NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling

Sample Answer for NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling Included After Question

NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling

NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling

 

With the focus on qualitative design and sampling, this is a great opportunity to compare and contrast quantitative and qualitative research approaches. For each of the following areas, apply information that considers one advantage and one disadvantage regarding 

control over study conditions with the quantitative research approach; 

control over study conditions with the qualitative research approach; 

extending or generalizing results from a sample to a larger group or population with the quantitative research approach; and 

extending or generalizing results from a sample to a larger group or population with the qualitative research approach. 

Be sure to include scholarly references to support your information. 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling

Title: NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling

Research is categorized as quantitative or qualitative in nature.  Quantitative research employs the use of numbers and accuracy while qualitative research focuses on lived experiences and human perception (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018).  There are some advantages and disadvantages to both forms of research queries.  The common goal of both is to conclude with positive, well-designed results that promotes change or introduces an intervention that is accurate and useful. 

Control over Study Conditions Research Approach: Advantage 

Quantitative 

One advantage with the control over study conditions with quantitative research approach is the way the data is collected.  One form of research method that is used is the use of surveys for collection of data.  With the use of surveys, data can be analyzed in an easy and fast manner, therefore consumption of time is less. The quantitative research approach consists of less time consumption, which allows a large amount of data to be collected. 

Qualitative 

Qualitative research allows gathering of more in-depth data.  Its use of in-depth, one-on-one interviews allows gaining a better understanding of collected data, thus allowing a better understanding of complex situations (Rutberg & Boukidis, 2018). 

Control over Study Conditions Qualitative Research Approach: Disadvantage 

Quantitative 

A disadvantage with the control over study conditions with quantitative research approach is that research is less in-depth.  The observation of collected data and pertinent information can be overlooked with this form of research.  The results can become vague and useless to the research.   This may cause a waste of time and resources, if the data is not reviewed for the intended outcome and accuracy. 

Qualitative 

A disadvantage of qualitative is its low credibility due to an inability to quantify predictors (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018).  For example, the inability to give percentages of an unwarranted event’s chance of reoccurrence in the future. 

Extending or Generalizing results from a sample or larger group or population with quantitative research approach: 

Advantage: 

Because quantitative research uses a larger population, a larger volume of data is collected, a broader study can be made with more subjects to be reviewed, thus allowing more generalization to occur (Rutberg & Boukidis, 2018).

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Disadvantage: 

The results are based on quantity and most participants will not offer much insight into their thoughts, causing a lack of reliable context (Rutberg & Boukidis, 2018). 

Extending or Generalizing results from a sample or larger group or population with qualitative research approach: 

Advantage: 

Qualitative usually collects data through one –on –one interviews, focus groups, and discussions (Rutberg & Boukidis, 2018). The sample sizes are smaller allowing for a more in-depth collection of data to be utilized for research. 

Disadvantage: 

The use of a smaller sample size makes it difficult for this research method to generalize the results of the qualitative study. 

 Reference 

Rutberg, S., & Boukidis, C.D. (2018).  Exploring the Evidence.  Focusing on the Fundamentals: A Simplistic Differentiation Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research.  Nephrology Nursing Journal, 45(2), 209-213

What a comprehensive post illustrating the differences between quant/qual research control! Thank you for sharing this with the class! Linda and class, as we now have a pretty good background of both quant/qual research, can you provide a comprehensive description of the design tradition that you have selected for your proposal?    

I will attempt to provide a description of the design tradition for the proposal of unplanned health care for the rural population.  The research design is used to connect related elements of the study in a rational manner in order to conclude with useful knowledge that can improve the issues.  While it may not be comprehensive enough at this point, I plan to use the quantitative method of research which uses measurements that focuses on cause and effect predictions.  In this study, I will attempt to integrate the factors that contribute to unplanned healthcare for the rural population.  The planned design tradition that I plan to use quasi-experimental.  The quasi- experimental design lacks randomaization in the study (Stichler, 2016).  The use of surveys for members of the rural population that are affected by unplanned healthcare will be used to gather the research data. The surveys will be self – designed or programmed, allowing for quantification of data to occur.  While I am not fully aware of how the design will fit into my research method, or if I completely understand the design tradition, my goal is to achieve the knowledge needed to fulfill the reasearch study in order to fully address the issues for the proposal.  Thanks again for your post. 

Reference 

Stichler, J. (2016).  Research, Research-Informed Design, Evidence-Based Design: Whatis theDifference and Does it Matter? HERD: HealthEnvironments Research & Design Journal.  Retrieved from: http://ebscohostcom.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org NR 505 Week 4 Discussion: Qualitative Design and Sampling

I was very impressed by your post on comparing and contrasting quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Your discussion board post was clear and concise in regard to control over sample conditions for both qualitative and quantitative research methods.  The way that you broke your findings down about both qualitative and quantitative extension/generalization of results ensured that your scholarly information was easily understood. I believe that your intended message was well received by all who read it. You obviously chose an excellent reference article. I feel that by preparing this assignment we will have a better, more in depth look into which approach to research will be more pertinent to our personal area of interest. I am a bit intimidated by preparing this project, but I know that the knowledge I acquire through each week’s lesson will improve my research abilities and add to my overall wisdom. I look forward to reading your posts in the future.  

     When looking at qualitative research and quantitative research we will be looking at the advantage and disadvantage in some areas.When looking at quantitative research and the control over the study conditions on advantage would be that with quantitative they “use objective methods designed to control the research situation with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity” (Polit & Beck, 2017). One disadvantage to quantitative research and control over the study conditions would be that maybe they keep the area of study to narrow and don’t allow them selves to expand research further on a given area of interest. 

     When looking at the qualitative research approach and the control over study conditions that are an advantage would be that one area of research could lead to another area of interest and study and can be expanded upon and are more flexible. A disadvantage of using qualitative research approach is that this type of study usually involves a small group of people there for not including a wide range for details and statistics in groups. 

     Extending or generalizing results from a sample to a larger group or population with the quantitative research approach advantages would be that it tries to quantify a problem and understand how prevalent it can be by looking for project-able results to a larger population(Polit & Beck, 2017). A disadvantage to this would be that the population or group is to large to obtain accurate results or statistics to produce the results of the study. 

    Extending or generalizing results from a sample to a larger group or population with the qualitative research approach advantages could be that there are now new studies and guidelines that one can follow for this approach, they can be that new insights are gained and new questions emerge on the area of interest and maybe a larger group to study (Smith, Gelling, Haigh, Barnason, Allan, & Jackson, 2017). A disadvantage would be that if it is a larger group or similar sample then they could possibly arrive at the same conclusions or similar information and the study would not progress. 

Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2017). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia PA: Wolters Kluwer Health. Retrieved from e-book electronic source. 

Smith, G. D., Gelling, L., Haigh, C., Barnason, S., Allan, H., & Jackson, D. (2017). The position of reporting guidelines in qualitative nursing research. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 27(5-6), 889-891.Retrieved from https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vidLinks to an external site.

Thank you for your post, as in fact, samples for qual data can be increase in order to achieve data saturation, or redundancy, in which no more new information is reported by participants.  What is interesting is that in qual studies, often, data collection/data analysis are ongoing.  This is important b/c, ongoing data analysis/interpretation will help in to decide if you have sampled enough participants to answer the research question.  If participants continue to report similar experiences, then it can be determined if data saturation has been achieved and recruitment of participants can cease.  :D  As a peer reviewer of qual studies, we determine if researchers have achieved data saturation as a way to determine credible findings.

Data saturation is the terminology used to describe the point in a study when enough data has been acquired to replicate the study when no additional new information is attainable, and when further coding is no longer possible is an interesting concept.  According to Fusch & Ness (2015), the failure to reach data saturation affects the research quality and impeded the validity of the content.  The design a qualitative research study should address the number of interviews required to reach data saturation. Fusch & Ness (2015) argue that data saturation can be difficult to quantify because there is no set formula that fits every project because study designs are not universal.  Furthermore, “when and how one reaches those levels of saturation will vary from study design to study design” (Fusch & Ness, 2015, p.1409). 

As I stated at the beginning of this post, data saturation is quite the interesting subject matter to me especially in regards to the qualitative research methods. Some of the more common methods of data collection include interviews, surveys and focus group sessions (Fusch & Ness, 2015). Conducting these methods in the research subjects natural habit would tend to leave room for the conversations to evolve and change depending on the participants’ mood and the answers provided at the time the interview or focus group took place. 

 

Fusch, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are we there yet? data saturation in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 20(9), 1408-1416. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/docview/1721368991?accountid=147674 

 In the past two weeks, I have learned a lot more about the purposes to quantitative and qualitative research designs. I personally find qualitative approach formats easier to comprehend than quantitative approach formats. I also like that qualitative research includes five methodologies: Narrative research, Phenomenology research, Grounded theory research, Ethnographic research, Case study research (Lewis, 2015). If followed properly, each method should be used in conjunction with each other when conducting research (lewis, 2015). This is only one type of mixed methods approach that allows researchers to gain a comprehensive understanding or broader perspective about the research topic (Lewis, 2015). When the quantitative method is presented in scholarly and scientific essays and articles, I get consumed by the numbers and tend to lose focus on what the research statistics are telling me about a scientific hypothesis or research problem. I see the merit in using both designs separately to relay specific information about a research findings and topics. I think it is more beneficial to use a mixed methods research design that uses both quantitative and qualitative methods– when reporting, analyzing, and finding background information and data. Mixed method designs answer the hows and whys, as well as provide the statistics to back up research findings (Lewis, 2015). 

Reference 

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 16(4), 473-475. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839915580941 

I agree with you that both quantitative and qualitative research studies are important. While I can understand your dilemma in regards to getting lost with the quantitative research approach, I believe that quantitative research offers a more concrete answer for an EBP proposal. While qualitative research is a great approach to gather perspective from the participants, the challenge exists of bias and being careful not to persuade the participants to lean towards your opinion to make the research findings support what you think. Though qualitative research serves a purpose, it’s all about perspective and opinions and everybody has different ones on the same topic. Then the challenge arises to make sure enough opinions and perspectives are gathered to be able to formulate a finding. I am not trying to downplay the importance or need for qualitative because it is very valuable to patient satisfaction scores, for example. I am more of a black and white, concrete type of person. I need evidence to support a proposal rather than opinions and perspectives. 

 I have found with qualitative research design, there can be too much bias at play.  The researcher gets very involved with the subjects they are studying, which can become a conflict of interest.  This can lead to important observations or possible findings which may be lost due to this close relationship.  In quantitative research, there is less chance for emotional attachment because the researcher is able to see the cause and effect relationship more clearly.  Now, with that being said, I also see with quantitative research the ability for researchers to loose that humanity with their subjects, which can lead to violations of research ethics.   

The more I read about the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, the more interested I am in the qualitative design.  I like the idea of spending time one on one with subjects and understanding their viewpoint and the meaning behind their experiences.  This seems to align with my leadership style.  I can, however, see how this can become a conflict of interest; as well as be very time consuming. 

Are there certain qualitative studies you have read where you can clearly see the bias? I have not spent enough time reading a variety of studies to actually see any bias play out.  Most of the studies that I have read have been quantitative; and have focused on showing cause and effect in a clinical setting.  The past few years we have been implementing evidence based practice based on research.  As I think about the cause and effect that I have read in those studies, I can not think of any ethical violations.  Many of the studies were randomized controlled studies. 

Thanks for pointing out bias and ethics.  I will definitely keep these in my thoughts as I am reading in the future. 

control over study conditions with the quantitative research approach: 

A quantitative research approach has a well-ordered design that allows researchers to study scientific phenomena by employing all the fundamentals of quantitative methods: control, manipulation, random assignment, and random selection (Yilmaz, 2013). There are three types of quantitative design: experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental. Each of these methods must apply a certain level of control in order to emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data (Yilmaz, 2013). For quantitative research to be properly carried out, a control and study group must be in place to examine or asses the effectiveness of an intervention. The advantage to controlling study conditions is the ability to control variables and the outcomes of those variables (Yilmaz, 2013). This typically provides an unbiased result. Since data is numerical, it minimizes the chances of it being misinterpreted. A disadvantage to the quantitative method is needs a large sample population to validate numerical outcomes that will then be turned into statistical information (Yilmaz, 2013). Reliable results depend on the sample of people for replication purposes; thus, the more statistically accurate the outputs will be. Too much control over variable does not allow for real-world research application. 

control over study conditions with the qualitative research approach: 

Conversely, the qualitative research approach focuses on the narrative and social/cultural facets of research. Qualitative research has a certain measure of control over research outcomes since researchers can control the quality of the data. If a researcher does not like the variables involved, the researcher can look for different subjects to benefit the research (Noble & Smith, 2015). The downside to this is the possibility of biased results (Noble & Smith, 2015). Since qualitative research is based on trying to understand the “why,” sampling tends to be small. Control groups are rarely utilized, and validity becomes a major concern (Noble & Smith, 2015). 

 

extending or generalizing results from a sample to a larger group or population with the quantitative research approach. 

Quantitative allows for a high possibility of internal and external validity of the research, so transferring the data to a larger population set is favorable (Noble & Smith, 2015). After data is collected, analyzed, and presented in a statistical form instead of personal comments, any researcher conflict occurs is often settled via a level of reproducibility that is allowed in quantitative research (Noble & Smith, 2015). 

 

extending or generalizing results from a sample to a larger group or population with the qualitative research approach. 

Qualitative research is at a disadvantage when it comes to transferring research results to a larger population. The small sample sizes pose a problem when generalizing results: data collected is normally subjective and not enough people have been tested on a particular subject (Yilmaz, 2013). The good thing about qualitative research when generalizing results is that it can point out trends that can be further investigated through quantitative methods (Yilmaz, 2013).   

References: 

Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-based Nursing, 18(2), 34-35. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/eb-2015-102054Links to an external site. 

Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 311-325. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12014 

Collapse SubdiscussionLinda Marcuccilli 

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