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Worldview Spirituality Analysis And Inventory

  1. Christian Perspective of the Nature of Spirituality and Ethics in Contrast to the Perspective of Postmodern Relativism within Health Care

Beliefs and assumptions related to life and its elements differ greatly based on religion, culture, society, and personal perspectives. From a Christian’s point of view, the nature of spirituality and ethics is based on individual and moral values that are learned from God’s teachings on love for one another. In addition, science adds that the nature of spirituality and ethics is founded on a personal quest to achieve beyond religious institutions and corporate confinements. On the contrary, postmodern relativism detaches itself from spiritual and scientific assumptions and societal norms and bases itself on subjective, self-initiated, and especially individually-customized values (Doyle, 2013).

Concerning health care services and practices, postmodern relativism and Christian perspective on spirituality and ethics differ (Schultz & p Swezey, 2013). Christian spirituality and ethics are inclined towards Biblical teaching of love, compassion, and caring for the sick, elderly, and others (Rieg, Newbanks, & Sprunger, 2018). On the other hand, postmodern relativism emphasizes people taking

PHI-413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory

health initiatives and seeking alternative health care services such as therapy, acupuncture, and naturopaths (Doyle, 2013). Further, Christian spirituality and ethics believe in God as the healer through spiritualistic and miraculous abilities only He can perform (Doyle, 2013). On the contrary, postmodern relativism centres on health care practitioners as the primary caregivers to the sick (Furler & Palmer, 2010).

  1. Scientismand the Arguments against it

Scientism is a worldview concept that is rooted in science and based on assumptions that the metaphysics and physical world can be explained using scientific and empirical evidence. This implies that the concept of scientism is based on science as the only source of reliable and verifiable knowledge of the nature of the universe (Peterson, 2004). Further, scientism considers that arguments outside science are insubstantial and immaterial to affect truth and evidence in the universe (Peterson, 2004). Hence, the worldview of scientism argues that every assumption should be supported by strong evidence. Based on the definition, scientism faces criticism for being self-refuting (Hietanen et al., 2020). The argument is that scientism has failed to adhere to its proponents of truth and evidence as there exists no tested and proven hypothesis that provides evidence to support scientism as the truth. Critics argue that scientism is scientifically unjustifiable and should not be accepted as it is practically impossible to use science to make a case for scientism (Hietanen et al., 2020).

The second argument against scientism is that it is based on false objectivity and non-scientific grounds. The argument is that scientism relies on background assumptions on non-scientific metaphysics such as human thoughts, memories, and senses to derive an understanding of the existence of the universe and its externalities, hence promoting the possibility that scientific conclusions may be biased and unjust (Hietanen et al., 2020). Further, the argument places scientism in a dilemma based on two options: it either accepts all findings based on non-scientific sources of understanding and belief or rejects all scientific inquiries that are based on non-scientific grounds of knowledge (Hietanen et al., 2020).

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Clinicians and patients are overwhelmed with a healthcare system focused on disease over health creation, reductionist, fragmented, costly, and often ineffective. In response, there has been an increasing recognition that quality healthcare and the delivery of that care need to take a more holistic, patient-centric approach, an approach that emphasizes healing as important as curing. Healing occurs at multiple levels from the micro level, as in cellular wound healing, to the macro level, as in national and global healing. Healing originates from within the individual and from external sources (Firth et al., 2015).


Firth, K., Smith, K., Sakallaris, B. R., Bellanti, D. M., Crawford, C., & Avant, K. C. (2015). Healing, a Concept Analysis. Global advances in health and medicine4(6), 44–50. https://doi.org/10.7453/gahmj.2015.056


This was interesting to me as well. Scientism is a philosophy about the nature and limits of science and what human beings can know and not a religion. According to Bouge & Hogan, 2020 everything can be proven by science but since ethics and values cannot be proven through science this rule negates itself. Humans are continually learning and medicine continues to evolve. It seems to me that any positive outcome that cannot be explained due to scientific limitations is often called a miracle. I agree that everything can’t be scientifically proven but for many that is not necessary to make it true.

Bouge, D.W. & Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational issues in Christian spirituality and ethics. Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Health Care. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1



As healthcare professionals, it is important to ensure that we are treating all aspects of a patient’s health while delivering treatment. This includes treating the mental and spiritual aspects of a patient, which must be done through different means that are distinct from typical treatments used to address physical health conditions. As you mentioned in your post, respect is a major factor in treating these additional health aspects of a patient, as it can help to relieve some of the damage that has accumulated throughout the patient’s life. For example, simply respecting the beliefs of a patient can help greatly in giving them the faith they need to remain strong and have hope. As I treat my own patients, I found that I can build better relationships with them by remembering to address these spiritual and mental needs during sessions.


Grand Canyon University (Ed.). (2020). Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision-making in health care.


The reading for topic one on scientism’s worldview was the one I found most fascinating. I was unfamiliar with and had never heard of this subject. Scientism believers concur that the only trustworthy means for obtaining any correct knowledge are scientific procedures. The only information we can have about reality, according to Moreland (2018), is that which has been rigorously proven by hard science. It offers all of the realities and the true insight. It cannot be known or believed to be true if it has not been fully investigated. According to Bogue & Hogan (2020), Science can explain the pathophysiology of disease, the causes and effects of illnesses and diseases, or it can define a patient’s terminal sickness, miscarriage, abnormalities, mental state, and so on in terms of medicine but science cannot instruct people on whether to love or hate their spouses, maintain their word, or donate money.

It simply cannot instruct people on the proper course of action. Christians look to Good for wisdom and guidance in understanding physical and mental illnesses in order to lessen suffering. (Hogan & Bouge, 2020) They think that God will provide the solution to all of their issues. I think it is up to each person to decide how to go about getting the knowledge they require. It’s up to you if you need to turn to God for solace. It’s okay if you start to feel at ease with science if you do.



Bouge, D.W. & Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational issues in Christian spirituality and ethics. Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Health Care. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1


Moreland, J. P. (2018) 10 things you should know about scientism. Crossway. Retrieved september,02 2022 from https://www.crossway.org/articles/10-things-you-should-know-about-scientism

Worldview Spirituality Analysis And Inventory

Spirituality is very individualized. The meaning comes from the idea of having a connection or relationship to god or a higher power through our own human soul as opposed to a physical being. I see spirituality through my own christian worldview, as a positive outlook on the present world. Spirituality can be expressed in many ways and does not necessarily need to be based in religion (Sartori, 2010). However, I personally do identify with spirituality through religion and I think it has a positive influence on my nursing care. The values within the christian faith carry into the nursing profession in a thoughtful, compassionate, and respectful way.  “When addressing spiritual needs it is essential to take a genuine interest in the patient as a person, show concern, kindness, have empathy with them, take the time to listen and respect their point of view. Some patients may find it difficult to express spiritual concerns” (Sartori, 2010). As nurses it is our job to advocate for the patient and provide them with a safe space to heal. We must do that in a way that the patient is comfortable with, we need to listen to the patient and respect their needs and their wishes in regards to spirituality.

Sartori, P. (2010, July 19). Spirituality 1: should spiritual and religious beliefs be part of patient care? Nursing Times. https://www.nursingtimes.net/roles/nurse-managers/spirituality-1-should-spiritual-and-religious-beliefs-be-part-of-patient-care-19-07-2010/.

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