even actually officially begins !  Enjoy the Week End Friends !!

### Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

• OpenStax Textbook: Chapter 1
• Minimum of 1 scholarly source

### Initial Post Instructions

1. Present two different types of data, or variables, used in the health field. Examples could be blood pressure, temperature, pH, pain rating scales, pulse oximetry, % hematocrit, minute respiration, gender, age, ethnicity, etc.
1. Classify each of your variables as qualitative or quantitative and explain why they fall into the category that you chose.
1. Also, classify each of the variables as to their level of measurement–nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio–and justify your classifications.
1. Which type of sampling could you use to gather your data? (stratified, cluster, systematic, and convenience sampling)

### Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Your responses to other students can explain additional analyses that could be done with the variables they selected. Consider confounding variables, discrete or continuous data, the effects of outliers, etc.

### Writing Requirements

• Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up)
• APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Course Outcomes (CO): 1, 2

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday

Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

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For grading purposes, this particular discussion posting area runs from Sunday Jan 3 through Sunday Jan 10, inclusively.

We explore Descriptive Statistics and the fundamentals of sampling techniques and quantitative research and research design this Week. This includes data, experimental design, so-called descriptive statistics, distributions, graphs and graphical displays, and measures of central tendency, variation, and position. At a somewhat basic and introductory level, we sometimes try to describe distributions using concepts of “shape, center, and spread.” Central tendency refers to “center” and variation refers to “spread.”

Please don’t forget to use an “outside” resource as part of the content and documentation for your first Post – the Post which is due on or before Wednesday of the Week – the Post where you make the most major contribution to the Weekly discussion posting area and attempt to address the discussion prompts / cues for the Week.  It could possibly include a web site that you discovered on the internet at large, so long as the web site is relevant and substantial and does not violate the Chamberlain University policy for prohibited web sites, and so forth.  It could possibly include references / resources that you discover through making use of the online Chamberlain University Library ( please click Resources along the left and then click Library to discover the link to the Chamberlain University online Library

Please check out the link below to see some of the key similarities and key differences between Bar Plots / Graphs / Charts and Histograms.

This is one kind of an example of using an “outside” source / resource to add to what is revealed in our Weekly Lesson in Modules and in our Weekly text book reading.

Please don’t forget to look over the Graded Discussion Posting Rubric each Week to be certain that you are meeting all of the Frequency requirements as well as all of the Quality requirements for graded discussion posting each Week.

If you have any questions about anything, please do not hesitate to post in the Q & A Forum discussion posting area or to send me a direct e-mail message to  [email protected]

Thanks Friends and Good Luck !  Work hard and learn a lot !!

Sincerely,  Mr. Smith     Chamberlain University     Math, Statistics, and Quantitative Research

Evidence, Claims, and Study Types

Tutorial and Demonstration Video

Knewton Homework Assignment

“Short and Sweet” Version

Variables and Measures of Data

Tutorial and Demonstration Video

Knewton Homework Assignment

“Short and Sweet” Version

Sampling Methods

Tutorial and Demonstration Video

Knewton Homework Assignment

“Short and Sweet” Version

Comparing Sampling Methods

Tutorial and Demonstration Video

Knewton Homework Assignment

“Short and Sweet” Version

### MY TAKE ON SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

I would say that in an introductory course at this level that we briefly look at 6 methods of data collection and that among researchers and scholars 5 of them are considered to be sampling techniques but I think it is appropriate to mention the 6th method of data collection in this same breath anyway.

In our online text book on pages 16-17 the authors discuss simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling, and convenience sampling.

Convenience sampling is bar far the weakest of all these methods and leads to the greatest potential and opportunities for various forms of statistical bias in the resulting sample.  So in real life practice, convenience sampling should be avoided at all costs, and simple random sampling is often thought of as a bit of a “gold standard” in statistics and quantitative research.  But I can see or visualize in real life practice why once in a while that stratified sampling might be a pretty good idea and approach, so to speak, for example.

The 6th form of data collection that I want to mention here is a census.  The reason that a census is different from the 5 types of sampling mentioned above is that a census literally is “everyone” while the other 5 forms of data collection above definitely involve “less than everyone.”

Please see the following slides to see some pictures of some of these sampling techniques.

Please feel free to look around in the online text book and on the internet at large to see info about what a census is and to Post about it in one of your Week One Posts.

Thanks Friends and Best Wishes !!

### Reference:

Holmes, A., Illowsky, B., & Dean, S.  ( 2018 ).  Introductory business statistics.  OpenStax.

Edited by Christopher Smith on Jan 4, 2021 at 8:02am