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Waste and Recycling Revamp
I’m working on a biology writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
One of the largest problems of current times is plastic waste. Can you think of a method to recycle plastics in the US?
That is your mission.
To head you in the right direction, here is a graphic from a study in Spain (see linked pdf).
recycling Article Incentives for Plastic Recycling: How to Engage Citizens in Active Collection. Empirical Evidence from Spain Denisa Gibovic and Andrea Bikfalvi * Campus de Montilivi, Department of Business Administration and Product Design, University of Girona, 17071 Girona, Spain; email@example.com * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +34-659-997-640 Abstract: The recycling target for plastics is expected to increase Europe-wide from 22.5% to 55% by 2025, hence the relevance of incentive schemes and the need to reach conclusions about how to encourage families to recycle more. Following this objective, a pilot project was implemented and a virtual reward token called RECICLOS created to encourage recycling among families, using incentives and awards to improve recycling behaviour and a webapp prototype to register the recycled plastic. By the end of the 6-week pilot project, 1053 families were registered on the scheme, representing 10% of the targeted population in the pilot area of the county of Pla de l’Estany, Catalonia, Spain. The novelties were the introduction of a token, the gamification of incentives through raffles and lotteries, webapp-based direct communication with citizens, and feedback after collecting and registering the recycled material. The multidimensional aspects of recycling activities, their strong relation with human behavioural patterns, and the high demand for communication and interaction mean that mobile technologies find significant application in this field. The results show that people can be influenced and their recycling habits changed by means of varied, effective, and innovative incentive schemes. Citation: Gibovic, D.; Bikfalvi, A. Incentives for Plastic Recycling: How Keywords: incentives; recycling; new technologies; waste management; Spain to Engage Citizens in Active Collection. Empirical Evidence from Spain. Recycling 2021, 6, 29. https:// doi.org/10.3390/recycling6020029 Academic Editors: Michele John and Wan-Ting (Grace) Chen Received: 30 December 2020 Accepted: 22 April 2021 Published: 26 April 2021 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). 1. Introduction Over the past 50 years, there has been a consistent increase in the presence of plastics in the economy, making this an environmental challenge for society and the planet. According to the PlasticsEurope report 2020, the global production of plastics has increased twentyfold since the 1960s, reaching 360 million tonnes in 2018 . In Europe, plastics production reached almost 62 million tonnes by the same year and is expected to double again over the next 20 years . Nonetheless, more than 40 years after the launch of the first universal recycling symbol, the global figure for collecting plastic packaging for recycling is just 14%. Each year, plastic packaging material to the value of USD 80–120 billion is lost to the economy. Given the projected growth in production, in a business-as-usual scenario, the world’s oceans could contain more plastics than fish (by weight) by 2050, as warned by the World Economic Forum’s study on rethinking the future of plastic . In 2018, the plastics industry provided direct employment for more than 1.6 million people in Europe, creating a turnover of more than 360 billion euros and involving close to 60,000 companies, most of them small and medium enterprises (SMEs) . Although plastics production in the EU has been stable in recent years, the EU’s share of the global market is falling as production increases in other parts of the world. In the EU, the potential for recycling plastic waste remains largely unexploited. The reuse and recycling of end-oflife plastics remains extremely low, particularly in comparison with other materials such as paper, glass, and metals. Around 25.8 million tons of plastic waste are generated in Europe every year , while less than 30% is collected for recycling. Of this amount, a significant proportion leaves the EU to be treated in third world countries, where different Recycling 2021, 6, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling6020029 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/recycling Recycling 2021, 6, 29 2 of 20 environmental standards may apply . Very large quantities of plastic waste leak into the environment from different sources both on land and at sea, causing significant economic and environmental damage . According to EUROSTAT , in 2018, the packaging waste generated was estimated at 174 kg per inhabitant in the EU (varying from 67.8 kg per inhabitant in Croatia to 227.5 kg per inhabitant in Germany). From 2008 to 2018, paper and cardboard were the main packaging waste materials in the EU (31.8 million tonnes in 2018), followed by plastic and glass (14.8 and 14.5 million tonnes in 2018, respectively). Finland had the highest recovery rate at 114.6%, the percentage of over 100% explained by the storage and treatment of previous years’ waste. Belgium has the highest recycling rate at 85.3%. Globally, 5 to 13 million tons of plastics—1.5 to 4% of global plastics production—end up in the oceans every year . It is estimated that plastic accounts for over 80% of marine litter and is transported by marine currents, sometimes over very long distances. It can be washed up on land, including uninhabited land (for example, see ), degrade into microplastics, or form dense areas of marine litter trapped in ocean gyres. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that global damage to marine environments amounts to at least USD 8 billion per year. It is estimated that between 75,000 and 300,000 tons of microplastics are released into the environment each year in the EU . While a large amount of microplastics result from the fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic waste, significant quantities also enter the environment directly, making tracking and prevention more difficult. Since plastics do not break down in the environment, this waste has been accumulating in waterways, agricultural soils, rivers, and ocean for decades . Most plastics are non-biodegradable and take 450 to 1000 years to decompose when disposed of in landfills or marine environments, all the time leaking out harmful constituents into the ecosystems. The current policy framework for a circular economy at the EU level forms the basis of the future framework for actions that will change this situation. Given their lightweight nature, flexibility, and durability, plastics are particularly effective in packaging applications, with over a third of demand for plastic material used for packaging applications . The short-lived nature of plastic packaging, however, creates a huge demand for its collection and recycling. Plastics are composed of multiple chains called polymers, which are made of small molecules known as monomers connected by chemical bonds. Plastic packaging is generally made of thermoplastic resins such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS), among others. The polystyrene (PS) category includes multilayer and other plastics that are not generally collected for recycling. The rest of the plastic types can be collected, sorted, and mechanically or chemically reprocessed into flakes and/or pellets that are used as raw materials in the manufacture of new products . Different policy frameworks apply at the supra-national, national, regional, and even local (municipality) level to regulate this complex issue. The well-known pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) is a powerful instrument available to local authorities to support and optimize their waste management policy and improve the situation of urban waste generation by increasing waste separation and recycling . Irrespective of the level of power/influence, all actors ultimately aim at the same goal. While some authors recognise that waste management may be very different across countries, there are commonalities in climatically and culturally homogeneous areas . In December 2015, the European Commission adopted an EU Action Plan for a circular economy, identifying plastics as a key priority and committed to devising a strategy to address the challenges posed by plastics throughout the value chain, taking their entire life cycle into account. In 2017, the Commission confirmed that it would focus on plastics production and use and work towards the goal of ensuring that all plastic packaging is recyclable by 2030. The first-ever European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy, adopted in January 2018, will transform the way plastic products are designed, used, Recycling 2021, 6, 29 3 of 20 produced, and recycled in the EU . The Commission states that “The Strategy is part of Europe’s transition towards a circular economy and will also contribute to reaching the Sustainable Development Goals, the global climate commitments, and the EU’s industrial policy objectives”. The strategy addresses three main issues: (1) How to reduce the use of fossil fuels to produce plastics; (2) How to increase plastic recycling rates; and (3) How to minimize leakage into the environment, and especially the seas. Hence, the traditional plastics industry is under pressure to improve its performance, while the bio-based and biodegradable plastics industry has the potential to increase its market share. Different countries have designed and deployed various strategies to tackle this issue, which is made more complex not only by the interaction of multiple legislative layers  but also because both local users and tourists intervene in the process (locals and tourists), putting pressure and responsibility on citizens as agents of change . Aware that solid waste is an acute problem worldwide , countries in general, and Spain included, are looking for ways to change their current situation regarding recycling and to reap the possible benefits of the circular economy for the country. In 2014, only 24.32% of waste was recycled in Spain, which is several points below the European average (36%), meaning that Spain is wasting much of its increasingly scarce and expensive resources . The Spanish Strategy for the Circular Economy, “Circular Spain 2030”, is the strategic framework and essential action to facilitate and promote the transition to the circular economy based on collaboration among the General State Administration, the autonomous communities, local entities, and other agents such as producers and consumers of goods. The Spanish Strategy for the Circular Economy was developed based on the corresponding Action Plans, the first of which is for the period 2018–2020. This cross-cutting Action Plan mainly but not exclusively affects the actions of the General State Administration, enabling their coordination and grouping into a framework of initiatives aimed at achieving a common purpose: the transition to the Circular Economy. In Spain, municipalities are responsible for the collection, transport, and treatment of municipal waste and they may choose to develop their own waste management and prevention programs. In 2019, each citizen deposited 17.1 kg of plastic containers, cans, and cartons in the yellow container and 19.4 kg in the blue container, with respective increases of 9.1% and 7.2% on 2018, not because of an increase in consumption, which was 1.1%, but by integrating and practicing recycling . Although valuable progress has been made towards closing the gap on national and European targets in the field of plastic recycling, Spain still lags behind the best performers, calling for the need to find out more about what really motivates citizens to recycle. In the specific case of plastics, the recycling target is expected to increase Europe-wide from the current 22.5% imposed by the Packaging Directive 94/62/EC to 55% by 2025 , motivated in part by rising awareness among the general public of the externalities of plastics. Reaching this target by 2025 means that more than 10 million tonnes of recycled material need to be absorbed by the end markets. Given the complexity of this challenge and the different actors involved in the recycling eco-system, there is no single solution. A multitude of measures to achieve the above-mentioned goals must be implemented by the different actors, affecting product design, waste collection, sorting, recycling, and a key actor, namely the end user. While the circular economy is still in the process of defining its conceptual boundaries [19,20], current scientific literature on recycling is far more abundant in the field of business, and particularly manufacturing, than in the area of household recycling and waste reduction, with one publication stating that “ . . . the monitoring of plastic waste and research into its impacts are still in their infancy” . There are also myriad initiatives that go under the radar of scientific investigation and publication, and different authors qualify some fields of household recycling research as emerging. With some exceptions, authors focus their attention on a series of aspects—types and/or efficiency of collection —using a monothematic approach and suggesting small-scale and/or time-limited solutions . Contrarily, reality is often complex and multidisciplinary, combining legal, social, economic, Recycling 2021, 6, 29 4 of 20 environmental, psychological, and technological facets of recycling. Another manifesto regarding the current academic literature on recycling is outlined in , which states that policy makers and practitioners are not given clear advice on designing recycling programs, whose success is rooted in the motivation to recycle and possible incentives for initiating, consolidating, and spreading the recycling behaviour. Consequently, the objective of this paper was to study the relevance of incentive schemes for household recycling to reach conclusions about how to encourage families to recycle more and better and to find out how attractive each type of incentive is among the general population and whether incentives encourage people to adopt and improve recycling practices or to follow the example of the most active people or the best recyclers. Evidence is provided based on the RECICLOS project, the aim of which was to increase public awareness and reward recycling. During the 6-week pilot deployed in different small municipalities in the county of Pla de l’Estany in Catalonia (Spain), inhabited by 32,000 people, the project was able to observe how families can be encouraged to recycle plastic at home and to find out the extent of the attraction of each type of incentive offered, namely raffles, lotteries, discounts, and donations. The originality of the research lies in providing illustrative case evidence gained from a plastic recycling incentivising solution with a multidisciplinary perspective, which combined elements of technology (webAPP and blockchain), behaviour, social aspects (community of recyclers), and virtual tokens. The business model approach in an ecosystem framework contributes to a better understanding and clarification of stakeholders and the configuration of the essential elements to successfully deploy such initiatives. Further novel elements are linked to the solution itself, the purpose of which was to demonstrate how technology can help citizens to recycle more and better, using incentives and gamification to achieve this goal, in other words, to digitalise the recycling habit and reward system without changing the current recycling model. The system combines new digital technologies that recognize and reward those who perform the recycling task correctly, transparently, efficiently, and effectively using blockchain technology. 2. Previous and Current Experiences The behavioural literature suggests that recycling is highly normed and very dependent on the role of household norms in decision making . The influences on recycling behaviour seem to be low and there are few relevant academic studies of incentive schemes either for household recycling in general or focused on plastics in particular that are successful or useful on a larger scale in the longer term. The most relevant experiences so far in terms of incentive schemes aimed at motivating citizens to recycle more and better have been implemented at the governmental level in the UK. Eunomia and Serco  report that rewards can be a useful tool for authorities that want to enhance the performance of their waste collection service, increase participation in recycling, increase recycling tonnages collected, or reduce residual waste. A 2006 study by AEA Technology Environment (AEAT) evaluated the household waste incentive pilot scheme implemented by the Department for the Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) in the period 2005/06. The 14 key findings identified include the relatively low cost of offering a financial incentive compared to the comparative costs of promotion, monitoring, and evaluation. The majority (81%) of the trials reviewed had a positive, attributable impact on raising awareness through offering an incentive. Just over half (57%) the pilot trials had a positive, attributable impact on increasing the tonnage of recyclables collected. The report concluded that incentives can be a useful tool for authorities that want to enhance the performance of their waste collection service. Another study conducted in the UK  compares three main behaviour change models—doorstepping, incentives, and feedback—highlighting the pros and cons of each. Incentives have been shown to be highly effective and can be tailored to the local environment, while rewards are well received by the public and are more politically acceptable than penalties. Furthermore, incentives need to be of significant value to the householder, should only be used where there is effective Recycling 2021, 6, 29 5 of 20 service delivery, are expensive to deliver, and rely on effective communications, while reward schemes are often complex, making it difficult to isolate the effectiveness of the constituent parts. There is also little research on the sustainability of reward schemes once the reward is removed. In Hong Kong, the EPD (Environmental Protection Department) introduced the GREEN$ (Greeny Coins) smart card on 16 November 2020 to facilitate and encourage the public to use the community recycling facilities, earn GREEN$, and exchange them for gift items. Members of the public bringing no less than 2 kg of recyclables to the new community recycling network can register to get a GREEN$ smart card. Reference  provides empirical evidence that monetary incentives for recycling play critical roles in seeking to fulfil the waste management goal in Finland. More than half (62.6%) of the participants agreed that the financial incentive is the main trigger of behavioural change, while 52.8% of the participants agreed that this incentive stimulates knowledge about recycling waste. Regarding local authorities wishing to implement a recycling incentive scheme, the report advises that there is no ‘one size fits all’ ideal solution, and each authority must first and foremost consider the barriers to recycling it needs to overcome. Moving to a different context, namely Nigeria, the same author conducted a similar study , asserting the hypothesis that incentives for recycling are vital for reducing and managing municipal solid waste sustainably. While most survey-based studies ask for perceptions, motivations, and behaviours, few use the surveying operation to ask for recommendations and solutions. The exception is , who solicit recommendations on how to positively change behaviour to reduce the improper disposal of single use plastic items in north-eastern Ohio’s Lake Erie basin in the US. This study also shows that a financial incentive was the number one choice (42% of respondents) to encourage reusable bag use. A 2008 special issue of the journal Waste Management collected and published different worldwide initiatives illustrative of PAYT in practice, including countries like Spain , the Czech Republic , the US , France , Greece , Japan , and Ireland . Although more than a decade has passed, the general aim of “finding appropriate solutions and propagating variable waste charging as a prospective approach towards sustainable waste management, while respecting the principle of subsidiary and varying local conditions and preferences” (, p. 2759), is still an ambition. EU initiatives such as higher recycling targets and more effective legislation for drinking water, cutting the need for bottled water, are aimed at improving the problem since over 60% of plastic waste still comes from packaging, with only 40% of it recycled. In Spain, Ecoembes was founded in 1996 to respond to the provisions of Spanish Packaging Law 11/97. Some 77% of the waste managed by Ecoembes is nowadays recycled thanks to public–private collaboration and shared responsibility. Bearing in mind the focus of this paper, a selection of initiatives, shown in Table 1, were classified into two main groups: (i) public participation and citizen engagement initiatives representative of the key problems in waste management decision making and (ii) existing solutions to educate and motivate citizens to recycle better. The selected initiatives appear listed and are characterised by their basic features including context of application, objective, incentives used, advanced technology, connectivity with the wider eco-system, and main distinctive features. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 6 of 20 Table 1. A comparison of existing solutions that educate and motivate citizens to recycle. Initiative Country Collaborative Citizen Decision-Making Tool Tool to Educate and Motivate Citizens to Recycle Better Incentive Schemes Introduced Advanced Technology Connects Citizens to Relevant Ecosystems Recycle for greater Manchester UK no yes no no no My Waste Ireland no yes no no no Urban Spectra UK no yes no no no Recyclebank USA no yes yes yes no Pantapa/Bower Sweden no yes yes yes no Tropaverde Spain no yes yes no no Main Functionalities and Distinctive Features Offers maps and routes to local Recycling Centres using Google maps and GPS and provides information and tips on what citizens can put in their recycling bins and what can be recycled. Official guide to managing household waste in communities. Provides residents with collection schedules tailored to each household, information on proper recycling/disposal procedures and hours of operation for local drop-off facilities. The user can report problems by taking a photo, registering the exact GPS location, and emailing the report directly to the relevant department. Enables direct recording of the daily problems faced by municipalities, forming service departments of them in real time, and allowing the relevant authorities to better manage them A major incentive scheme in the US, which encourages behaviour change across a range of environmental issues such as energy, water, and consumer habits. A digital app to recover previously paid deposits and a crowdsourced litter platform. The first app to incentivize recycling. A web platform that aims to promote recycling and environmental responsibility among citizens, directly rewarding good environmental actions. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 7 of 20 Table 1. Cont. Initiative Country Collaborative Citizen Decision-Making Tool Tool to Educate and Motivate Citizens to Recycle Better Incentive Schemes Introduced Advanced Technology Connects Citizens to Relevant Ecosystems Plastic Bank Canada no yes yes yes no Circularise The Netherlands no yes yes yes no Empower Norway no yes yes yes no RECICLOS Spain yes yes yes yes yes Main Functionalities and Distinctive Features Participants take their plastic packaging waste to one of the Plastic Bank collection centres and receive credits on their blockchain-based app using smart contracts accessed from their mobile device. A blockchain solution that provides an accurate pricing system for any recycled material and can detect the number of times the product has gone through the recycling process. Uses blockchain tokens to foster donation-based recycling. For every euro donated by an organisation, Empower, commits to cleaning up the same amount of plastic waste by weight. Uses incentive schemes managed by blockchain smart contracts to assign lottery prizes and encourage participation in collective incentives launched by local authorities, geo-localizing recycling containers and following up citizens’ recycling habits. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 8 of 20 Each initiative has advantages and disadvantages, but they are all valuable for their general contribution to recycling, covering different stages or features of the recycling experience and value chain including general ambition, advice, motivation, and/or active participation in recycling, with just one initiative, Reciclos, covering all of them. The only solution comparable to RECICLOS is Recyclebank from the US, which provides incentives based on a catalogue but does not connect citizens to the relevant ecosystem or contain the advanced technology of RECICLOS. Circularise and Empower are technologically advanced solutions, but as start-ups, they lack policy support and do not connect citizens to relevant ecosystems. “Strong partnerships between interconnected plastics value chains and all stakeholders, be they local, national or global, are needed to solve this problem and to develop innovative, sustainable solutions”  is one of the forceful calls to connect different actors, including citizens as end users, solution providers, facilitator authorities, policymakers, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), and activists for the environment. The identification of stakeholders is an initial key step in any project. It is especially useful if they are grouped according to typologies to know how they can contribute to or oppose the project and its implementation . Further, it is essential to understand different stakeholders’ priorities to tailor behaviour-oriented strategies . In this study, the authors find clear evidence of differences in the priorities of a broad range of stakeholders in the context of construction waste recycling, with a series of implications and a call to formulate stakeholder-specific managerial strategies and public policy tools to encourage specific stakeholders representing a certain sector to change their waste recycling behaviour. One aspect of constraints is tied to the concept of structure paradoxes.  defines the Paradox of Structure as being concurrently enabling and inhibiting. The tension involving the interaction between the adaptive (efficiency of the current system and the constraints found within) and the innovative (ability to develop a more effective model) is a significant component of the Adaption-Innovation theory . Some of the relevant reasons to establish “development” in a particular location  are cooperation with local partners and local citizen image, both pertinent in the case of local waste management innovation. All proposed innovative solutions should be viewed within the context of inner-stakeholder relations . Recycling is a typical platform upon which patterns of human behaviour can be projected, since in comparison to other forms of waste management, recycling requires the most of human intervention. Since waste does not simply appear in a bag or a bin, “recyclers” must set in motion a series of “unconscious” thoughts and actions to perform the act. More specifically, recycling performance relies heavily on the actions and interactions of several stakeholders , each of whom—the government, consumers and waste generators, privatised waste management companies, industry and trade (and market)—has determinate roles and responsibilities, as described in . Last, recycling is a practice that requires and demands the actions of a broad audience, ranging from citizens of all ages to scientists. Mobile technologies can find significant application in this field because of the multidimensional aspects of recycling activities, the strong relationship with human behavioural patterns, and the high demand for communication and interactions. According to , the optimum configuration for the waste management system (WMS) should consider the benefits for all stakeholders. However, with the help of current mobile technology, municipalities and citizens can together explore new opportunities for waste reduction and recycling through user driven innovation. Moreover, as stated in , mobile phones can act as devices that connect different stakeholders. A municipal authority can spread information about its latest campaign and introduce mobile applications to assist workers in the recycling sector, among others, while residents can find information on how to recycle different streams, organise their recycling efforts in cooperation with the municipality, and send texts, pictures, and complaints. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 9 of 20 3. Methods 3.1. Description of the Project RECICLOS is a virtual reward token created to encourage recycling among families, with incentives and awards used as a mechanism to improve their recycling behaviour. It is a paradigm shift in terms of personal rewards for recycling with recyclers regularly participating in weekly and monthly raffles, jackpots, and special lotteries among other state-of-the-art incentives such as discounts on local waste taxes and donations to NGOs of the user’s choice. It combines new digital technologies to create a platform that enables the monitoring and control of the flow of recycled domestic materials from homes to treatment plants, recognising and rewarding the families that do this task correctly, transparently, efficiently, automatically, and effectively using blockchain technology as today’s most appropriate and reliable technology to manage the assignation of lotteries and prizes without human interaction. 3.2. Structure of the Research/Action RECICLOS was first introduced with lotteries using blockchain and rewards for recycling under the motto “the luck of recycling”. Lotteries are a powerful game widely used for rewarding in many B2C markets and, with the advent of virtual currencies, they are great candidates for the gamification of rewards. Indeed, lotteries are powerful gamification schemes per se and an opportunity to create a new market of recycling incentives . There is a need for total trust in the rewarding programme, and its transparency is key, provided along with traceability and auditability in a distributed, compliant, and scalable way to the multiple local public administrations and companies involved in waste management using Distributed Ledger Technologies—DLTs). The experiment undertaken in Phase 1 of RECICLOS was to develop a catalogue of 5 options that users could freely choose from and that made up a baseline of 20% uniform random to compare the preferences of several types of users. The options were the primordial tax discount bonus, donation to an NGO, the weekly or monthly raffle, the special lotteries, or donating the RECICLOS to other users, who could be offspring, parents, or friends. The starting point is that when asked, users say they want more recycling facilities and rewards such as discounts on waste taxes. However, these discounts seem to be a rather unpopular reward among local administrations responsible for waste management as they are very much against making significant income cuts when costly recycling programs must be paid for, claiming that the top tax discount they can afford is 20%. However, a regular discount of 20% or less is insignificant for most users given that in Spain this represents a yearly saving of less than 40 euros, or less than 4 euros a month, a minuscule saving compared to their individual recycling burden. 3.3. Methods Followed for the Analysis of the Outcomes The design of RECICLOS is based on a few assumptions, which are detailed below. A. Rewards like discounts and gifts are not working For most households, the burden of recycling is way higher than whatever discounts on taxes or gifts are offered by any current incentive program. Examples of such incentives are Recyclebank in Australia, terracycle.com and wasteconnectionswichita.com in the US, “e-colones” in Costa Rica, wasted.com machines in Germany, and similar versions in Spain, including Ganamos Reciclando with their “segundos” currency. They all work from the hypothesis that Recycling is for Profit . However, the amounts they produce are only attractive to minorities, while the aim of the current Proof of Concept (PoC) is to prove that the reward scheme might attract large majorities. B. Lotteries to redistribute individual rewards might work There are examples of redistributive raffles such as the traffic speed regulation initiative in a Swedish city, with the average speed currently standing at 30 km/h down Recycling 2021, 6, 29 10 of 20 from nearly 40 km/h. The experiment proved highly effective with people keeping to the 30 km/h speed limit following changes in the fines scheme for speed violations. All the fines were collected in a jackpot, which was shared out weekly among all the good drivers and managed randomly using smart contracts. Information about the jackpot was announced on a highly visible public display in the pertinent street. Following this approach, it was decided to redistribute not fines but the tiny individual rewards collected via a jackpot raffled among all the good recyclers who could prove their efforts by the RECICLOS they had obtained for recycling well. Thus, instead of giving away an average of 3 euros per month per household to all 200 households in a neighbourhood, an attractive 500-euro first prize was at play, along with a second prize of 100 euros or a 10% RECICLOS reimbursement for engaging users in the next raffles as part of the gamification strategy of the recycling rewards system. Some similar examples are Vermont Recycle and Win in the US and the Australian Cash for Trash lottery. C. Users need transparency in lotteries and rewards programs There is a need for total trust in the program to keep up the reward impetus and so transparency is key. Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) are therefore needed to provide solutions to achieve the required transparency, traceability, and auditability in a distributed, compliant, and scalable way among the many local public administrations and companies involved in waste management. Bringing DLT to bear on the digital asset space holds the promise of entirely new platforms for value storage, exchange, and preservation which traditional recycling and rewarding systems have so far not identified. 3.4. RECICLOS: Implementation The pilot project required an objective population with a minimum of 20,000 inhabitants, the participation of up to 1000 families (the final count was 1053 families), and a control group of up to 300 families. The territory selected to implement the pilot project is in the county of Pla de l’Estany (Catalonia, Spain), an area with a total population of around 31,000 inhabitants, the nucleus of which is Banyoles with approximately 18,000 inhabitants. There are a dozen other highly dispersed municipalities and a ruralized population of between 200 and 4000 inhabitants. The focus was a population core in the municipality of Fontcoberta made up of approximately 400 predominantly young, upper-middle-class families. The pilot focused on 154 families in the Melianta neighbourhood, who became the most monitored in terms of both their participation and the quantity and quality of the waste generated. The implementation is described in the following sections. 3.4.1. Web App A web app (see Figure 1), also known as a mobile web, was chosen because it helps attract new users. The two images show how users are encouraged to take part in the lotteries: (a) is an example of how a winner is announced, while (b) shows the statistical data of all the winners. An Android/IOS app will be developed in the future to secure loyalty among RECICLOS users. The look and feel of the web app are modern and focused on getting involved in Reciclos, trying your luck, and sharing your luck. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 11 of 20 Figure 1. RECICLOS—the user interface; (a) homepage; (b) example of newsfeed to call to action. 3.4.2. Testnet We worked on the Alastria testnet, a fork of Ethereum with Proof of Authority with 7 nodes as of 22 December 2018, to ensure the transparency of the system when running the lotteries and selecting the winner. Alastria is a non-profit association that promotes the digital economy through developing decentralised ledger technologies/Blockchain. The mechanics of the system and the pilot are depicted in the diagram showed in Figure 2. Figure 2. Mechanics and cycle of use in RECICLOS. Those participating in the pilot project were provided with recycling bags and a unique printed QR code in the form of a label to stick on the bag. The QR code and waste bags were sent by the project team to each registered user immediately upon registration and when refills were requested. The codes for each bag were generated with an encryption so that they could not be supplanted or falsified. The Proof of Work form for users required the QR code to be scanned through the APP, receiving as a reward a RECICLOS virtual currency unit. The RECICLOS were generated and managed directly by the organization. The company URBASER made an exclusive weekly collection and on-site delivery of the bags in the focus group area of Fontcoberta. Once in the plant, the sample of bags received were analysed, the QR codes registered, and the quality of the waste checked. For the collection truck, the QR code mechanism with a locator, a 3-digit decimal number, was used to facilitate identification should the QR be illegible. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 12 of 20 4. Results 4.1. RECICLOS: Pilot Results As of 20 February 2019, 6 weeks into the pilot project, 1053 families were taking part, representing 10% of the targeted population in the pilot area. Detailed figures about the families and individuals taking part in the pilot are shown in Table 2. Some 85% of the participants from 897 families were from the capital Banyoles, a result explained by the fact that 60% of the total population of the county lives there and where efforts to attract users were focused after a saturation value was reached in the Melianta neighbourhood of Fontcoberta. Fontcoberta was the municipality with the second largest number of participants in the region, at 14.6%. Much of the effort was focused on the housing estate of Melianta in the municipality of Fontcoberta since its demographic characteristics were suited to the pilot project. After a 5-week door-to-door campaign, 157 families from a total of 250 on this estate were recruited to take part, making 62% of the total of the focus group from this neighbourhood and 35% from the municipality of Fontcoberta. Table 2. Number of participating families per municipality in the pilot county. Municipality Total Population Families Participating in the Pilot % Persons Participating in the Pilot % Banyoles Fontcuberta Cornellà del Terri Porqueres 1 Serinyà Vilademuls Esponellà Palol de Revardit Sant Miquel de Campmajor 17,451 1212 2106 4208 1084 76 441 459 218 897 157 29 20 19 8 7 2 1 5.1 13.0 1.4 0.5 1.8 10.5 1.6 0.4 0.5 2386 418 11 53 51 21 19 4 2 13.7 34.5 0.5 1.3 4.7 27.6 4.3 0.9 0.9 1 The municipality of Porqueres was ruled out since door-to-door waste collection is carried out in this municipality. 4.1.1. Demographic Data, Operative Systems, and WebApp Performance As showed in Figure 3, the users were predominantly aged between 35 and 44 years (37%), with women taking the initiative almost double the number of times as men (65% female users). Users aged between 25 and 34 and between 45 and 54 had very similar participation percentages of around 20%, with those aged between 55 and 64 and the 65+ group each accounting for around 15% of the total registered users. Regarding the operative systems, 44% of participants were using an iPhone and the rest Android phones. The webapp performed satisfactorily in terms of capturing users, although page opening was slightly slow at 5 s or more. This must obviously be reduced using page optimization and by improving Alastria and cloud servers on Amazon AWS. The system was up for 99% of the time, achieved using manual supervision, a figure which must also be improved. Around 10% of users were not able to scan their waste, a figure that clearly must be reduced to 0.5%. Recycling 2021, 6, 29 13 of 20 Figure 3. Basic demographic features of participants (distribution by age and gender). 4.1.2. Creation of the User Community The uptake of families began in week 1, starting on 10 December 2018, and accelerating from January 7 onwards (week 5) after consolidation of the urban centre of Melianta, the object of the focus group, and following the learning curve of the registered users and the contribution of various MGM (member-get-member) recruitments. Active uptake was deactivated in week 8 since the target of 1000 families had been reached. On 20 February 2019, there were 764 active families, 123 inactive families (without scanning), and 167 families in the initiation phase (in the last 3 weeks of the pilot project). The evolution of the rate of uptake by families is showed in Figure 4. Figure 4. Rate of uptake of families. Regarding technical difficulties, an estimated 10% of the mobile phones had problems scanning the bags with the recycled containers, explaining why 100–110 families were inactive. The ratio for the active families was 1.56 bags with recycled containers a week, while the overall ratio for the pilot project was 1.12 bags. In terms of the global figures for the 10 weeks, the 1053 families collected and registered 6749 waste bags using the RECICLOS webapp, gaining a total of 13,060 RECICLOS tokens (etherum), of which 55.5% were used as payment to participate in the raffles and lotteries. The prizes won, however, were real objects handed out to the winners. The nine containers in Fontcoberta were collected once a week by the region’s concessionary company, URBASER, who delivered the waste to the TIRGI treatment plant in Celrà de Ter. The following day, the TIRGI staff members performed a characterization on the total sample delivered, classifying the contents of each bag as own waste or improper waste using the mobile APP. The bag was identified by reading the QR code or by manu- Recycling 2021, 6, 29 14 of 20 ally entering an identification number, and the quality of the waste was scored using the following scale: • • • With >30% of improper waste qualified as red (poorly separated); With 10% of improper waste qualified as yellow (regular); With