Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system NRS 428

Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system NRS 428

Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system NRS 428

Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system. Evaluate the effectiveness of one or more of these areas on quality patient care and health outcomes. Propose a potential health care reform solution to improve effectiveness in the area you evaluated and predict the expected effect. Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders. Support your post with a peer-reviewed journal article.


The US Health system has many disadvantages which include disparities in health care delivery and therefore faces problems such as preventable medical errors, preventable mortality rates and lack of transparency in treatment. The cost of medical care and health insurance in the US is very high which has left a number of families not on health insurance as they prioritize other things like having a home or buying food to sustain their everyday lives and therefore cannot seek medical care due to the high cost. This has led to disparities in the healthcare system meaning only the rich can afford quality healthcare. Lack of access to healthcare presents delays in care as people only seek treatment when they are very ill resulting in increased complications which may be extremely hard to reverse or correct and may result in permanent damage, higher treatment costs and increased hospitalizations. (Wales Forest School of medicine 2020).

Focus on preventive measures assists in reducing the need to seek medical attention and become more resilient to environmental factors. Sustainable practices enhance the provision of healthcare services in several ways which include efforts to address public health threats due to climate change. Sustainability techniques used by the healthcare system include zero waste policies, water conservation and Telehealth services that reduce carbon based fuel consumption. To promote healthcare reform I would suggest preventing lung cancer by proving smoke cessation or rehabilitation centers for smokers, this would reduce development of COPD and lung cancer, smoke cessation aids like nicotine patches or gums should be provided free of charge and be easily accessible for those who need them. Healthcare facilities are now taking more serious care in the use of disinfectants as some disinfectants have been found to be harmful and cause cancer to the patients and healthcare workers . The CDC has issued guidelines to ensure people and the environment are protected. The healthcare reform would promote affordable healthcare and expand availability of safe high quality healthcare options, encourage innovation and competition.( Warner et al 2020.)


Wale forest school of medicine . 2020. What is sustainability in healthcare.

Warner J.MD; Benjamin J. MD. The American heart association. 2020. Advancing healthcare reform retrieved from

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It is truly unfortunate that health insurance in the United States is so expensive that families have to prioritize their expenses before enrolling for healthcare coverage. Medical insurance should be something that families have without having to worry about going broke. I agree with you that this then leads to situations where the less fortunate finally receive medical care when it is near the end and some problems cannot be reversed. I like your suggestion about smoking cessation. If people have the ability to stop smoking and use other forms of nicotine then the result will be fewer cases of COPD and lung cancer. Great post!

Great post! ​Healthcare costs in the United States are higher than in most other countries around the world. In 2018 the healthcare cost in the United States was 3.6 trillion dollars which account for 16.9 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) for the United States (Schreck, 2020). I agree with you that as a nation we need to focus primarily on preventative measures and getting people affordable insurance. By focusing on preventative measures we can prevent any long term complications which would result in a decreased cost in health care. Health care professionals and community stakeholders must work together to develop healthcare reform policies to address this issue going forward.


Schreck, R. I. (2020, March). Overview of health care financing – fundamentals – merck manuals consumer version. Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved January 17, 2022, from

  • Kayla Martin

replied toSharon Dube

Jan 23, 2022, 9:13 AM

  • Replies to Sharon Dube

Hi Sharon,

You made an excellent point when referring to the lack of health care available due to the cost and having no insurance. I would like to contribute an addition to this argument by mentioning how disappointing the VA in America is. I have worked one on one with many patients who, because of difficulties with the VA, have suffered hardships in their health care. One patient in particular ended up hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis and an amputation to his foot due to the difficulties of getting his insulin and wound care through the veterans association. Through the years, both the access to care for veterans as well as the quality of that care has declined tremendously. Since the rise in COVID-19 cases, the VA is now functioning on 25% occupancy and care has further declined. If we want to make a change in care in America, the VA would be a great start.


Farmer, C. M., Hosek, S. D., & Adamson, D. M. (2016). Balancing Demand and Supply for Veterans’ Health Care: A Summary of Three RAND Assessments Conducted Under the Veterans Choice Act. Rand health quarterly6(1), 12.


Margaret Kamara

Posted Date

Jan 20, 2022, 12:02 AM

Replies to Sharon Dube

The U.S. healthcare system is historically the most expensive in the world, with the highest expenditure on health care. In 2012, the U.S. health expenditures per capita were $8.953, accounting for 17.9% of the GDP (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Feeg, 2020). However, these expenditures do not compare to the health system performance when compared to other similar nations. This issue drove innovative healthcare service delivery models whose role is to improve patient care. These models include accountable care organizations (ACO), patient-centered medical homes (PCMH), and bundled payment. These models are types of value-based purchasing program that provides incentives for high-quality care.

According to the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (2020), the role of these innovative models is to deliver high-quality care and reduce expenditure. ACO model, for example, is a group of doctors, hospitals, and other healthcare providers who coordinate to provide care to Medicare patients and reduce wastage (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Feeg, 2020). The ACO will share in the savings for the Medicare Program. The use of payment incentives and penalties is a great way of influencing medical practice. However, the impact on cost is uneven, given the many requirements of setting up these innovative models.


These models depend heavily on shared information systems to improve care coordination and prevent service duplication. These systems are expensive and raise complex issues relating to data compatibility and data sharing (Blackstone & Fuhr, 2016). The reforms are feasible in terms of the impact on quality, but so much is required to reduce the initial cost of set-up. Finding a way to implement these models without an enormous start-up cost is essential.


Value-based purchasing (VBP) helps improve patient experience of care, population health, and reduce the per capita cost of health care. According to Blackstone and Fuhr (2016), building the infrastructure required for VBP models will facilitate measurement and improvement. It will also protect the consumers by ensuring that their health information is protected from privacy and security issues. The meaningful use of the EHRs is essential in meeting the core objectives of these models – Institute of Healthcare Improvement (2020) Triple Aims.



Blackstone, E. A., & Fuhr, J. P. (2016). The economics of Medicare accountable care organizations. American Health & Drug Benefits, 9(1), 11-19.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2020). Hospital value-based purchasing.

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (2020). Initiatives.

Nickitas, D. M., Middaugh, D. J., & Feeg, V. D. (2020). Policy and politics for nurses and other health professionals: Advocacy and action (3rd ed.). Burlington. MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.