PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Sample Answer for PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050 Included After Question

Boards of Nursing (BONs) exist in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands. Similar entities may also exist for different regions. The mission of BONs is the protection of the public through the regulation of nursing practice. BONs put into practice state/region regulations for nurses that, among other things, lay out the requirements for licensure and define the scope of nursing practice in that state/region.

It can be a valuable exercise to compare regulations among various state/regional boards of nursing. Doing so can help share insights that could be useful should there be future changes in a state/region. In addition, nurses may find the need to be licensed in multiple states or regions.

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the mission of state/regional boards of nursing as the protection of the public through the regulation of nursing practice.
  • Consider how key regulations may impact nursing practice.
  • Review key regulations for nursing practice of your state’s/region’s board of nursing and those of at least one other state/region and select at least two APRN regulations to focus on for this Discussion.

By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a comparison of at least two APRN board of nursing regulations in your state/region with those of at least one other state/region. Describe how they may differ. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain how the regulations you selected may apply to Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who have legal authority to practice within the full scope of their education and experience. Provide at least one example of how APRNs may adhere to the two regulations you selected.

By Day 6 of Week 5

Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days and explain how the regulatory environment and the regulations selected by your colleague differ from your state/region. Be specific and provide examples.

*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

APRNs treat and diagnose illnesses, advise the public on health issues, manage chronic disease, and engage in continuous education to remain ahead of any technological, methodological, or other developments in the field (American Nurses Association, 2023). I currently live in Illinois, where advanced nurse practitioners work independently but are required to sign a written collaboration agreement with the supervising physician. The agreement must describe the categories of care, treatment, or procedures that may be provided. They also need at least 250 hours of continuing education or training and at least 4,000 hours of clinical experience. Prescriptive authority must also be outlined in the collaborative agreement and may include drugs and Schedule III substances. Schedule II-controlled substances may still be prescribed if delegated by the supervising physician and if certain requirements outlined in the rules are met (Illinois Scope of Practice Policy—State Profile, n.d.).

In the United States, there are three types of practice regulations for APRNs, which include: Full: In full practice authority states, nurse practitioners can perform the full scope of practice without a supervising or collaborating physician. They can diagnose a patient, order tests, prescribe medication, and operate their own independent practices; one of the states is Maryland (Clarke, 2021). Reduce: In reduced practice states, nurse practitioners can perform some of their scope of practice without physician supervision. These restrictions typically involve operating their own practices or prescribing certain types of medications. They rarely involve the nurse practitioner’s ability to order tests or diagnose conditions, one of the states is Ohio State (Clarke, 2021).

Restricted Practice: In restricted practice states, nurse practitioners must work under the supervision of a physician for all their scope of practice. While they may have extensive autonomy in some nurse practitioner functions, they are not acting as independent practitioners. One of the states is Texas (Clarke, 2021).

APRNs may adhere to regulations by  joining  an organization such as American Nurse Association  to known more of what it required in their state and have  more education, knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to provide basic and comprehensive primary care services which contribute to health care setting (Bosse et al.)

For a person to be considered a professional, they must meet the minimum requirements of that profession and follow the regulations that govern the profession. Regulation of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) varies from state to state. The scope of practice also differs from state to state. There are some differences in regulations between the state of Michigan and Maryland. The Public Health Code regulates APRNs in Michigan. They can independently prescribe non-scheduled medications but require a doctor to cosign for the prescription of schedule 2-5 medications (Michigan Board of Nursing, 2021). APRNs cannot sign a death certificate but can participate in ward rounds, perform house call visits without a collaborating doctor (Michigan Board of Nursing, 2021). The Nurse Practice Act governs APRNs in Maryland. They can sign a death certificate. They have to register with the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program to be allowed to prescribe schedule 2-5 drugs (Maryland Board of Nursing, 2021). In Michigan, certified nurse-midwives must partner with physicians to offer care to patients, while in Maryland, they are allowed to practice independently without entering into a physician collaboration.

APRNs have the skills, education, and clinical knowledge to offer specialized care to their patients. Complying with these regulations will allow them to identify and beware of their practice areas and the boundaries of their operations. The regulation stipulates the necessary certifications required for an individual to practice. An example is all APRNs must obtain certification from the Maryland Board of Nursing before being allowed to practice. Nurses can adhere to these regulations by finishing the mandatory course hours to become APRNs. They can also ensure that their license is updated, participate in continuous education programs to ensure they are up to date with new nursing knowledge

References

Maryland Board of Nursing. (2021). Pages – Advanced practice registered nursinghttps://mbon.maryland.gov/Pages/advanced-practice-index.aspx

Michigan Board of Nursing. (2021). Michigan board of nursing. SOM – State of Michigan. https://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-89334_72600_72603_27529_27542_91265-59003–,00.html

 

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A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Regulations in the healthcare system are created to provide protection for the public and each state has different laws and regulations to follow (Milstead & Short, 2019). Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner has been evolving for the past few years to provide the needs to the public. The scope of work is somehow different from being a registered nurse and it varies in every state. APRN are trained and educated to provide comprehensive care to the public with evidence-based practice that is high quality (Boehning & Punsalan, 2023).

In Texas, APRNs must only perform their practice scope of work that is within the Board authorized professional standards that are aligned to Nursing Practice Act, Board rules, and other regulations in Texas that are applicable to their scope of practice. The Texas Nurse Association (TNA) supports full practice. However, it does not allow full authority and only allows practice under the supervision of a physician where they made a contract with. Physicians are required to review the charts and sign a form to allow APRN to prescribe. APRN can order Physical therapy (PT), sign disabled person placard forms, sign Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST) and sign other similar documentations. They are not allowed to sign a death certificate without being under primary care provider. Prescribing medications are allowed especially the schedule II drugs but must follow and maintain the protocol with the physician (Weisen, 2023).

In contrast to Illinois, full practice authority has been granted and was effective on June 14, 2019, for those who completed their education and training. It allows the APRNs to fully practice without the supervision of a physician. To obtain the full practice authority, they must apply to the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation (IDFPR) and notarized that they have completed at least 250 hours of continuing education or 4000 hours of clinical training after getting their national certification. The other advantages are there is no limitation when prescribing, administering, and dispensing drugs if APRN has licensed under the Illinois Controlled Substance Act. They can prescribe schedule II to through IV controlled substances without the physician’s approval. However, they need the collaboration of physician if they were to prescribed benzodiazepine and narcotic drugs. If APRN does not want to file for full authority to practice, then he/she must complete 45 hours of continuing education in pharmacology to obtain the authority to prescribe schedule II. There is a collaborative practice agreement between the APRN and physician to let the APRN prescribe schedule II, III, IV, and V. You are only allowed to prescribe 30 days supplies for uncontrolled substances.

To obey the regulations and rules, APRNs must be aware of our scope of practice and the limitations to avoid malpractice and it varies in every state and must apply these to show the adherence to the policy, regulations, and rules to provide public safety and appropriate healthcare needs. Learning is never ending, and it evolves as days go by. This indicates that even with the title of being Advanced Practice Registered nurse must continue to educate and train to acquire a new set of knowledge and skills to provide high quality of care and promote safety to the public. As APRNs, we can join different organizations to develop our growth as professionals and connecting with other APRNs because they can provide suggestions on choosing the right continuing education you need. One of the organizations that can help APRNs attain highest quality of education are Nurse Practitioner Associates for Continuing Education (NPACE) and the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP). In addition to this, we can get certification. According to American Board of Nursing Specialties, being certified demonstrate your competence level and expertise and boost your confidence in decision making.

 

Reference

APRNs Granted “Full Practice Authority” In Illinois. (2020, November 24). Www.mbhealthlaw.com. https://www.mbhealthlaw.com/aprns-granted-full-practice-authority-in-illinois

Links to an external site.

BOARD OF REGISTERED NURSING. (n.d.). https://www.rn.ca.gov/pdfs/regulations/bp2834-r.pdf

Links to an external site.

Boehning, A. P., & Punsalan, L. D. (2023, March 1). Advanced Practice Nurse Roles. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK589698/

Links to an external site.

Full Practice Authority for aprns | 1 FULL PRACTICE AUTHORITY FOR APRNS. (n.d.). https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.texasnurses.org/resource/resmgr/docs/gac/2021/aprn_full_practice_authority.pdf

Links to an external site.

Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice: Illinois | ThriveAP. (n.d.). Provider.thriveap.com. https://provider.thriveap.com/blog/nurse-practitioner-scope-practice-illinois

Links to an external site.

The Benefits of Advanced Nursing Certifications & List of Certification Boards. (n.d.). Purdue Global. https://www.purdueglobal.edu/blog/nursing/benefits-nursing-certifications/

Links to an external site.

‌ Wiesen, K. (2023). Nurse Practitioner Scope Of Practice By State – 2023. Www.nursingprocess.org. https://www.nursingprocess.org/nurse-practitioner-scope-of-practice-by-state.html

Links to an external site.

(2021). Ilga.gov. https://www.ilga.gov/commission/jcar/admincode/068/068013000D04450R.html

Links to an external site.

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

APRNs in Missouri must adhere to strict supervision laws. A regulation Missouri APRNs are to follow is that an APRN and their collaborating physician are still required to work within a specific geographic proximity, even after the first initial thirty days (Sommer et al., n.d.). An APRN must be within a 30-mile radius in a non-Health professional shortage area (non-HPSA) or a 50-mile radius in a HPSA of their collaborating physician to practice legally (ThriveAPb, 2013). An APRN can only practice outside of those 30 miles if they are utilizing telehealthcare but must obtain consent from patients before telehealth services are initiated. Although APRNs must have a practice agreement in place with a physician, they are not required to meet. Another regulation APRNs in Missouri are to follow are that they are not allowed to sign death certificates or declare someone deceased.  Like Missouri, Illinois APRNs have practice agreement sent in place with a collaborating physician, but how they differ is that Illinois APRNs must meet monthly with their collaborating physician (ThriveAPa, 2013). Illinois APRNs also cannot sign death certificates or pronounce someone deceased.  

To adhere to these regulations, APRNs must find a collaborating physician and have a collaborative practice agreement set in place.

PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050
PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Collaborative practice agreements is a written agreement that must establish guidelines for consultation and referral to collaborating physician or health facility, agreement of protocols and standing orders, must be signed and dated by both APRN and collaborating physician before the APRN can start practicing, there must be a subsequent notice of termination and must identify the process for review and management of abnormal test results, the scope of practice, physician’s number of collaborative practice arrangement limitations, distance from a physician (30 non-HPSA or 50 HPSA miles),  other physician designated to collaborative practice arrangement, physician two-week provisions, process and documentation of review, prescription pad requirements, controlled substance limitations, dispensing logs and 72-hour dispensing boundaries, diagnosis and initiation of treatment, self-limited or well-defined problem parameters, population-based public health services, review and revision of collaborative practice arrangements as needed, and physician accountability for delegated medical acts  (Missouri Division of Professional Registration, n.d.). Having a professional and respected relationship with your collaborated physicians will help APRNs adhere to their regulations. 

APRNs who have full practice authority allow APRNs the full ability to utilize knowledge, skills, and judgment to practice to the full extent of their education and training (American Nurses Association, n.d.). APRNs allowed to full practice authority have advantages such as reduction in health care costs, expansion of care to rural or underserved areas, and efficient and effective care as they do not have to wait for directions from their collaborating physician (Bradley University, n.d.). APRNs who are allowed full authority practice would function as a primary care physician. They would be allowed to make decisions as a physician and practice to their full extent. They would be unaffected by the regulations I selected; they would be allowed to make these decisions without breaking the law.  

References 

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Advanced Practice Registration Nurses (APRN). https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/aprn/ 

Bradley University. (n.d.). What is Full Practice Authority for Nurse Practitioners? https://onlinedegrees.bradley.edu/nursing/msn-fnp/resources/understanding-regulations-what-is-full-practice-authority/#:~:text=According%20to%20the%20American%20Association%20of%20Nurse%20Practitioners,nursing%20board%20%28a%20definition%20last%20updated%20in%202015%29. 

Missouri Division of Professional Registration. (n.d.). Nursing & Collaborative Practice. https://pr.mo.gov/nursing-advanced-practice-nursing-collaborative.asp 

ThriveAP. (2013). Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice: Illinois. https://thriveap.com/blog/nurse-practitioner-scope-practice-illinois 

ThriveAP. (2013). Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice: Missouri. https://thriveap.com/blog/nurse-practitioner-scope-practice-missouri  

Sommer, C., Franklin, D., Kelly, H., Neely, J., Peters, J., and Smith, C. (n.d.). Current Practice of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses. https://house.mo.gov/Billtracking/bills171/commit/rpt1510/Scope%20of%20Practice%20Report.pdf#:~:text=To%20be%20recognized%20as%20an%20APRN%20in%20Missouri,obtained%20in%20the%20advanced%20practice%20nursing%20education%20program. 

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

I enjoyed learning about the states that you discussed. I’m in Virginia, and the difference is APRN’s in my state can sign death certificates. I see that you mention in Michigan APRN’s cannot sign deaf certificates. I also see that in Michigan, APRN’s can prescribe medications independently, in Virginia you must work under a licensed physician in order to prescribe. Unfortunately, you cannot work independently.

Reference

13, F. J., & 12, ray M. (2020, March 24). Nurse practitioner scope of practice: Virginia. thriveap. Retrieved December 27, 2021, from https://thriveap.com/blog/nurse-practitioner-scope-practice-virginia

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

It was great reading your discussion post this evening. I wanted to share with you, that the week 5 discussion board is very practical and as a result, I have learned that Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) varies state-to-state. I did not know this and made the assumption that every state was the same in regard to the scope of practice.

Like as you stated Michigan governing body that regulates their scope of practice is headed by the Michigan Public Health Code. In North Carolina, there is a Board of Nursing separate from the North Carolina Public Health Code. Like in (Milstead, 2019) Idaho became the first state to legally recognize the diagnosis and treatment as part of the scope of nurse practitioners. APRN (nurse practitioner) regulation in Idaho was accomplished through a joint agreement between the state boards of nursing and medicine. The Idaho model set a precedent for other states to include some form of joint nursing and medical board oversight for APRN regulation”.

Thus without this weeks’ readings, I would not be aware of the variety of regulations that affect each APRN scope of practice, in various states. This brings me to ask this question, do you think there should be a national board of APRN?

Again, it was very informative reading your post this evening.

References

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

I also wonder why each state has different regulations on how APRNs practice after getting board certified by the state. It would be easier to have universal rules and regulations for all APRNs to follow while practicing. I enjoyed reading your discussion post; it is educational and to the point on the rules put in place by the board of nursing in Maryland and Michigan. I would personally prefer practicing in Maryland as there is more freedom to practice independently.

I concur with the concept that the state laws and regulations between Michigan and Maryland differ in several capacities. In Michigan, under the Public Act 499, An APRN that is registered under the Michigan health professional licensure is permitted to prescribe a non-scheduled prescription drug and a controlled substance. The APRN is expected to prescribe in schedules of 2 to 5 as a delegated act of a supervising physician. Notably, APRNs are also permitted to conduct the ordering, receipt, and dispensing of complimentary starter dose drugs under specified conditions. On the other hand, in Maryland, APRNs are permitted to practice independently without or with limited supervision of the physician. Furthermore, the measure also allows the APRN to prescribe medication and controlled substances without having an attestation agreement with a physician (Rubenfire, 2015). Succinctly, an APRN might directly dispense a controlled dangerous substance listed in Schedules III, IV, or V. In this manner, the prescription drug must be established under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or state law.

References

Rubenfire, A. (2015). Maryland allows nurse practitioners to practice independently of a physician. Modern Healthcare. Retrieved from https://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20150514/NEWS/150519928/maryland-allows-nurse-practitioners-to-practice-independently-of-a-physician

Sheehan, A., Jones, A., McNerlin, C., Iseler, J., & Dove-Medows, E. (2021). How advanced practice registered nurse practice barriers impact health care access in Michigan. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners33(9), 739-745. https://doi.org/10.1097/jxx.0000000000000443

A Sample Answer 7 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Hi Sasha, I was interested in your discussion as I also practice in Michigan. I tried to look up where you found that Michigan APRNs cannot sign death certificates because I found conflicting research, therefore I am still unsure whether or not that is within their scope. I practice in Ohio as well and APRNs in Ohio have the ability in their scope to sign a death certificate. I found that Ohio is very similar to Michigan as far as the relationship between APRNs and physicians.

It’s interesting in learning all the different regulations that nurse practitioners have across the nation. I am currently a resident of Maryland. In Maryland APRNs can prescribe medication independently. According to Rubenfire (2015) Gov. Larry Hogan signed the Nurse Practitioner Full Practice Authority Act. This measure allows nurse practitioners to prescribe certain drugs without having an “attestation agreement” with a physician. In Maryland, advanced practice nurses in psychiatric may practice autonomously and independently. According to the State of Maryland (n.d.) APRN can complete and sign a death certificate if the medical examiner does not take charge of the body, or the deceased was under the care of the nurse practitioner.

References

Rubenfire, A. (2015, May 14). Modern Healthcare. Maryland allows nurse practitioners to practice independently

of a physician. https://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20150514/NEWS/150519928/maryland-allows-nurse- practitioners-to-practice-independently-of-a-physician

 

Maryland Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Advanced practice registered nursing: nurse practitioners.

                http://www.dsd.state.md.us/comar/comarhtml/10/10.27.07.03.htm

A Sample Answer 8 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Advanced practice registered nurses practice is distinct state by state and the APRN scope of practice and regulative criteria vary from nurses with same qualifications and titles in each state (Milstead & Short, 2019). In comparing APRNs in Texas and New Mexico, there are differences in regulations based on the respective nursing boards and the scope of practice authority. In Texas, the APRN board of nursing regulations mandates nurse practitioners to restricted practice. The NPs can only engage in one element of practice and should be on career-long supervision of a physician. APRNs should also have registered nurse license, graduate degree and have national certification. The Texas Board of Nursing also mandates APRNs to meet the Nurse Practice Act and all its requirements (Texas Board of Nursing, 2021). In New Mexico, Nurse practitioners are under the Nurse Practice Act and must register with the Prescription Monitoring Unit. The APRNs have full practice authority and can prescribe drugs and controlled substances. The APRNs are also regulated by the state Board of Nursing and should have national certification and graduate degree qualification (NMNPC, 2020). The implication is that certified family nurse practitioners (FNPs) as a specialty in APRN may also have variations based on states. In Texas, family nurse practitioners must have supervising physicians to provide patient care. However, in New Mexico FNPs are allowed to practice independently to the full extent of their training and education.

The regulations impact APRNs who have legal authority to practice to the full level of their education and experience as they set guidelines for those practicing with the profession to protect their titles and the public (Laureate Education, 2018). APRNs comply with the regulations by ensuring that they update their licenses, meet the requirements for continuing education and training and enhancing patient safety and competence in their nursing practice.

 References

Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). The Regulatory Process [Video file]. Baltimore, MD:

Author.

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

New Mexico Nurse Practitioner Council (2020). Practice Regulations.

https://www.nmnpc.org/page/PracticeRegs

Texas Board of Nursing. (2021) Practice-APRN Scope of Practice.

https://www.bon.texas.gov/practice_scope_of_practice_aprn.asp

A Sample Answer 9 For the Assignment: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Title: PROFESSIONAL NURSING AND STATE-LEVEL REGULATIONS NURS 6050

Politics and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is among the best health policies developed to enhance affordability of healthcare services. However, legislators have repeatedly indicated an interest in shaping the healthcare policy (Obama et al., 2017). Their interest in politicizing the ACA provisions serves their reelection goals. As the subsequent section explains, the cost-benefit analysis that goes into legislators’ reelection impacts efforts to repeal the ACA.

The initial attempt to repeal and replace the ACA took effect after the House of Representatives passed the American Health Care Act (AHCA) (Amadeo, 2018). Under the AHCA, millions of people would lose health insurance coverage, and healthcare costs would increase exponentially, especially for people with pre-existing health conditions (Nadash et al., 2018). In such cases, a cost-benefit analysis determines whether the chosen opinions or actions impact their reelection to office negatively or positively.

Due to the far-reaching adverse effects of repealing ACA, a cost-benefit analysis indicates that legislators, Republicans included, risked not getting re-elected. In other words, the insecurity resulting from repealing of the ACA would cost them their legislative posts. Consequently, enough votes could not be garnered for the AHCA. To meet their interests, the legislators came up with the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017 as an overhaul proposal to avert the effects it would have on voting decisions (Bussing et al., 2020). Voters’ analysis and views regarding the cost and benefits of repealing the ACA can affect leaders’ decisions regarding national policies.

Legislators’ overriding interest is getting re-elected to office, considering they hold elective positions. Therefore, the voters’ views on health matters, especially insurance and healthcare access and affordability, inform the legislators’ decisions and positions on policies, such as AHCA and ACA. 

 

References

Amadeo (2018). Obamacare repeal and replacement plans: What a Congressional plan to repeal Obamacare would look like. The Balance. https://www.thebalance.com/congressional-plans-to-repeal-and-replace-obamacare-4160599

Bussing, A., Patton, W., Roberts, J. M., & Treul, S. A. (2020). The electoral consequences of roll call voting: Health care and the 2018 election. Political Behavior, 1-21. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11109-020-09615-4

Nadash, P., Miller, E. A., Jones, D. K., Gusmano, M. K., & Rosenbaum, S. (2018). A series of unfortunate events: Implications of Republican efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act for older adults. Journal of Aging & Social Policy30(3-4), 259-281. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08959420.2018.1462683

Obama, B. H. (2017). Repealing the ACA without a replacement—the risks to American health care. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey72(5), 263-264. DOI: 10.1097/OGX.0000000000000447

Grading Rubric

Performance Category 100% or highest level of performance

100%

16 points

Very good or high level of performance

88%

14 points

Acceptable level of performance

81%

13 points

Inadequate demonstration of expectations

68%

11 points

Deficient level of performance

56%

9 points

 

Failing level

of performance

55% or less

0 points

 Total Points Possible= 50           16 Points    14 Points 13 Points        11 Points           9 Points          0 Points
Scholarliness

Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic topics.

Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements:

  • Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s).
  • Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts.
  • Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.*
  • Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information.
Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements:

  • Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s).
  • Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts.
  • Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.*
  • Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information.
Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in all of the following elements:

  • Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s).
  • Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts.
  • Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.*
  • Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information.
 

Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in one of the following elements:

  • Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s).
  • Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts.
  • Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.*
  • Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information.
 

Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in two of the following elements:

  • Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s).
  • Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts.
  • Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.*
  • Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information.
Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three or more of the following elements

  • Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s).
  • Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts.
  • Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.*
  • Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information
 16 Points  14 Points  13 Points 11 Points 9 Points  0 Points
Application of Course Knowledge

Demonstrate the ability to analyze and apply principles, knowledge and information learned in the outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations

Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements:

  • Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic.
  • Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience.
  • Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic.
Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements:

  • Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic.
  • Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience.
  • Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic.
Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements:

  • Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic.
  • Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience.
  • Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic.
Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in one of the following elements:

  • Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic.
  • Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from and scholarly resources to a professional experience.
  • Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic.
Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in two of the following elements:

  • Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic.
  • Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience.
  • Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic.
Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three of the following elements

  • Applies principles, knowledge and information and scholarly resources to the required topic.
  • Applies facts, principles or concepts learned scholarly resources to a professional experience.
  • Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic.
   10 Points 9 Points  6 Points  0 Points
Interactive Dialogue

Initial post should be a minimum of 300 words (references do not count toward word count)

The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each (references do not count toward word count)

Responses are substantive and relate to the topic.

Demonstrated all of the following:

  • Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.
  • The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each.
  • Responses are substantive
  • Responses are related to the topic of discussion.
Demonstrated 3 of the following:

  • Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.
  • The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each.
  • Responses are substantive
  • Responses are related to the topic of discussion.
Demonstrated 2 of the following:

  • Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.
  • The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each.
  • Responses are substantive
  • Responses are related to the topic of discussion.
Demonstrated 1 or less of the following:

  • Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.
  • The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each.
  • Responses are substantive
  • Responses are related to the topic of discussion.
  8 Points 7 Points  6 Points         5 Points          4 Points  0 Points
Grammar, Syntax, APA

Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing.

The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition

Error is defined to be a unique APA error. Same type of error is only counted as one error.

The following was present:

  • 0-3 errors in APA format

AND

  • Responses have 0-3 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors

AND

  • Writing style is generally clear, focused on topic,and facilitates communication.
The following was present:

  • 4-6 errors in APA format.

AND/OR

  • Responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors

AND/OR

  • Writing style is somewhat focused on topic.
The following was present:

  • 7-9 errors in APA format.

AND/OR

  • Responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors

AND/OR

  • Writing style is slightly focused on topic making discussion difficult to understand.
 

The following was present:

  • 10- 12 errors in APA format

AND/OR

  • Responses have 8-9 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors

AND/OR

  • Writing style is not focused on topic, making discussion difficult to understand.
 

The following was present:

  • 13 – 15 errors in APA format

AND/OR

  • Responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors

AND/OR

  • Writing style is not focused on topic, making discussion difficult to understand.

AND/OR

  • The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor.
The following was present:

  • 16 to greater errors in APA format.

AND/OR

  • Responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors.

AND/OR

  • Writing style does not facilitate communication
  0 Points Deducted 5 Points Lost
Participation

Requirements

Demonstrated the following:

  • Initial, peer, and faculty postings were made on 3 separate days
Failed to demonstrate the following:

  • Initial, peer, and faculty postings were made on 3 separate days
  0 Points Lost 5 Points Lost
Due Date Requirements Demonstrated all of the following:

  • The initial posting to the graded threaded discussion topic is posted within the course no later than Wednesday, 11:59 pm MT.

A minimum of one peer and one instructor responses are to be posted within the course no later than Sunday, 11:59 pm MT.

Demonstrates one or less of the following.

  • The initial posting to the graded threaded discussion topic is posted within the course no later than Wednesday, 11:59 pm MT.

A minimum of one peer and one instructor responses are to be posted within the course no later than Sunday, 11:59 pm MT.