Assignment: Bystander Research Paper

Assignment: Bystander Research Paper

Sample Answer for Assignment: Bystander Research Paper Included After Question

In 750-1,000 words, define and discuss the ways in which diffusion of responsibility, pluralistic ignorance, and victim effects can influence helping behavior. Include ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about \”self\” affect helping behavior.
Use two to three scholarly sources to support your thinking, your textbook can be used as one of the resources.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.
PSY-530 PSY-530-O501 Bystander Effect

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: Assignment: Bystander Research Paper

Title: Assignment: Bystander Research Paper

People may encounter difficulties in an emergency situation and this may necessitate others to provide a helping hand. However, in the event of occurrences like an accident or an attack, people may withhold their support to intervene in such cases to rescue the victims. Social psychologists have for long tried to explore the mind of people who happened to be close to the scene but have failed to provide assistance to the victims (Machackova, Dedkova & Mezulanikova, 2015). According to the findings of social psychologists, social situations influence the way people make decisions. In other words, one cannot depend on personality variables to make even a simple phone call to the police to help save a neighbor from robbers. This leads to a phenomenon called the bystander effect.

Definition and Exploration of the concept of Diffusion of Responsibility

According to Bastiaensens et al. (2014) bystander effect is a situation whereby people not involved in an emergency are less likely to take an initiative to provide assistance to others. The bystander effect can be considered as an aspect of social environment which influence the decisions of the perceived volunteers to assume the responsibility of observers or onlookers instead of providing an assistance people entrapped in an intensified emergency. This does not indicate that the bystanders are not apathetic to the situation of others. In many instances, the bystanders manifest signs of anxiety, distress as well as concern to those affected by an emergency but often withhold their support (Plötner et al., 2015). Social psychologists argue that the presence of others in the same scene of an emergency deters other individuals from taking responsibility. Such a scenario can be explained by the concept of diffusion in responsibility. The latter implies that people who can help victims in an emergency lift the weight of personal responsibility by observing the actions of others. In other words, the presence of others can motivate or demotivate people to take an initiative in rescuing the victims. People are more likely to offer assistance if they see others do the same but may remain, observers, if the bystanders are also not taking any actions. This is based on the drive theory of social facilitation which explains the aspect of group phenomenon in which the presence of others stimulates or discourages bystanders from taking responsibility. However, it can also be argued that the bystanders may fear the risk of harm or cost implications related to the emergency. In an emergency involving robbery with violence, bystanders may not take an initiative to call the police due to a perceived sense of insecurity fearing that the attackers might harm them.Assignment  Bystander Research Paper

Role of Pluralistic Ignorance

Social psychologists argue that the decision to provide assistance to others is not a simple proposition of yes or no inherent in an individual. Often a series of questions arise in the mind of a bystander with a specific theme focusing on the consequences of

helping others that will arise to them. This results in the concept of pluralistic ignorance that influences the behavior of others. The phenomenon is based on a flashback about an event that occurred to a volunteer in a situation similar to the present emergency (Plötner et al., 2015). For, instance one can infer to a case of a reverse attack experienced by a volunteer in a past emergency to withhold their support in the present incident. In essence, people make erroneous conclusions about an incident that occurred to others to define their own course of action with respect to the current incidence. This leads to less help even if the victims in the situation could be rescued by first aid or removal of obstacles to help extinguish the fire from a burning house.

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How Victim Effects can Influence Helping Behavior

Victim effect implies the extent of the injury and how it affects the lives of those directly involved. In an argument of prosocial behavior, people are more likely to provide help to others in an emergency if victims are close family members (Machackova, Dedkova & Mezulanikova, 2015). This means that the bystander effect may not be manifested if perceived volunteers assume the responsibility of providing support to people they share a close relationship with and that providing such support will expand the progeny of the family. This aspect is based on the concept of evolutionary psychology in which favoritism in providing assistance depends on genetic heritage.

Victim factor that influences the behavior of bystanders can be explained by the concept of egoistic motivation for helping. This implies the selfish drive of a person to provide support to others in order for the former to feel better. For instance, when an individual feels sad about a predicament that has befallen another person, one is likely to provide assistance to boost a positive mood so as to gratify their happiness (Bastiaensens et al., 2014). In an elaboration of the concept of socialization, it is apparent that helping others can provide a secondary reinforcement to relieve negative moods of the volunteers.

In an argument related to altruistic help, the social and cultural pressure may instill a helping behavior for a bystander. This is based on the argument that people may develop empathy to help others even if they may incur some costs (Plötner et al., 2015). For instance, potential helpers develop the empathy to provide financial assistance to the street beggars. In this case, the bystanders not empathizing with the situation of the victim are likely to experience personal distress and are therefore more likely to provide the necessary support.


Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%)
Content 70.0%
Define and discuss ways in which diffusion of responsibility can influence helping behavior; including ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about self affect helping behavior 20.0% Definition and discussion of the ways in which diffusion of responsibility can influence helping behavior; including ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about self affect helping behavior is missing.

Define and discuss ways in which diffusion of pluralistic ignorance can influence helping behavior; including ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about self affect helping behavior 25.0% Definition and discussion of the ways in which diffusion of pluralistic ignorance can influence helping behavior; including ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about self affect helping behavior is missing.

Define and discuss ways in which diffusion of victim effects can influence helping behavior; including ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about self affect helping behavior 25.0% Definition and discussion of the ways in which diffusion of victim effects can influence helping behavior; including ways social and cultural pressure, and beliefs about self affect helping behavior is missing.

Organization and Effectiveness 20.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 7.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Argument Logic and Construction 8.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

Format 10.0%
Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5.0% Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 5.0% Sources are not documented.

Total Weightage 100%

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Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource