NURS 6501 Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis
The patient developed the symptoms because of the possible side effects of the transplant procedure and the medications administered. It may be impossible for healthcare providers to eliminate all the adverse drug interactions in the patients. The current assignment explains the symptoms evident in the patient’s case and the genes linked with the development of the disease. Also, the paper explains the process of immunosuppression and its effect on the body.
In this, the response to the medication and medical procedure depends on many factors including genetic composition, and could trigger the symptoms. The postoperative procedure was uneventful and the patient was discharged and given anti-rejection drugs as illustrated in the case. There is the possibility that the patient developed transplant rejection leading to renal failure that contributed to the weight gain and the reduced urine output (Kuan & Schwartz, 2021). Furthermore, the sensitization of the body to the foreign organ contributed to the rising of temperate and feeling fatigued.
The genes that contributes to the development renal disease include rs25487 of the XRCC1. The gene makes people vulnerable to end-stage renal disease. Furthermore, the GSTP1 gene is also linked to the C-reactive protein and the ferritin levels. According to Abd EL-Hassib et al. (2021), individuals with the gene have increased risks for oxidative and carbonyl stress. Patients with end-stage renal disease have increased levels of C-reactive proteins which are indicators of increased inflammation. Furthermore, they demonstrate a high oxidative stress level.
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Immunosuppression reduces the ability of the body to activate the immune response to the pathogens (Benvenuto et al., 2018). The process may be achieved through the reduction in the number of T-helper cells which recognizes the foreign objects and activate other immune cells to fight the pathogen (Tielemans et al., 2019). Alternatively, the effect may also be induced in the bone marrow. Besides, it reduces the inflammation in the body and the associated symptoms. However, it could be detrimental to the body because of the increased susceptibility to infections (Brown et al., 2017).
Finally, the human system is interconnected, and thus when one organ has been affected the rest may also suffer. In this case, the patient suffered organ transplant rejection and this could lead to increased inflammation. Decreased urine output was an indication of renal failure.
Abd EL-Hassib, D. M., Zidan, M. A., El Amawy, M. M., Hegazy, H. A., & Ameen, S. G. (2021). Polymorphism of XRCC1 Arg399Gln may predict for development of end-stage renal disease. A PCR confirmed case-control study. Meta Gene, 29, 100915. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mgene.2021.100915
Benvenuto, L. J., Anderson, M. R., & Arcasoy, S. M. (2018). New frontiers in immunosuppression. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 10(5), 3141-3155. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.04.79
Brown, S. A., Tyrer, F. C., Clarke, A. L., Lloyd-Davies, L. H., Stein, A. G., Tarrant, C., Burton, J. O., & Smith, A. C. (2017). Symptom burden in patients with chronic kidney disease not requiring renal replacement therapy. Clinical Kidney Journal, 10(6), 788-796. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfx057
Kuan, K., & Schwartz, D. (2021). Educational case: Kidney transplant rejection. Academic Pathology, 8, 237428952110068. https://doi.org/10.1177/23742895211006832
Tielemans, M. M., Van Boekel, G. A., Van Gelder, T., Tjwa, E. T., & Hilbrands, L. B. (2019). Immunosuppressive drugs and the gastrointestinal tract in renal transplant patients. Transplantation Reviews, 33(2), 55-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2018.11.001