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NRS 428 DQ: Impact of Global Health Issues on Public Health Systems

NRS 428 DQ: Impact of Global Health Issues on Public Health Systems

According to (RHIhub,2022). Health education is one strategy for implementing health promotion and disease prevention programs. Health education provides learning experiences on health topics, and presents information to target populations on health topics, including health benefits, providing tools to build capacity and support behavior change in the community. The use of the nursing process can stop at any stage as deemed necessary or can be repeated as needed. This process is inclusive of physical health as well as the emotional aspects of patient health. Nursing knowledge and education are used throughout the process to formulate changes in approach to the patient’s changing condition, delivering holistic and quality nursing care. Therefore, its effective implementation is critical for improved quality of nursing care. When the quality of nursing care is improved, the visibility of nurses’ contribution to patients’ health outcomes becomes distinct. In this way, nurses can justify the claim that nursing is a science and an independent profession (RHIhub,2022).

Many families in rural communities today experience many issues that influence health. Rural communities experience a higher prevalence of chronic conditions than their urban counterparts. Examples of chronic conditions include heart disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, stroke, and diabetes. Rural communities also experience higher rates of mortality and disability than urban communities. Limited access to health promotion and disease prevention programs and healthcare services contribute to these health challenges. However, some of these barriers for rural communities in accessing health care include:

Linguistic and educational disparities

Availability of resources to support personnel, use of facilities, and effective program operation

Unpredictable work hours or unemployment

Lower population densities for program economies of scale coverage

Cultural and social norms surrounding health behaviors

Low health literacy levels and incomplete perceptions of health

Limited affordable, reliable, or public transportation options

These shared barriers provide context for the needs of rural communities and an understanding of the strategies that will be most effective to address rural barriers to care (RHIhub,2022).

Nurses, however, as part of the health education plan, need to present country-level data, grouped by urbanization level, on population characteristics, health behaviors and risk factors, mortality, other health status measures, access to care, and mental health status.

NRS 428 DQ: Impact of Global Health Issues on Public Health Systems

Identifies rural-specific health priority areas, rural evidence-based best practice programs, community practices, and interventions, and promotes rural healthy communities (RHIhub,2022).

Many nursing researchers agree that the nursing process is a scientific method for delivering holistic and quality nursing care. Therefore, its effective implementation is critical for improved quality of nursing care. When the quality of nursing care is improved, the visibility of nurses’ contribution to patients’ health outcomes becomes distinct. In this way, nurses can justify the claim that nursing is a science and an independent profession, (NIH,2018).




Bolin, J. &Bellamy, G(2022). https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/1/barriers

Ayele, S(2018). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC58510

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The chain of infection for influenza begins with influenza or Orthomyxoviridae genus Alpha influenza virus, species Influenza A. There are A_D strains. It is a viral infection of the upper respiratory system which can become deadly with secondary complications of pneumonia. In the US the flu is seasonal peaking in December thru February. The CDC provides updated vaccine formulations based on their surveillance starting in September. In more temperate climates there is no seasonality to the infection cycles. Our seasonality may be related to the chain of infection. Exit portals are coughing and sneezing. Modes of transmission are droplets and contact with surfaces harboring droplets. The flu is typically spread through coughing, talking, breathing, or contact with items like phones, doorknobs, soiled tissues, and linens. Portals of entry are the eyes, nose, and mouth. In colder months people spend more time indoors in close contact with portals of exit, entry, and modes of transmission. The receiving host must be susceptible to the pathogen. Individuals who are at increased risk are the very young, under 5, the very old, over 65, especially the 75 yrs+, women who are pregnant, and people with chronic conditions.

The significance of understanding the chain of infections is that it allows for the chain to be disrupted and avert

infection or diminish its effects. The best defense is the annual flu shot available starting in September.  If exposure has occurred antivirals can be initiated within the first 48 hours of exposure and effectively disrupt the chain at the prodromal stage.  Effective antivirals include Oseltamivir, Zanamivir, Peramivir, and Baloxavir.  Portal of exit can be impeded with frequent hand washing, good respiratory hygiene of coughing into an elbow/tissue, wearing of a mask,  properly disposing of contaminated objects (tissues), sanitizing high contact objects like door handles/phones, proper social distancing, and frequent washing of clothing.  High-risk individuals should get vaccinated, avoid large crowds, and boost their immune system with vitamins, good hydrations, and good sleep patterns.  It should go without saying but also avoid sick individuals.




People at High Risk of Flu. (2022, August 25). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 2, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/flu/highrisk/index.htm


Influenza (Seasonal). (2018, November 6). The WHO Health Topics Influenza. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal)

Many hospitals have reported critical staffing shortages over the course of the pandemic, particularly when case numbers were high. Hospital reporting critical staffing shortages peaked at 22 percent during mid-January 2022. Federal, state, and local governments took significant action to address the need for prevention and treatment services that arose from COVID-19 as well as the disruptions in health care delivery and finances that resulted from the pandemic through supplemental funding from federal relief legislation and easing many regulatory requirements (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2022).


Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Hospital and Outpatient Clinician Workforce. Retrieved from https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/9cc72124abd9ea25d58a22c7692dccb6/aspe-covid-workforce-report.pdf

One of the global health issues that has been ongoing for many years is the opioid addiction. In the US alone there has been more than 750,000 deaths since 1999 and 2 out of 3 overdoses will result in death (HHS, 2021). With the increase of prescribed opioids, many have misused medications and have found that opioids have addictive properties. Although many have prescription medications for needed pain management, they long term use of opioids leads to dependency and eventually addiction. One of the side effects of opioids is respiratory depression which can lead to an anoxic brain injury or death. There has been an increase of opioid addiction during pregnancy and infants born addicted to opioids. With the rise in opioid addiction, there has been a need for addiction treatment programs. With the use of grants and in collaboration with the court, inmates that are currently in a program to help fight addiction will provide the funding to local health departments in order to provide the medications needed to the community for their addiction. For example my local health department in Kenosha, Wi uses naltrexone as the preferred medication of use after a person has been through the detox phase. One of the goals of the Kenosha health department uses Naltrexone, an individualized treatment plan, and inclusion of family and other support systems in the recovery plan (Kenosha County Opioid Task Force, n.d.).

(DCD), D. C. D. (n.d.). Opioid crisis statistics. HHS.gov. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/about-the-epidemic/opioid-crisis-statistics/index.html


Kenosha County Opioid Task Force. Kenosha County Opioid Task Force | Kenosha County, WI – Official Website. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2022, from https://www.kenoshacounty.org/1917/Opioid-Task-Force

Great post Marybell. With the rise in opioid addiction, medications such as methadone and buprenorphine have also been found to be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality related to illicit opioid use. Despite the efficacy of these life-saving medications, most people with opioid use disorder lack access to treatment (Calcaterra et al., 2019). Access to community resources and medications for opioid use disorder is crucial in helping to combat this epidemic. Patient education and health promotion are critical and ongoing parts of opioid recovery. Patient needs will vary based on education level, language barriers, socioeconomic status, disability, and interests, affecting the patient’s ability to receive the information provided (Green, 2018).


Calcaterra, S. L., Bach, P., Chadi, A., Chadi, N., Kimmel, S. D., Morford, K. L., … & Samet, J. H. (2019). Methadone matters: what the United States can learn from the global effort to treat opioid addiction. Journal of general internal medicine34(6), 1039-1042.


Green, S. (2018). Community as Client. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-healthcare/v1.1/#/chapter/3

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