PSY 357 Assignment Developmental Periods Essay

PSY 357 Assignment Developmental Periods Essay

PSY 357 Assignment Developmental Periods Essay

Physical Development Socioemotional Development Cognitive Development Concerns or Issues
Prenatal and Infancy
Increase in height, weight, chest circumference, and head circumference.
Development of motor skills from head to tail and from the center of the body outwards.
They learn to control the head and neck before learning to maneuver their limbs. They learn to move arms before learning to manipulate their fingers.
They learn to move the torso before learning to move their limbs (Goodway, Ozmun & Gallahue, 2019). Erickson’s Theory by Erik Erickson.
Trust vs. Mistrust: Infants develop a sense of trust, which results in virtue of hope that when new crises arise, there is a possibility that there will be support from other people. Failure to develop the virtue of hope results in the development of fear and a sense of mistrust.
A child develops a belief that the environment can be relied on to meet one’s basic physiological and social needs (Zhang, 2015).
Piaget’s theory by Jean Piaget
Sensorimotor Stage: The most significant achievement at this stage is Object Permanence, which knows that something exists even when it is hidden. This requires the infant to create a mental representation, also known as a schema, of an object.
Infants experience the world through senses and actions such as touching, looking, mouthing, and grasping. They also have stranger anxiety (Müller, Ten Eycke & Baker, 2015).
Failure to thrive.
Infant abuse and neglect (Griggs & Jackson, 2017).
Early Childhood This stage is characterized by marked growth or an increase in size.
Gross motor skills develop with the children being able to control large muscles, which enable them to walk, run, jump, and climb.
Fine motor skills also develop, enabling them to control small muscles. (Goodway, Ozmun & Gallahue, 2019) Toddlers can feed themselves, draw, and manipulate objects (Griggs & Jackson, 2017). Initiative vs. Guilt: A child at this stage begins to explore, imagine, and also to feel remorse for his or her actions. Children assert themselves frequently.
A child begins to make plans and initiate activities. When given this opportunity, they develop a sense of initiative and security in the ability to make decisions and lead others. If denied an opportunity through control or criticism, they create a sense of guilt (Zhang, 2015).

Piaget’s theory: Preoperational Stage

At this stage, young children think about things symbolically. They make a word or an object to represent something. Thinking at this stage is egocentric, and an infant has difficulty accepting the viewpoint of others. They use intuitive instead of logical reasoning. The development phenomenal at this stage includes pretend play, egocentrism, and language development.

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Temper tantrums.
Child abuse and neglect.
Inadequate learning opportunities (Griggs & Jackson, 2017).
Middle and Late Childhood Children build on and improve their gross motor skills, including the large scale body movement skills

acquired during earlier developmental stages such as walking and running. Boys develop the skills faster than girls except for skills that involve balance and precise movements such as jumping, hopping, and skipping.
Fine motor skills develop that require hand-eye coordination. Girls develop fine motor skills faster than boys.
They develop the ability to draw complex and detailed pictures incorporate depth cue.
Industry vs. Inferiority:
A child learns how to do things correctly based on a standard or to what others are doing. Children begin to feel industrious when they are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative and gain confidence in their ability to attain goals. However, if the initiative is not supported, a child begins to feel inferior and starts doubting his/her abilities and may not reach their potential (Zhang, 2015).

Piaget referred this as the Concrete Operational Stage.
The stage marks the start of operational or logical thought, but the logic is only applied to physical objects.
The child can figure things internally in mind rather than trying out things physically.
A child can conserve, which means that he or she can understand that something remains the same in quantity even if its appearance changes.
Although children can solve problems logically, they are generally not able to think hypothetically or abstractly (McLeod, 2018).
Child abuse and neglect by caregivers.PSY 357 Assignment Developmental Periods Essay
Bullying in schools
Inadequate learning opportunities (Griggs & Jackson, 2017).
Adolescence The adolescence is characterized by rapid physical changes, such as gains in height and weight and the development of secondary sexual characteristics and functions. Identity vs. Role Confusion: An individual begins to develop a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires. Adolescents have a social identity that focuses on a group that one will identify with and also a personal identity that focuses on abilities, possibilities, and goals.
Failure to gain a sense of identity in the society may lead to Role confusion where an individual is not sure about oneself or their position in society (Zhang, 2015).

Formal Operational Stage.

This stage begins during adolescence and lasts through adulthood. At this time, individuals develop the capacity to think about abstract concepts and to test hypotheses logically.
Developmental phenomena at this stage include abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning (Müller, Ten Eycke & Baker, 2015). Adolescents are vulnerable to various risk factors, such as tobacco and alcohol use, eating disorders, and depression.
Bullying in school.
Negative peer-pressure (Griggs & Jackson, 2017).

Early Adulthood

Early adulthood is characterized by physical maturation. Height and weight may slightly increase. The physical abilities are at peak, including reaction time, sensory abilities, muscle strength, and cardiac functioning.
The aging process, though not visible, begins during early adulthood at around 30 years. Various changes start to occur in different body parts. There is decreased sensitivity to sound, the immune system weakens, reproductive capacity starts to decline, and hair starts to thin and gray. Intimacy vs. Isolation:
Individuals develop the ability to give and receive love. They begin to make long-term commitments in relationships with others.
The major conflict at this stage lies in forming intimate, loving relationships with others.
Fearing commitment and avoiding intimacy and relationships may lead to loneliness, isolation, and even depression.
Success in this stage leads to the virtue of love (Zhang, 2015).

Formal Operational Stage:

In early adulthood, there is the stabilization of cognition. There is relativistic thinking whereby young adults become aware of complex views of right vs. wrong. Individuals begin to view ideas and concepts from multiple, and they understand that a question can have multiple right answers. There is pragmatic thinking which involves using logic to solve real-world issues, and they accept contradictions and imperfections (Müller, Ten Eycke & Baker, 2015).

Psychological distress
Alcohol and drug abuse.
Work problems.
Ineffective coping (Griggs & Jackson, 2017).
Middle Adulthood At this stage, there is a steady decrease in muscular strength, sensory abilities, reaction time, and cardiac output. At around 50 years, females experience menopause while males experience decreased hormonal production.
The skin becomes drier, making it prone to wrinkles and age spots and blood vessels become more evident. Muscle to fat ratio changes with the accumulation of fat in the abdomen area (Goodway, Ozmun & Gallahue, 2019).
Generativity vs. Stagnation: Individuals begin to develop an interest in guiding the development of future generations. Individuals experience a need to nurture things that will outlive them, and they create positive changes that will benefit others.
Success at this stage leads to a sense of importance and accomplishment and a virtue of Care. Failure results in minimal involvement in the world (Zhang, 2015).

Formal Operational Stage:

Cognitive changes are numerous during this period. Crystallized intelligence holds steady throughout middle adulthood.
It entails the knowledge and experience that one has accumulated over the years, such as information, strategies, and skills. Fluid intelligence, which involves the information-processing skills, begins to decline during middle adulthood. There is a decline in cognitive processing, as well as the ability to solve problems and divide attention.
Problem-solving skills increase, which is required to solve real-world issues (Müller, Ten Eycke & Baker, 2015).
Lifestyle diseases.
Psychological distress.
Ineffective coping (Griggs & Jackson, 2017).
Late Adulthood During late adulthood, hearing perception and sense of smell begin to diminish. In addition, there is a decline in muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. Neural processes slow down, especially those that involve complex tasks (Goodway, Ozmun & Gallahue, 2019).
Ego Integrity vs. Despair: Individuals develop a sense of acceptance of the way life was spent. They create a sense of the importance of the people and relationships developed over the lifespan.
If an individual sees his/her life as unproductive, one feels guilty about their past or feels that he did not achieve his life goal. Individuals become dissatisfied with their lives, which often leads to a state of depression and hopelessness (Zhang, 2015).
Formal Operational Stage: Various cognitive abilities begin to decline in late adulthood. General knowledge and vocabulary increase as one age.
Intelligence remains relative as an individual age. There is a decline in fluid intelligence, which is the ability to reason speedily but crystalline intelligence, which is the accumulated knowledge and skills do not decline (Müller, Ten Eycke & Baker, 2015).
Elder abuse.
Psychological distress e.g., Depression.
Increased dependency.
Memory loss.
(Griggs & Jackson, 2017)
End of Life Reduced immunological function.
A decline in fine and gross motor skills.
Failure of multiple body organs.
Decreased muscle strength (Goodway, Ozmun & Gallahue, 2019). There would be dissatisfaction with one’s life if he /she did not have any accomplishments during their lifetime.
There is bargaining and depression when one approaches death (Zhang, 2015). A decline in reasoning ability. Decline in knowledge and skills. Ineffective coping.
Increased dependency.

Lopes Write Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource

As we begin this session, I would like to take this opportunity to clarify my expectations for this course:

Please note that GCU Online weeks run from Thursday (Day 1) through Wednesday (Day 7).


Course Room Etiquette:

  • It is my expectation that all learners will respect the thoughts and ideas presented in the discussions.
  • All postings should be presented in a respectful, professional manner. Remember – different points of view add richness and depth to the course!


Office Hours:

  • My office hours vary so feel free to shoot me an email at [email protected] or my office phone is 602.639.6517 and I will get back to you within one business day or as soon as possible.
  • Phone appointments can be scheduled as well. Send me an email and the best time to call you, along with your phone number to make an appointment.
  • I welcome all inquiries and questions as we spend this term together. My preference is that everyone utilizes the Questions to Instructor forum. In the event your question is of a personal nature, please feel free to post in the Individual Questions for Instructor forumI will respond to all posts or emails within 24 or sooner.


Late Policy and Grading Policy

Discussion questions:

  • I do not mark off for late DQ’s.
  • I would rather you take the time to read the materials and respond to the DQ’s in a scholarly way, demonstrating your understanding of the materials.
  • I will not accept any DQ submissions after day 7, 11:59 PM (AZ Time) of the week.
  • Individual written assignments – due by 11:59 PM AZ Time Zone on the due dates indicated for each class deliverable.


  • Assignments turned in after their specified due dates are subject to a late penalty of -10%, each day late, of the available credit. Please refer to the student academic handbook and GCU policy.
  • Any activity or assignment submitted after the due date will be subject to GCU’s late policy
  • Extenuating circumstances may justify exceptions, which are at my sole discretion. If an extenuating circumstance should arise, please contact me privately as soon as possible.
  • No assignments can be accepted for grading after midnight on the final day of class.
  • All assignments will be graded in accordance with the Assignment Grading Rubrics


  • Participation in each week’s Discussion Board forum accounts for a large percentage of your final grade in this course.
  • Please review the Course Syllabus for a comprehensive overview of course deliverables and the value associated with each.
  • It is my expectation that each of you will substantially contribute to the course discussion forums and respond to the posts of at least three other learners.
  • substantive post should be at least 200 words. Responses such as “great posts” or “I agree” do notmeet the active engagement expectation.
  • Please feel free to draw on personal examples as you develop your responses to the Discussion Questions but you do need to demonstrate your understanding of the materials.
  • I do expect outside sources as well as class materials to formulate your post.
  • APA format is not necessary for DQ responses, but I do expect a proper citation for references.
  • Please use peer-related journals found through the GCU library and/or class materials to formulate your answers. Do not try to “Google” DQ’s as I am looking for class materials and examples from the weekly materials.
  • will not accept responses that are from Wikipedia, Business com, or other popular business websites. You will not receive credit for generic web searches – this does not demonstrate graduate-level research.
  • Stay away from the use of personal pronouns when writing.As a graduate student, you are expected to write based on research and gathering of facts. Demonstrating your understanding of the materials is what you will be graded on. You will be marked down for lack of evidence to support your ideas.


  • Plagiarism is the act of claiming credit for another’s work, accomplishments, or ideas without appropriate acknowledgment of the source of the information by including in-text citations and references.
  • This course requires the utilization of APA format for all course deliverables as noted in the course syllabus.
  • Whether this happens deliberately or inadvertently, whenever plagiarism has occurred, you have committed a Code of Conduct violation.
  • Please review your LopesWrite report prior to final submission.
  • Every act of plagiarism, no matter the severity, must be reported to the GCU administration (this includes your DQ’s, posts to your peers, and your papers).

Plagiarism includes:

  • Representing the ideas, expressions, or materials of another without due credit.
  • Paraphrasing or condensing ideas from another person’s work without proper citation and referencing.
  • Failing to document direct quotations without proper citation and referencing.
  • Depending upon the amount, severity, and frequency of the plagiarism that is committed, students may receive in-class penalties that range from coaching (for a minor omission), -20% grade penalties for resubmission, or zero credit for a specific assignment. University-level penalties may also occur, including suspension or even expulsion from the University.
  • If you are at all uncertain about what constitutes plagiarism, you should review the resources available in the Student Success Center. Also, please review the University’s policies about plagiarism which are covered in more detail in the GCU Catalog and the Student Handbook.
  • We will be utilizing the GCU APA Style Guide 7th edition located in the Student Success Center > The Writing Center for all course deliverables.


  • All course assignments must be uploaded to the specific Module Assignment Drop Box, and also submitted to LopesWrite every week.
  • Please ensure that your assignment is uploaded to both locations under the Assignments DropBox. Detailed instructions for using LopesWrite are located in the Student Success Center.

Assignment Submissions

  • Please note that Microsoft Office is the software requirement at GCU.
  • I can open Word files or any file that is saved with a .rtf (Rich Text Format) extension. I am unable to open .wps files.
  • If you are using a “.wps” word processor, please save your files using the .rtf extension that is available from the drop-down box before uploading your files to the Assignment Drop Box.

Grade of Incomplete

  • The final grade of Incomplete is granted at the discretion of the instructor; however, students must meet certain specific criteria before this grade accommodation is even possible to consider.
  • The grade of Incomplete is reserved for times when students experience a serious extenuating circumstance or a crisis during the last week of class which prevents the completion of course requirements before the close of the grading period. Students also must pass the course at the time the request is made.
  • Please contact me personally if you are having difficulties in meeting course requirements or class deadlines during our time together. In addition, if you are experiencing personal challenges or difficulties, it is best to contact the Academic Counselor so that you can discuss the options that might be available to you, as well as each option’s academic and financial repercussions.

Grade Disputes

  • If you have any questions about a grade you have earned on an individual assignment or activity, please get in touch with mepersonally for further clarification.
  • While I have made every attempt to grade you fairly, on occasion a misunderstanding may occur, so please allow me the opportunity to learn your perspective if you believe this has occurred. Together, we should be able to resolve grading issues on individual assignments.
  • However, after we have discussed individual assignments’ point scores, if you still believe that the final grade you have earned at the end of the course is not commensurate with the quality of work you produced for this class, there is a formal Grade Grievance procedurewhich is outlined in the GCU Catalog and Student Handbook.