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The US Senate Representation for States Discussion
The US Senate Representation for States Discussion
The US Senate Representation for States
Before working on this discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this week’s topic.
When the US Constitution was written, the larger states wanted representation in both the House and the Senate to be proportional to the population. Smaller states wanted a single legislative chamber with equal representation for each state. As a compromise, the current structure of proportional representation in the House and two Senators per state was created. This structure has led to great inequalities in Senatorial representation among citizens in different states. At the extremes, Wyoming has one senator for every 260,000 residents, while California has one senator for every 18,000,000 residents
In this context, share your opinion on whether this level of unequal representation in the US Senate is appropriate.
To help you in this discussion, you can conduct a Web search on unequal representation in the Senate.
To participate in the discussion, complete the following tasks:
- Discuss and share your preference for the current system of the Senate representation or for an alternative system, such as proportional representation based on population.
- You should explain your preference by references to general principles (such as one person, one vote) or practical considerations (such as small-state versus large-state interests).
Federal and Intergovernmental RelationsThe men who wrote the US Constitution wanted to hamper the majority rule. They wanted to protect their property from infringement by a majority while also preventing a minority group of the economic and political elite from gaining excessive power.To achieve these goals, the framers of the Constitution diffused the power within the federal government and between the federal and state governments.Although concerned about the danger of excessive power, the framers of the Constitution also wanted the federal government to have sufficient power to protect the states from external threats and manage interstate conflicts, especially economic conflicts. Therefore, the Constitution was written to provide these powers to the federal government.Government in the Twenty-first CenturyWhen people use the term “government,” they usually refer to the federal government. In public schools, classes on American history and government tend to focus on the history and structure of the national government, giving less attention to state and local governments.The lack of attention to state and local governments is unfortunate because most of the laws that affect us directly are imposed by states and localities. Our economies, traffic, health care, education, zoning, and criminal laws are all largely enacted by state legislatures or local councils and enforced by state or local agencies. If citizens are to play a part in determining the rules by which they live, they must understand and participate in their state and local governments.The biggest shortfall is in the state of Illinois. The projected budget shortfall for 2014 is $45 billion. While this is the largest shortfall among the states, the solid majority of the states are struggling with significant budget deficits.The 2008-2009 recession is the second time since the year 2000 that states have gone through serious budget difficulties. The states may realize that they need savings programs in anticipation of economic difficulties. In addition, we may learn to better manage our national and state economies in order to prevent severe economic swings.When states face severe budget cuts, it affects all public policies, including those related to education, transportation, criminal justice, health care, and environmental quality. You will explore all these issues in greater depth in the weeks to come.In practice, these powers now overlap. For example, the policy areas (such as education and crime) that were originally controlled by the states are now subject to heavy national involvement.Similarly, areas reserved for the federal government, such as international relations and national and international economic policy, are being encroached upon by states.All the same, there is considerable cooperation between national and state administrative agencies. For example, in education, the US Department of Education works with state education departments to improve education standards and conduct tests to measure the achievement of students’ standards.Next, let’s look at the state and local governments in the twenty-first century.
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Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
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Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to
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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource