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NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

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Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology    

Developmental psychopathology studies the basic mechanisms, including not only biological factors but also environmental and social factors that may interact with them, by means of which developmental pathways deviate toward pathological or typical outcomes (Salazar de Pablo et al,2019) psychopathology is all about exploring problems related to mental health: how to understand them, how to classify them, and how to fix them. It significantly impacts one’s ability to function in life, such as one’s capacity to work effectively or form and maintain healthy relationships Factors that can increase the risk of mental illness, including Biological, Environmental, Social, Psychological, and cultural factors.

Biology (neurochemistry, brain structure, and genetics) the biological approach to psychopathology. Genetics: Family and twin studies, now complemented by molecular genetics, show that genetic variation accounts for a substantial portion of the risk for psychiatric disorders, and that some of the heritability is shared among disorders Smoller et al, 2019).  The genes that have the potential to activate mental illness can be passed from parent to child, so mental illness is indeed genetic Mental illness is more common in people whose blood relatives also have a mental illness. Certain genes may increase your risk of developing a mental illness, and your life situation may trigger it.  Scientists have long recognized that many psychiatric disorders tend to run in families, suggesting potential genetic roots (NIH, 2013). Example of psychiatric disorders that is believed to run in families, suggesting potential genetic roots, example include autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia. Infections: Certain infections have been associated with brain damage and the development of mental illness. Other biological factors include Brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses. Prenatal damage: for example, loss of oxygen to the brain during may be a factor in the development of certain conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. Substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse has been linked to anxiety, depression, and paranoia. Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses.

 Environmental causes are causes external to the person. Exposure to stressful life events increases risk for both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology (Eisenbarth et al, 2019).  Certain stressors can trigger mental illness in persons who are susceptible to it. Just a few examples stressors, such as economic hardship or social struggles, low quality of life, due to poverty or a feeling of dissatisfaction with one’s life trauma, exposure to toxins, especially at certain developmental stages, family and/or relationships problems, child abuse, lifestyle considerations like substance use and risk-taking.

Social Factors of psychopathology:  Social risk factors are relationship circumstances that can increase the likelihood of development and progression of a mental health disorder. Examples of social risk factors for mental health disorders are: Low socioeconomic status. Being of a low socioeconomic status can lead to discrimination, educational disadvantages, poverty, lacking vital food and nutrients, and living in a high-crime area.  Exposure to violence This could be living in a high-crime neighborhood or being exposed to domestic violence. Role of stigma, Individuals with mental health disorders can experience stigma, or negative judgment and shame, from others because they have a mental health disorder. This can make a mental health disorder worse or lead to development of another one.

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NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Losing a loved one to death or divorce, for example, can be a traumatic experience that leaves an individual vulnerable and emotionally unstable. If unable to cope with this loss, an individual runs the risk of developing a mental health disorder, such as depression (Kessler, Price & Wortman,1985).

Psychological factors that may contribute to mental illness include Severe psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. An important early loss, such as the loss of a parent, Neglect and Poor ability to relate to others.

In conclusion, The PMHNP like other professionals engaged in research and treatment of psychopathology.  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is created by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as an assessment system for mental illness.  To diagnose and treat mental illness. Some examples of disorders listed in the DSM-5 include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, paranoid personality disorder, and social anxiety disorder.

                                                                        References

 

Eisenbarth, H., Godinez, D., du Pont, A., Corley, R. P., Stallings, M. C., & Rhee, S. H. (2019). The influence of stressful life events, psychopathy, and their interaction on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychiatry research, 272, 438–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.145

Kessler, R. C., Price, R. H., & Wortman, C. B. (1985). Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual review of psychology, 36, 531–572. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.36.020185.002531

National Institutes of Health (2013) Common Genetic Factors Found in 5 Mental Disorders https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/common-genetic-factors-found-5-mental-disorders

Salazar de Pablo, G., Vaquerizo Serrano, J. D., Gómez Vallejo, S., Sánchez Cerezo, J., & Moreno Ruiz, C. (2019). Applications of Developmental Psychopathology. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1192, 429–451. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9721-0_21

Smoller, J. W., Andreassen, O. A., Edenberg, H. J., Faraone, S. V., Glatt, S. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2019). Psychiatric genetics and the structure of psychopathology. Molecular psychiatry, 24(3), 409–420. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-017-0010-4

 

 

Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology    

Developmental psychopathology studies the basic mechanisms, including not only biological factors but also environmental and social factors that may interact with them, by means of which developmental pathways deviate toward pathological or typical outcomes (Salazar de Pablo et al,2019) psychopathology is all about exploring problems related to mental health: how to understand them, how to classify them, and how to fix them. It significantly impacts one’s ability to function in life, such as one’s capacity to work effectively or form and maintain healthy relationships Factors that can increase the risk of mental illness, including Biological, Environmental, Social, Psychological, and cultural factors.

Biology (neurochemistry, brain structure, and genetics) the biological approach to psychopathology. Genetics: Family and twin studies, now complemented by molecular genetics, show that genetic variation accounts for a substantial portion of the risk for psychiatric disorders, and that some of the heritability is shared among disorders Smoller et al, 2019).  The genes that have the potential to activate mental illness can be passed from parent to child, so mental illness is indeed genetic Mental illness is more common in people whose blood relatives also have a mental illness. Certain genes may increase your risk of developing a mental illness, and your life situation may trigger it.  Scientists have long recognized that many psychiatric disorders tend to run in families, suggesting potential genetic roots (NIH, 2013). Example of psychiatric disorders that is believed to run in families, suggesting potential genetic roots, example include autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia. Infections: Certain infections have been associated with brain damage and the development of mental illness. Other biological factors include Brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses. Prenatal damage: for example, loss of oxygen to the brain during may be a factor in the development of certain conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. Substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse has been linked to anxiety, depression, and paranoia. Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses.

 Environmental causes are causes external to the person. Exposure to stressful life events increases risk for both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology (Eisenbarth et al, 2019).  Certain stressors can trigger mental illness in persons who are susceptible to it. Just a few examples stressors, such as economic hardship or social struggles, low quality of life, due to poverty or a feeling of dissatisfaction with one’s life trauma, exposure to toxins, especially at certain developmental stages, family and/or relationships problems, child abuse, lifestyle considerations like substance use and risk-taking.

Social Factors of psychopathology:  Social risk factors are relationship circumstances that can increase the likelihood of development and progression of a mental health disorder. Examples of social risk factors for mental health disorders are: Low socioeconomic status. Being of a low socioeconomic status can lead to discrimination, educational disadvantages, poverty, lacking vital food and nutrients, and living in a high-crime area.  Exposure to violence This could be living in a high-crime neighborhood or being exposed to domestic violence. Role of stigma, Individuals with mental health disorders can experience stigma, or negative judgment and shame, from others because they have a mental health disorder. This can make a mental health disorder worse or lead to development of another one.

Losing a loved one to death or divorce, for example, can be a traumatic experience that leaves an individual vulnerable and emotionally unstable. If unable to cope with this loss, an individual runs the risk of developing a mental health disorder, such as depression (Kessler, Price & Wortman,1985).

Psychological factors that may contribute to mental illness include Severe psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. An important early loss, such as the loss of a parent, Neglect and Poor ability to relate to others.

In conclusion, The PMHNP like other professionals engaged in research and treatment of psychopathology.  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is created by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as an assessment system for mental illness.  To diagnose and treat mental illness. Some examples of disorders listed in the DSM-5 include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, paranoid personality disorder, and social anxiety disorder.

                                                                        References

Eisenbarth, H., Godinez, D., du Pont, A., Corley, R. P., Stallings, M. C., & Rhee, S. H. (2019). The influence of stressful life events, psychopathy, and their interaction on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychiatry research, 272, 438–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.145

Kessler, R. C., Price, R. H., & Wortman, C. B. (1985). Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual review of psychology, 36, 531–572. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.36.020185.002531

National Institutes of Health (2013) Common Genetic Factors Found in 5 Mental Disorders https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/common-genetic-factors-found-5-mental-disorders

Salazar de Pablo, G., Vaquerizo Serrano, J. D., Gómez Vallejo, S., Sánchez Cerezo, J., & Moreno Ruiz, C. (2019). Applications of Developmental Psychopathology. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1192, 429–451. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9721-0_21

Smoller, J. W., Andreassen, O. A., Edenberg, H. J., Faraone, S. V., Glatt, S. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2019). Psychiatric genetics and the structure of psychopathology. Molecular psychiatry, 24(3), 409–420. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-017-0010-4

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