PHE 3025 Assignment Methods of Sampling Methodology

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PHE 3025 Assignment Methods of Sampling Methodology

PHE 3025 Assignment Methods of Sampling Methodology

1.1. Simple random sampling
The simple random sample means that every case of the population has an equal
probability of inclusion in sample. Disadvantages associated with simple random
sampling include (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2005):
 A complete frame ( a list of all units in the whole population) is needed;
 In some studies, such as surveys by personal interviews, the costs of obtaining
the sample can be high if the units are geographically widely scattered;
 The standard errors of estimators can be high.

PHE 3025 Assignment Methods of Sampling Methodology

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Systematic sampling is where every nth case after a random start is selected. For
example, if surveying a sample of consumers, every fifth consumer may be selected from
1.3. Stratified random sampling
Stratified sampling is where the population is divided into strata (or subgroups) and a
random sample is taken from each subgroup. A subgroup is a natural set of items.
Subgroups might be based on company size, gender or occupation (to name but a few).
Stratified sampling is often used where there is a great deal of variation within a
population. Its purpose is to ensure that every stratum is adequately represented
(Ackoff, 1953).

1.4. Cluster sampling
Cluster sampling is where the whole population is divided into clusters or groups.
Subsequently, a random sample is taken from these clusters, all of which are used in the
final sample (Wilson, 2010). Cluster sampling is advantageous for those researchers
whose subjects are fragmented over large geographical areas as it saves time and money
(Davis, 2005). The stages to cluster sampling can be summarized as follows: ter grouping for sampling frame, such as type of company or
geographical region
 Number each of the clusters
 Select sample using random sampling
1.5. Multi-stage sampling
Multi-stage sampling is a process of moving from a broad to a narrow sample, using a
step by step process (Ackoff, 1953). If, for example, a Malaysian publisher of an
International Journal of Academic Research in Management
Volume 5, Issue 2, 2016, ISSN: 2296-1747
www.elvedit.com 22
automobile magazine were to conduct a survey, it could simply take a random sample of
automobile owners within the entire Malaysian population. Obviously, this is both
expensive and time consuming.

A cheaper alternative would be to use multi-stage
sampling. In essence, this would involve dividing Malaysia into a number of
geographical regions. Subsequently, some of these regions are chosen at random, and
then subdivisions are made, perhaps based on local authority areas. Next, some of these
are again chosen at random and then divided into smaller areas, such as towns or cities.
The main purpose of multi-stage sampling is to select samples which are concentrated in
a few geographical regions. Once again, this saves time and money.

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