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PHI 413 Assignment: Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

PHI 413 Assignment Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory


Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Nurses as critical healthcare providers have different worldviews that allows them to offer patient-centered care by understanding the different aspects of patient’s life and integrating them into care practice in their clinical settings. Worldviews are personal perspectives of each individual about the world and influenced by factors like relationships, religious beliefs and practices, spirituality and ethics, education and upbringing through culture (Sakamoto, 2018). For instance, worldviews like postmodernism and Christianity have opposing perspective on many aspects of life. Postmodernism asserts that individuals are energies that can be manipulated to restore balance but Christianity advances that God created the world and is a source of ethics and spirituality. As such, this reflection focuses on different aspects based on my worldview as a Christian and healthcare provider.

Christian Perspective of Nature of Spirituality and Ethics & Postmodern Relativism Within Health Care

The acknowledgement of God’s existence and power is the foundation of the Christian perspective on ethics and spirituality. Christianity asserts that there exists stark difference between wrong and right and the Bible forms the guidance for any Christian viewpoint or perspective. The perspective holds that what is wrong or right is not just a subjective opinion but real truths that require discovery. The Christian perspective advances that all wisdom comes from God. Healthcare providers reflect God’s love for whole person through provision of holistic care. Nurses as frontline providers do not treat patients as objects but God’s creation and possessing His image which bestows the inherent dignity and honor of each individual, irrespective of their socioeconomic, physical and mental status. Christianity bases its foundation on personal experience and how individuals experience healing and treatment at the same time based on God’s love demonstrated by healthcare providers. God is divine and Christians follow the teachings and life of Jesus Christ as the foundation of effective life that is based on the rule of love.

Contrasted, postmodern relativism is a perspective where a universal set of beliefs or rules is rejected. Postmodern relativism asserts that there is no “one size fits all” for all situations and questions the reasons and scientific knowledge that informs modern healthcare, medicine and treatment interventions. Postmodern relativism asserts that the truth is relative and invented by individuals and only subjective opinions or beliefs exist (Sassower, 2018). For instance, it argues about the moral and ethical aspects of right and wrong on issues like human life. According to the perspective, human life is not more important than a rock or raccoon and one can justify murder based on their intentions. The implication is that postmodern relativism is incompatible with healthcare ideals because it denies existence of experience, human value and usefulness of medical and nursing interventions. The perspective is categorical that nothing is absolute and even models like evidence-based practice interventions have no significance.

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Description of and Arguments Against Scientism

Scientism is the belief and model that all solutions to problems in the world emanate from science and the discovery and application of

PHI 413 Assignment Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

PHI 413 Assignment Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

scientific knowledge. Scientism seeks knowledge through things that are directly observable or can be verified unlike religion that explores and discovers knowledge through traditions passed from one generation to another (Burnett, 2020). Science is the polar opposite of faith since it advances that anything which cannot be verified like faith in a supreme being does not exist or matter. The philosophy of scientism advances that all phenomena on the planet and entire universe can be explained through science. Scientism began to take root in the latter stages of Renaissance through scientific discoveries by individuals like Christopher Columbus who discovered the Americas, Galileo Galilei and Rene Descartes who started questioning their true existence and the existence of God (Moreland, 2018). Scientism questions issues that cannot be verified that were advanced by early philosophical and religious teachings. The age of Enlightenment allowed scientists to conduct different experiments to prove their point and demonstrate the need to discover life forms away from creation and philosophical ideas that existed before.

Like any kind of belief system, movement or cult, scientism also presents arguments for and against it by both proponents and critics. The first argument against scientism is the concept of free will of human beings which scientism has failed to explain. For instance, the science of neurology and neurosurgery cannot explain the physiology behind the free will, morality and right or good as functions of human brain and decision-making (Hall, 2018). Additionally, there are many areas or parts of the brain whose functions cannot be explained by scientism. The implication is that scientism cannot purport to explain all the process of human thought and free will since these appear to be extremely abstract phenomena devoid of any physical footprints. Secondly, scientism relies on replicability of observations where an experiment or trial with similar results can be repeated in different areas (Lam & Schubert, 2019). Reliability and validity of research depends on obtaining similar outcomes from all observations and this does not imply that the scientists have new knowledge.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Aug 29-31, 2022

What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?



For those who would like a further explanation of this week’s chapter, I’ve created a video lecture to explain some of the concepts. If you have any questions about the chapter or material from the lecture, please feel free to post them here.


Thank you so much for making this! I am very much a visual learner and I wanted to cry with happiness when I saw there was a video.


Yes, me too! I very much miss and learn better from in-person lecture. I can learn from reading, it just gets cemented better to make notes from lectures.


Completely agree with the other responses. Thank you so much! This is so helpful!


I really appreciate this information you shared, i have a good understanding now, thanks.


Wow, thank you so much for the video! The way you broke down the topics made it easier to understand. Very helpful!


What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?


Before we can try to explain a person’s own worldview, we must first understand what a worldview is. According to Bogue 2020 worldview is the point of view for understanding one’s personal experiences and the events of societies and the history. This can be an underlying assumption about reality that a person holds. Spirituality is a dynamic and intrinsic aspect of humanity through which persons seek ultimate meaning, purpose, and transcendence, and experience relationship to self, family, others, community, society, nature, and to the significant or sacred (Bogue, et al., 2020). For me, I always knew I wanted to be a nurse since I was a little kid. When I was about 11 years old, my mom had to have a surgical procedure that required home health to come out and help clean the incision. The home health nurse taught me how to do a wet to dry dressing change, from that moment I knew what I was destined to do. I work in an OB/GYN, it is not always rainbows and sunshine. I see patients that have miscarriages almost every day. This never gets easier as the years go by, from the miscarriages to the babies born with complications.



Bogue, D. W. W., & Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in Health Care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1


Medical ethicists have reminded us that religion and spirituality form a basis of meaning and purpose for many people .At the same time ,while patients struggle with the physical aspect of their disease,they have other pain as well:pain related to mental and spiritual suffering,to an inability to engage the deepest questions of life (Puchalski , 2001).Acknowledging the patient’s spirituality is important as supporting it will bring peace and hope to the patient .I am a christian but if the patient has a different worldview i would use my knowledge of that by strengthening their belief as including spirituality in ill patients improves quality of life.



Puchalski,C.M., (2001).The role of spirituality in health care.




Good post. Palliative care is a patient-centred, transcultural and holistic approach that is essential to address the patient as a whole. In order to understand the multifaceted experience of suffering, Cicely Saunders developed the concept of total pain, which encompasses the physical, social, psychological and spiritual dimensions of end of life patients. The biopsychosocial-spiritual model was also developed as an expansion upon the biopsychosocial model, which considers the spiritual concerns of patients and makes healthcare professionals aware of the need to attend these issue. Spirituality is a key component of overall wellbeing and it assumes multidimensional and unique functions (Mandelkow, et al., 2022). Individualised care that promotes engagement in decision-making and considers patients’ spiritual needs is essential for promoting patient empowerment, autonomy and dignity.


Mandelkow, L., Austad, A., & Freund, H. (2022). Stepping carefully on sacred ground: religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health24(3), 288-308.


Worldview is a collection of attitudes, values and expectations about the world around us, which inform our evey thought and action (Gray, 2011). Spirituality is the broad concept of belief in something beyond self (Scott, 2022). It involves recognition of a feeling, sense or belief that there is something greater than myself. Moreover, spirituality involves exploring themes thus love, compassion, life after death, wisdom and truth. Moreover, it may involve religious traditions centering on the belief in a higher power, but can also involve a holistic belief in an individual connection to others and to the world as a whole.

According to Harrad (2019), spiritual well-being is associated with a number of positive outcomes including a greater tolerance of emotional and physical demands of illness amongst patients, decrease in pain, stress, negative emotions and lower risk of both depression and suicide.


As a nurse, my conception of spirituality will influence the way I take care of my patients. I will treat patient’s religious beliefs without prejudice, Furthermore, I will provide spiritual care by attending to several important elements such as supporting patient’s spiritual beliefs and needs and individualizing spiritual care. This involves explicitly communicating compassion, actively listening and supporting the patient through their health care journey. Spirituality will make me be sensitive to spiritual impact of hospitalization on the patient and family requiring me to provide them with spiritual resources that may need to be involved. For instance, this may involve coordinating local community faith leaders with the patient’s permission to provide some depth of spiritual support as needed. The overall goal will be addressing patient’s fears, concerns and suffering with the intention of alleviating anxiety, instill hope and empower patients to attain inner peace.


Gray, A. J. (2011). World views.


Scott, E. (2022, August 19). What is spirituality?How spirituality can benefit your health and well-being .


Harrard, R., Cosentino, C., Keasley, R., & Sulla, F. (2019). Spiuritual care in nursing: an overview of measures used to assess spiritual care provision and related factors

Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Worldviews offer healthcare provides, particularly nurses, perspectives and philosophies that enhance care provision. Healthcare practitioners should understand the different worldviews to define their approaches and attitudes to patient care provision. These perspectives are also essential in understanding patients and enhancing cultural competency levels (Iserson, 2020). The essence of this paper is to explore personal perspectives or worldviews and their effects on care delivery based on specific concepts.

Christian Perspective and Postmodern Relativism

Christianity provides a religious and theological approach to ethics and spirituality. Christians advance that spirituality is theological and religious aspects that explain the concept of God as the author of ethical and moral behaviors. Christianity perceives God as eternal and all-powerful, while the Bible teaches how people should live ethically (Rieg et al., 2018). The implication is that ethics and spirituality are connected as spiritual persons conduct themselves morally and ethically. They reduce harm and focus on providing benefits to the majority. Ethical conduct shows that one loves God and his neighbor and cannot harm but offer love to all (Iserson, 2020). The Christian perspective of spirituality and ethics influences healthcare by providing boundaries on how providers should make decisions, especially when they encounter dilemmas. Healthcare providers should understand that providing care requires ethical consideration and spirituality, especially the attainment of culturally competent care for patients.

Postmodern relativism offers a more liberal appreciation of spirituality and ethics by advancing that no absolute truth exists. Postmodern relativists do not believe in the existence of a divine being like God who directs and expects moral conduct from people based on set laws. According to the perspective, each individual can form a truth about their positions on moral issues (Lynch, 2018). Despite its contradictory nature, postmodern relativism is essential in healthcare as it accepts the existence of different perspectives that providers can use to offer care by appreciating diversity. Therefore, healthcare providers cannot assert a monopoly over truth and ethical perspectives but be accommodative, knowing that diversity exists based on moral and religious perspectives. Providers should not consider some cultures better than others.

Scientism and Arguments Against It

Scientism advances that the only reliable way to attain truth is using complex scientific methods or sciences. The perspective identifies hard sciences as subjects that use experiments and laws to coin truth about certain phenomena in the world. Scientism is incompatible with the Christian worldview. It dismisses other sources of knowledge and understanding as inadequate since they have no scientific proof and are not founded on hard evidence from research. Scientism does not accept the Christian worldview that God created the world (Gasparatou, 2017). Instead, it argues that most claims about knowledge and truth are individuals’ false statements and mere opinions. The model proposes that any truth should be supported by scientific evidence rather than assumptions founded on unique individual experiences.

Conversely, there are arguments advanced about scientism that are essential to discuss. There are realities where scientism fails to provide sufficient evidence to support its claims, especially its reliability. The first argument is that hard sciences do not provide absolute truths and facts as they are restructured by the present understanding of the environment and measuring tools. Aspects considered absolute truths in hard sciences do not undergo changes based on new information (Moreland, 2018). The implication is that scientism is a self-reputing concept that does not embrace changes or integrate new information to form novel perspectives based on existing situations. Secondly, scientism adopts a tyrannical approach over-dependent on rationalism but ignores personal opinion. Tyrannical approaches stifle willful thought, which is essential in exploring new information, yet this is the most critical aspect of advancing science. The implication is that scientism is not the only absolute way of knowing the truth and fails reliability tests since it does not accept scrutiny or develop alternative ways of assessing real issues.

Personal Perspective and Worldview

a). Ultimate Reality

My perspective as a Christian is that the ultimate reality entails acknowledging a superior being capable of understanding all aspects of nature and shaping the destiny of all beings on earth and in the universe. The environment that I live in, the challenges that humanity faces, and the need for hope, faith, and trust demonstrates that the ultimate reality comes from understanding the diversity in nature and celebrating it for the benefit of humanity (Song & Isaacson, 2018). Therefore, the ultimate reality implores one to appreciate existing truths and seek effective ways to live in harmony for their final destination in the universe.

b). Nature of the Universe

My perspective about the nature of the universe is that God created it and still controls every aspect of its existence. The beauty of nature demonstrates the love of God and the need for Him to show perfection. God’s plan is accomplished through the beautiful universe He created for humanity. Competition involving human beings and other creatures illustrates the need for all to value their lives and live for one another. While one will argue that competition allows the removal of components which cannot survive, God created the universe for the survival of all (Song & Isaacson, 2018). The universe does not exist for the few who are strong but for both the robust and the weak. Adverse events like natural disasters are out of greed by human beings to exploit God’s resources with no concern for others.

c). What is a Human Being?

My worldview advances that human beings are created in the image of God and should be treated equally. Human beings are born free and should enjoy the inherent freedom, make choices of free will, and pursue what pleasures them as long as they do not conflict with the lives of others (Lynch, 2018). However, a fundamental aspect that distinguishes human beings from other creators is that they possess knowledge, have virtues, and inherent love despite the wickedness that occurs, subconsciously (Mason, 2019). The higher intelligence levels allow human beings to develop complex systems, languages, and technologies to enhance their span on earth.

d). knowledge

Knowledge entails unique facts, information and skills, expertise, and training that one cognitively acquires from experience and education. Experience is practicing to familiarize with certain aspects of knowledge. Education involves attending formal and informal processes based on theories and training to attain knowledge. The implication is that knowledge allows one to possess the capacity to make effective and informed choices and decisions (Lynch, 2018). Knowledge allows one to be an expert and professional in specific fields like nursing and engineering. Nurses acquire knowledge through enrolment for different programs and levels, from bachelor’s degree to master’s and even Ph.D.

e). Basis of Ethics

My basis of ethics entails personal beliefs, convictions, and awareness to determine and discern what is morally right or wrong. I acquired my ethics based on teaching from my environment, my family and community, and professional, ethical expectations as a nurse. The second foundation of my ethics is existing general principles and beliefs, mainly based on my religious philosophy as a Christian. For instance, professional ethics implores nurses to have confidentiality and treat patient information privately. Healthcare providers should make ethical principles the basis of their decisions when offering care to patients.

f). Purpose of My Existence

Human beings are co-creators with God and should procreate and protect His creations. Therefore, my initial purpose is to ensure that I promote God’s work of creation in all aspects, particularly as a nurse, to offer the best care to patients (Stenmark et al., 2018). My existence should help those significant to me and the entire universe through changing the world in small yet critical ways in my community.


Personal perspectives are essential for nurses to create care philosophies and provide patient-centered care. Understanding different worldviews allow nurses to develop better therapeutic interactions with patients and enhance overall care quality, especially outcomes.  As demonstrated, aspects like ultimate reality, the purpose of one’s existence, and knowledge are critical in formulating perspectives that benefit patients and other providers.

  1. My Perspective and Worldview (Pantheism)
    1. Ultimate Reality

In my opinion, the postmodern worldview helps us understand that relativism explores the natural and physical worlds in that humans exist. My worldview is based on a combination of scientism and Christian values and virtues. For instance, I believe in God, science, and the complexity of the metaphysical world. I explore explanations of phenomena and understand that some are yet to be explored and explained. Hence, I believe in the concept of God’s existence and the science that attempts to explain nature and the universe as we see it. Therefore, an ultimate reality for me is founded on the spiritual belief in creation and explanations offered by science in the form of evolution.

  1. Nature of the Universe

As aforementioned, I believe in both the existence of God and answers offered by science in understanding the physical and metaphysical worlds. In this case, I believe that the world was created by God, as recounted in the Bible, and at the same time, I understand that nature and evolution shaped the world as it is today. As such, my view on the nature of the universe and its correlation to health care is based on the notion that healing is a combination of science, religious virtues, faith, and spirituality. For instance, I believe that God performs healing miracles, but at the same time, every cell inside a human gives life and promotes growth and healing.

    1. Human Being

Science supports the fact that human beings are a result of the evolution process. The evolution process has, in turn, enhanced human beings to be supreme beings over others and shaped their fate and destiny. As such, human beings have the sole ability to take action for their health by making scientifically-informed health care decisions. On the other hand, I believe that humans are God’s creation and that their fate is greatly overseen by God. Hence, God is in control of the well-being of humans and is in control of their fate. As God’s creation, human beings are expected to adhere to Christian spirituality and religious doctrines that value love and compassion for others. Therefore, I believe that human beings are both God’s creation and from a natural growth and development process.

  1. Knowledge

Knowledge is a complex notion that is understood differently in the context it is used. In my opinion, knowledge is a necessity that takes the forms of survival skills and pleasure. In the first instance, knowledge is necessary for survival in the context that people strive to understand the environment and adapt to it. The second approach considers knowledge as necessary for pleasure as people strive to live with one another and develop a sense of belonging to a group or community. As such, knowledge is a critical instrument that facilitates one’s understanding of culture, community, group, and history that one can relate to and be a part of. Based on the two aforementioned understandings of knowledge, it can be concluded that knowledge is critical for health care practitioners as they execute their duty to provide health care support services to patients with diverse needs and from different backgrounds.

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