# toddler tantrum

## Description

Watch the You Tube video of a toddler tantrum here Links to an external site..

Complete the ABC-R data record. ABC-R DATA COLLECTION PRACTICE.docx

SPE 527 Webinar 5 FBA Process Agenda ➔ FBA Process ◆ Indirect Assessments ◆ Descriptive Assessments ➔ Collecting ABC Data ➔ Analyzing ABC Data ◆ Determining most and least frequent antecedents and consequences ◆ Analyzing most frequent antecedent-consequence combinations ◆ Analyzing behavioral responses following consequences ➔ FBA Project for this course First, some vocabulary FBA = Functional Behavior Assessment – consisting of direct and indirect data collection in the natural environment to identify environmental variables that may be correlated with the behavior – can only hypothesize function FA = Presentation of environmental conditions in an analog setting to observe their impact on behavior – can determine function Common FBA Process 1. Interviews and/or informal observations of the learner to determine issues 2. Indirect assessments 3. Descriptive assessments 4. Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Data Analysis 5. Hypothesize Function 6. Confirmation of hypothesized function with FA Indirect Assessments ● Questionnaires and/or Interviews: ○ FAST ○ QABF ○ Student Functional Behavior Interview ● Pros: ○ Easy, simple, fast ○ User friendly ● Cons: ○ Open to bias ○ Limited by memory and perception ○ Should never be used as sole method of determining function of behavior Sample FAST Results ABC Data Collection (Three-term Contingency) SD R S Antecedent Stimulus Operant Response Consequence Stimulus Sample ABC Chart ABC Chart with a Key Scatterplots ● Used to identify context of the challenging behavior ● May provide information on patterns of behavior such as time of day, activity, people ● Less useful in identifying antecedents and consequences, though that information may be imbedded in a scatterplot ● When you have limited time to observe the behavior, a scatterplot can narrow down the times/activities during which observation will be most appropriate Scatterplot Data Sheet Class Period Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday TOTAL 1 5 3 4 2 2 16 2 3 0 1 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 1 6 6 1 0 0 0 0 1 7 2 1 1 0 0 4 TOTAL 13 5 7 3 3 31 Rules of Thumb ABC Data Collection ● Record only observable and measurable behaviors ○ Avoid assumed mentalistic constructs such as: ■ Frustrated ■ Angry ■ Upset ● Make sure that the Antecedent being recorded is what happens IMMEDIATELY prior to the challenging behavior; it is Not what you think “triggered” the behavior. Rules of Thumb for ABC Data Collection, Continued ● Make sure that the Consequence being recorded is what happens IMMEDIATELY after the challenging behavior; it is Not what you or someone else intended to be a “consequence” for the behavior. ● Keep track of the learner’s response to the consequence; does it… ○ Stop ○ Continue ○ Escalate A-B-C Data Analysis: Questions for Consideration ● Is the behavior occurring within the context of the same activity, materials, instructor, or group of peers? ● Does the behavior consistently occur following particular antecedents? What is the most common antecedent? ● Following instances of the behavior, is there consistent consequence used by staff, peers, or other adults? ● Does the learner terminate the behavior following a particular consequence? What is the most common consequence? ● Does the behavior continue or escalate following a particular consequence? ● Is there a common antecedent – consequence combination? ● What Setting Events or Motivational Operants may be involved? Setting Events and MOs Setting Events MOs ● Events occurring outside ● When behaviors occur there the immediate setting that is an Establishing Operation may be impacting the making something valuable behavior for the student ● Examples: ○ Lack of sleep ○ Change of meds ○ Fight with GF during passing period ○ Missed breakfast ○ Parent changed work schedule ● This EO creates an Evocative Effect, evoking behaviors that have historically accessed the reinforcer for that student’ ● May be related to a setting event Analyzing ABC Data – Looking for Correlations Date, Time Activity, Location, People Antecedent Behavior Consequence Learner Response 1/28; 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing TA direct to wash scream Physical prompt Escalate 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing Physical prompt Scream, hit head Block, physical prompt Escalate 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing Block, physical prompt Scream, hit TA TA “no hitting” and takes out of RR Stops 1/29; 9:04 RR, TA hand washing TA direct to wash scream Physical prompt Continues 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing TA prompting to wash hands Hit TA “No hitting”, continues to physically prompt Escalates 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing TA prompting Scream, attempt to bite TA “No biting” and takes out of RR Stops 1/29; 12:50 RR, T, hand washing T tells to wash hands Screams Offer choice of wash or sanitizer Stops MAJOR CAVEATS ● ● ● ● ● FBA data may yield false positives and/or false negatives Data is only as reliable as the data collector – ensure everyone is well trained! “Functions” of behavior – the reasons someone may engage in a behavior may vary by day, activity, situation – just because there is a correlation between environmental events on the day/s you collected data does not mean that is THE function Behaviors may serve multiple functions, often all at the same time. FBA seems pretty simplistic but it is a very complex process that involves examining all environmental events to try to identify the all mitigating variables and circumstances Remember: The goal of the FBA process is to hypothesize a function so that an evidence-based function-based intervention can be identified. Until we know the function, any intervention will likely be “inefficient, ineffective, and in some cases, harmful (Cooper et al., 2020, p. 630) – may lead to “default technologies” (see page 630) FBA Assessment Project Guidelines Conduct an FBA (BACB Task List 5 Areas F-1-F3, F6-F9) 1. Select a learner for this project and receive parent permission (if applicable) to conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for one challenging behavior exhibited by the learner. 2. Operationalize the challenging behavior to be targeted for assessment 3. Complete an intake interview with parent/caregiver and/or staff using the Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST). 4. Complete an ABC data sheet for a minimum of 5 separate incidences of the target challenging behavior – note that this may be either continuous recording (time limited) or narrative recording (per episode). FBA Project, Continued 5. Conduct an ABC Data Analysis: Answer each of these questions ● Were any setting events identified? If so, list, if not state that none were identified ● What are most common/ antecedent(s)? ● What are the most common consequence(s)? ● Following which consequences did the learner’s behavior stop, continue or escalate? ● Based on responses to the above questions, what do you believe is the most likely function of the challenging behavior (hypothesis)? ● What is the basis for your hypothesis? Please refer only to the data as collected on your ABC chart; discuss setting events/MOs, antecedents, consequences, and the learner’s response to consequences. Do not base your hypothesis on the behavior. 6.Describe an FA Procedure (To be discussed in next Webinar)

 Excellent Good Fair Poor Main Posting 45 (45%) – 50 (50%) Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.   Supported by at least three current, credible sources.   Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. 40 (40%) – 44 (44%) Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.   At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.   Supported by at least three credible sources.   Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style. 35 (35%) – 39 (39%) Responds to some of the discussion question(s).   One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.   Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.   Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.   Post is cited with two credible sources.   Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.   Contains some APA formatting errors. 0 (0%) – 34 (34%) Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.   Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.   Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.   Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.   Contains only one or no credible sources.   Not written clearly or concisely.   Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.   Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style. Main Post: Timeliness 10 (10%) – 10 (10%) Posts main post by day 3. 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) Does not post by day 3. First Response 17 (17%) – 18 (18%) Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.   Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.   Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.   Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.   Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.   Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.   Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 15 (15%) – 16 (16%) Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.   Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.   Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.   Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.   Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 13 (13%) – 14 (14%) Response is on topic and may have some depth.   Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.   Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.   Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited. 0 (0%) – 12 (12%) Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.   Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.   Responses to faculty questions are missing.   No credible sources are cited. Second Response 16 (16%) – 17 (17%) Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.   Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.   Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.   Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.   Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.   Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.   Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 14 (14%) – 15 (15%) Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.   Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.   Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.   Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.   Response is effectively written in standard, edited English. 12 (12%) – 13 (13%) Response is on topic and may have some depth.   Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.   Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.   Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited. 0 (0%) – 11 (11%) Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.   Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.   Responses to faculty questions are missing.   No credible sources are cited. Participation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days. 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) 0 (0%) – 0 (0%) Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days. Total Points: 100