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SPE 527 ASU Conducting a Descriptive Assessment of Problem Behavior Discussion
SPE 527 Webinar 5 FBA Process Agenda ➔ FBA Process ◆ Indirect Assessments ◆ Descriptive Assessments ➔ Collecting ABC Data ➔ Analyzing ABC Data ◆ Determining most and least frequent antecedents and consequences ◆ Analyzing most frequent antecedent-consequence combinations ◆ Analyzing behavioral responses following consequences ➔ FBA Project for this course First, some vocabulary FBA = Functional Behavior Assessment – consisting of direct and indirect data collection in the natural environment to identify environmental variables that may be correlated with the behavior – can only hypothesize function FA = Presentation of environmental conditions in an analog setting to observe their impact on behavior – can determine function Common FBA Process 1. Interviews and/or informal observations of the learner to determine issues 2. Indirect assessments 3. Descriptive assessments 4. Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Data Analysis 5. Hypothesize Function 6. Confirmation of hypothesized function with FA Indirect Assessments ● Questionnaires and/or Interviews: ○ FAST ○ QABF ○ Student Functional Behavior Interview ● Pros: ○ Easy, simple, fast ○ User friendly ● Cons: ○ Open to bias ○ Limited by memory and perception ○ Should never be used as sole method of determining function of behavior Sample FAST Results ABC Data Collection (Three-term Contingency) SD R S Antecedent Stimulus Operant Response Consequence Stimulus Sample ABC Chart ABC Chart with a Key Scatterplots ● Used to identify context of the challenging behavior ● May provide information on patterns of behavior such as time of day, activity, people ● Less useful in identifying antecedents and consequences, though that information may be imbedded in a scatterplot ● When you have limited time to observe the behavior, a scatterplot can narrow down the times/activities during which observation will be most appropriate Scatterplot Data Sheet Class Period Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday TOTAL 1 5 3 4 2 2 16 2 3 0 1 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 1 6 6 1 0 0 0 0 1 7 2 1 1 0 0 4 TOTAL 13 5 7 3 3 31 Rules of Thumb ABC Data Collection ● Record only observable and measurable behaviors ○ Avoid assumed mentalistic constructs such as: ■ Frustrated ■ Angry ■ Upset ● Make sure that the Antecedent being recorded is what happens IMMEDIATELY prior to the challenging behavior; it is Not what you think “triggered” the behavior. Rules of Thumb for ABC Data Collection, Continued ● Make sure that the Consequence being recorded is what happens IMMEDIATELY after the challenging behavior; it is Not what you or someone else intended to be a “consequence” for the behavior. ● Keep track of the learner’s response to the consequence; does it… ○ Stop ○ Continue ○ Escalate A-B-C Data Analysis: Questions for Consideration ● Is the behavior occurring within the context of the same activity, materials, instructor, or group of peers? ● Does the behavior consistently occur following particular antecedents? What is the most common antecedent? ● Following instances of the behavior, is there consistent consequence used by staff, peers, or other adults? ● Does the learner terminate the behavior following a particular consequence? What is the most common consequence? ● Does the behavior continue or escalate following a particular consequence? ● Is there a common antecedent – consequence combination? ● What Setting Events or Motivational Operants may be involved? Setting Events and MOs Setting Events MOs ● Events occurring outside ● When behaviors occur there the immediate setting that is an Establishing Operation may be impacting the making something valuable behavior for the student ● Examples: ○ Lack of sleep ○ Change of meds ○ Fight with GF during passing period ○ Missed breakfast ○ Parent changed work schedule ● This EO creates an Evocative Effect, evoking behaviors that have historically accessed the reinforcer for that student’ ● May be related to a setting event Analyzing ABC Data – Looking for Correlations Date, Time Activity, Location, People Antecedent Behavior Consequence Learner Response 1/28; 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing TA direct to wash scream Physical prompt Escalate 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing Physical prompt Scream, hit head Block, physical prompt Escalate 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing Block, physical prompt Scream, hit TA TA “no hitting” and takes out of RR Stops 1/29; 9:04 RR, TA hand washing TA direct to wash scream Physical prompt Continues 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing TA prompting to wash hands Hit TA “No hitting”, continues to physically prompt Escalates 9:05 RR, TA, hand washing TA prompting Scream, attempt to bite TA “No biting” and takes out of RR Stops 1/29; 12:50 RR, T, hand washing T tells to wash hands Screams Offer choice of wash or sanitizer Stops MAJOR CAVEATS ● ● ● ● ● FBA data may yield false positives and/or false negatives Data is only as reliable as the data collector – ensure everyone is well trained! “Functions” of behavior – the reasons someone may engage in a behavior may vary by day, activity, situation – just because there is a correlation between environmental events on the day/s you collected data does not mean that is THE function Behaviors may serve multiple functions, often all at the same time. FBA seems pretty simplistic but it is a very complex process that involves examining all environmental events to try to identify the all mitigating variables and circumstances Remember: The goal of the FBA process is to hypothesize a function so that an evidence-based function-based intervention can be identified. Until we know the function, any intervention will likely be “inefficient, ineffective, and in some cases, harmful (Cooper et al., 2020, p. 630) – may lead to “default technologies” (see page 630) FBA Assessment Project Guidelines Conduct an FBA (BACB Task List 5 Areas F-1-F3, F6-F9) 1. Select a learner for this project and receive parent permission (if applicable) to conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for one challenging behavior exhibited by the learner. 2. Operationalize the challenging behavior to be targeted for assessment 3. Complete an intake interview with parent/caregiver and/or staff using the Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST). 4. Complete an ABC data sheet for a minimum of 5 separate incidences of the target challenging behavior – note that this may be either continuous recording (time limited) or narrative recording (per episode). FBA Project, Continued 5. Conduct an ABC Data Analysis: Answer each of these questions ● Were any setting events identified? If so, list, if not state that none were identified ● What are most common/ antecedent(s)? ● What are the most common consequence(s)? ● Following which consequences did the learner’s behavior stop, continue or escalate? ● Based on responses to the above questions, what do you believe is the most likely function of the challenging behavior (hypothesis)? ● What is the basis for your hypothesis? Please refer only to the data as collected on your ABC chart; discuss setting events/MOs, antecedents, consequences, and the learner’s response to consequences. Do not base your hypothesis on the behavior. 6.Describe an FA Procedure (To be discussed in next Webinar)