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PHIFPX 3200 Assessment 4: Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical

PHIFPX 3200 Assessment 4: Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical

The Ethics of Organ Donation: Robbing the Dead
One of the guiding concepts in the job of health care practitioners is to extend life as much as feasible. It is critical to use both natural and artificial methods to save lives under this approach. However, some of the proposed techniques, such as organ conscription, are ethically contentious. Health care providers are prompted to remove organs from recently deceased persons for transplantation as part of the process. Except in the most extreme cases, consent would not be necessary. Opting out would be impossible because the organs are procured from cadavers. The procedure is a ground-breaking new approach to organ transplantation. This study investigates whether or not consent is required, the policy’s fairness, and other strategies for expanding the number of eligible donor organs.
Consent Requirements

Conscription of cadaveric organs is one of the medical operations governed by the autonomy concept. Before getting any organ, it is critical to confirm that the donor has given their consent in some way, but this consideration is moot when the individual is already deceased. The fundamental difficulty with organ conscription, according to Segal and Truog (2017), is posthumous wishes and the dignity due to life whether alive or dead. When considering extending transplantation choices, it is critical to respect people’s personal decisions about what they want to do with their bodies even after death.

When it comes to permission, it would be pointless to agree to the conscription of cadaveric organs if a person’s relatives could not be located. People die mysteriously sometimes, to the point where no afterlife rituals are conducted and their bodies are buried as disposals. It is reasonable to assume that such organisations have no ethical basis that would bar conscription in such circumstances. The other situation is when the religious background of the cadaver may be determined. Religious concerns, according to Shaw et al. (2018), constitute the basis for the majority of conceivable exceptions deemed to obstruct conscription. Removing their organs for conscription would be ethically justified if the background is traceable, as it is with atheists.

Conscription would, nevertheless, be required in specific cases. One such instance is when a person’s wishes must be respected. In practice, health-care practitioners must adhere to the principle of non-interference. When using this concept, the state normally determines the extent to which people’s wishes are interfered with when they die. Consent should be sought from proxies if the evidence shows that they were bound by religious beliefs at some point in their lives or had stated an unclear wish regarding the use of their bodies after death. The major purpose for this is to avoid any ethical difficulties or violations of donor registration rules.

Conscription Fairness

Conscription of cadaveric organs, despite its contentious views, is widely endorsed as a way to boost organ transplants. The procedure is frequently supported by the utilitarian theory’s core principle, which states that activities are right as long as they bring pleasure and satisfaction (Munson, 2014). Organ conscription is a fair process from a utilitarian standpoint because it enhances joy and satisfaction while causing no harm to the deceased.

The link between those with end-stage organ disease (ESOD) and the recently departed is another example of the justice of organ conscription. According to Loughery et al. (2018), these individuals are inexorably linked since one side comprises people whose lives can be saved or extended, while the other side has people with valuable resources that are not beneficial to them. Conscription, in this context, is just a means of gaining a resource that should be available to society free of charge, without ignoring the principles of self-determination and dignity. The dilemma can be simply understood without religious, cultural, or personal attachments altering the situation. Many people die in this situation while waiting for an organ transplant, while others die with viable, working organs that can be retrieved for transplantation. Conscription is fair and just in general, but from a medical standpoint.

PHIFPX 3200 Assessment 4: Robbing the Dead: Is Organ Conscription Ethical

Increasing the number of organ donors available

It is critical to assist life-changing procedures, such as increasing the availability of donor organs, in order to save lives. Munson (2014) took a utilitarian approach to the process of obtaining donor organs. It is rational as long as the procedure is employed for the greater good. Munson considers paying living donors as one of the various methods for increasing the number of available donor organs. In this situation, the world should not outlaw organ sales on the grounds that it decreases altruism in society and may reduce donations from deceased donors. This policy should be supported because the goal should be to save and prolong lives as much as possible, assuming that consent or supposed consent is given.

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Finally, developing a universally accepted perspective on the conscription of cadaveric organs is difficult. Because it is critical to respect what cadavers have decided with their bodily organs after they die, consent appears to be the root of the dispute surrounding the subject. Although the importance of consent cannot be overstated, it is critical to consider the matter from a medical standpoint. If the earth is to support life, religious and cultural ideas on the deceased must alter, and body parts must be viewed as valuable resources.

Write a 2-3 page paper that examines the moral and ethical considerations of organ conscription policies and theories.

Scarcity of Medical Resources
For this assessment, you will continue your survey of ethical principles in health care. Especially in our contemporary world, where needs for health care outstrip available resources, we regularly face decisions about who should get which resources.

There is a serious shortage of donor organs. Need vastly outstrips supply, due not only to medical advances related to organ transplantation, but also because not enough people consent to be cadaveric donors (an organ donor who has already died). Munson (2014) points out that in the United States, approximately 10,000 patients die each year because an organ donor was not available, which is three times the number of people killed in the terrorist attacks on 9/11.

But what is an efficient and morally sound solution to this problem? The policy of presumed consent, where enacted, has scarcely increased supply, and other alternatives, such as allowing donors to sell their organs, raise strong moral objections. In light of this, some have advocated for a policy of conscription of cadaveric organs (Spital & Erin, 2002). This involves removing organs from the recently deceased without first obtaining consent of the donor or his or her family. Proponents of this policy argue that conscription would not only vastly increase the number of available organs, and hence save many lives, but that it is also more efficient and less costly than policies requiring prior consent. Finally, because with a conscription policy all people would share the burden of providing organs after death and all would stand to benefit should the need arise, the policy is fair and just.

Demonstration of Proficiency
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Articulate ethical issues in health care.
Articulate the moral concerns surrounding a policy of organ conscription.
Articulate questions about the fairness and justness of organ conscription policy.
Explain the relevance and significance of the concept of consent as it pertains to organ donation.
Evaluate alternative policies for increasing available donor organs.
Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.
Exhibit proficiency in clear and effective academic writing skills.
References
Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics (concise ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Spital, A., & Erin, C. (2002). Conscription of cadaveric organs for transplantation: Let\’s at least talk about it. American Journal of Kidney Disease, 39(3), 611–615.

Instructions
Do you consider the policy of organ conscription to be morally sound?

Write a paper that answers this question, defending that answer with cogent moral reasoning and supporting your view with ethical theories or moral principles you take to be most relevant to the issue. In addition to reviewing the suggested resources, you are encouraged to locate additional resources in the Capella library, your public library, or authoritative online sites to provide additional support for your viewpoint. Be sure to weave and cite the resources throughout your work.

In your paper, address the following:

On what grounds could one argue that consent is not ethically required for conscription of cadaveric organs? And on what grounds could one argue that consent is required?
Is the policy truly just and fair, as supporters claim? Explain.
Do you consider one of the alternative policies for increasing available donor organs that Munson discusses to be preferable to conscription? Explain why or why not.
Submission Requirements
Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.
Length: 2–3 typed, double-spaced pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

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