# NURS 8201 Week 6 Assignment Correlations Walden

## Week 6: Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation: Correlations

As a DNP-prepared nurse, patient care will be an integral part of your practice. To meet the needs of patients, you may find yourself searching to understand the relationship between patient care and overall health, the association between patient care and clinical research, or the link between patient care and successful treatment plans. Each of these considerations all revolve around the use of correlational research.

“Correlational research is conducted to establish the direction and the strength of relationships between or among variables as they exist in a natural setting” (Gray & Grove, 2020). Through the use of different methods and designs, correlational research allows the researcher to examine relationships among variables to garner insight into theory and evidence for practice.

This week, you will explore the relationships and associations of variables in studies that conduct correlational research. You will also consider the strengths and weaknesses of different correlation techniques by analyzing data and output for a set of variables.

Reference: Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier

Learning Objectives

### Students will:

• Analyze research questions in relation to nursing practice problems
• Develop null and alternative hypotheses for a research study
• Justify independent and dependent variables to support research studies
• Analyze correlations and relationships predicted by statistics between variables in research studies
• Interpret output and results using correlation statistics

Learning Resources

Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

• Chapter 11, “Quantitative Methodology: Noninterventional Designs and Methods” (pp. 252–256)
• Chapter 23, “Using Statistics to Examine Relationships” (pp. 663–674)

Benton, C. P. (2021). Sexual health attitudes and beliefs among nursing faculty: A correlational study. Nurse Education Today98. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104665

Rio, L., Tenthorey, C., & Ramelet, A.-S. (2021). Unplanned postdischarge healthcare utilisation, discharge readiness, and perceived quality of teaching in mothers of neonates hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit: A descriptive and correlational study. Australian Critical Care34(1), 9–14. doi:10.1016/j.aucc.2020.07.001

Woo, M.-J., & Kim, D.-H. (2021). Factors associated with secondary traumatic stress among nurses in regional trauma centers in South Korea: A descriptive correlational study. Journal of Emergency Nursing47(3), 400–411. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2020.08.006

Document: Week 6 Correlations Exercises SPSS Output (PDF)

Document: CITI Program Learner Registration Guide (PDF)

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### Discussion: Correlations

“Much of the clinical research relevant to nursing explores whether a relationship exists between two patient characteristics. Understanding potentially related characteristics helps nurses better identify which physical, psychological, or demographic factors are associated with reason for concern” (American Nurse, 2011).

Photo Credit: Getty Images

In order to explore relationships among associated variables, a DNP-prepared nurse may utilize correlational research. This type of research allows for the exploration of connections and measuring of many variables. While not used to determine causality, this research can be integral in proving theory. So, when might an issue or topic need to be explored through relationships and associations?

For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on a particular topic of interest that may benefit from a correlational study. Formulate a research question and consider your hypotheses and prediction. Reflect on the effectiveness of conducting correlational research.

### To Prepare:

• Review this week’s Learning Resources and focus on the types of research questions that can be answered using a correlational statistic.
• Brainstorm a number of healthcare delivery or nursing practice problems that could be explored using correlational statistics. Then, select one problem on which to focus for this Discussion.
• Formulate a research question to address the problem and that would lead you to employ correlational statistics.
• Develop a null hypothesis and alternate hypotheses.
• Ask yourself: What is the expected direction of the relationship?

### By Day 3 of Week 6

Post a brief description of the selected problem that you identified for the focus of this Discussion and include your research question. Be specific. Explain your null hypothesis and alternate hypotheses for your research question and identify the dependent and independent variables that you would recommend to best support the research study. Then, explain your prediction for the expected relationship (positive or negative) between the variables that you identified. Why do you think that sort of relationship will exist? What other factors might affect the outcome? Be specific and provide examples.

## By Day 6 of Week 6

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

• Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
• Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
• Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
• Suggest an alternative perspective based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
• Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Week 6 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 6 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 6

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 6 Discussion

## Assignment: Correlations

Is there a connection between caffeine and headaches? Is there an association between hospital wait times and patient care? Is there a relationship between antibiotic use and weight gain?

Correlation statistics all begin with a research question, and these research questions all seek to determine relationships between variables. Correlational analysis clarifies relationships, but there are many ways to formulate a correlation. Therefore, the strength of a correlation relies on the variables used and the interpretation of the results that may signify a statistically relevant association or relationship.

Photo Credit: [triloks]/[E+]/Getty Image

For this Assignment, you will examine how to interpret results obtained through a correlational analysis. You will evaluate the correlation results provided in the Week 6 Correlations Exercises SPSS output and will reflect  on the meaning of the results for the variables examined.

## To Prepare:

• Review the Week 6 Correlations Exercises SPSS Output provided in this week’s Learning Resources.
• Review the Learning Resources on how to interpret correlation results to determine the relationship between variables.
• Consider the results presented in the SPSS output and reflect on how you might interpret the results presented.

## The Assignment: (2–3 pages)

Answer the following questions using the Week 6 Correlations Exercises SPSS Output provided in this week’s Learning Resources.

1. What is the strongest correlation in the matrix? (Provide the correlation value and the names of variables)
2. What is the weakest correlation in the matrix? (Provide the correlation value and the names of variables)
3. How many original correlations are present on the matrix?
4. What does the entry of 1.00 indicate on the diagonal of the matrix?
5. Indicate the strength and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical health component subscale.
6. Which variable is most strongly correlated with BMI? What is the correlational coefficient? What is the sample size for this relationship?
7. What is the mean and standard deviation for BMI and doctor visits?
8. What is the mean and standard deviation for weight and BMI?
9. Describe the strength and direction of the relationship between weight and BMI.
10. Describe the scatterplot. What information does it provide to a researcher?

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

## By Day 7

Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 6.

### To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

• Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
• Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
• If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
• Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 6 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 6 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 6

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 6 Assignment

## What’s Coming Up in Week 7?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will continue your exploration of quantitative data. You will analyze and interpret the use of regression analysis and consider how to implement this statistical technique for your potential research.

Looking Ahead: Assignment: CITI Program Training

As a doctorally-prepared nurse, you may have opportunities to collaborate in research activities in your practice. The Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI Program) provides education on protection of human subjects. In the United States, the CITI Program is the training module that most research institutions use. Therefore, as a part of this course, you are required to successfully complete the CITI Program training by Day 7 of Week 9.

Photo Credit: Андрей Яланский / Adobe Stock

This online course may take up to 8 hours to complete. You will receive an electronic Certificate of Completion upon successfully passing the training. You will submit this Certificate of Completion to the Walden University Institutional Review Board office when you submit an application to conduct research.

## To Prepare: NURS 8201 Week 6 Assignment Correlations Walden

• Follow the instructions on the CITI Program Learner Registration webpage to create your account (https://www.citiprogram.org/index.cfm?pageID=154&icat=0&clear=1).
• Review the CITI Program Learner Registration Guide for step-by-step instructions on completing the registration process.
• Be sure to select Walden University under the “Select Your Organization Affiliation” section. If you do not select Walden University, you will not be able to access the training at no cost.
• Create and record your CITI Program User Name and Password for future reference.

## To complete:

By Day 7 of Week 9

• Complete the five required Citi Program training modules as well as the two elective modules.
• Copy and paste the Certificate of Completion into a Word document and save the file as a “.doc” or “.rtf” file.

You are not required to submit this Assignment this week.

Note: This Assignment must be completed by Day 7 of Week 9 in order for you to successfully complete this course.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 7

## Title: NURS 8201 Week 6 Assignment Correlations Walden

Correlational studies or research plays a crucial role in helping researchers gain insight into how particular study variables are related. Through correlational statistics or studies, individuals get to know the strength of a correlation between the variables, and through careful interpretation, a researcher can have an idea if there is a statistically relevant relationship or association (Janse et al.,2021). Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to explore how to interpret results obtained through a correlational analysis. As such, a correlation SPSS output will be evaluated, and various questions will answered.

## The Strongest Correlation In the Matrix

In the provided output, the strongest correlation is between Body Mass Index and weight pounds. It is evident that the Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between BMI and Weight-pounds is 0.937. It is important to note that this relationship is significant as a two-tailored significance has been pegged at 0.01 (Makowski et al.,2020).

## The Weakest Correlation In the Matrix

It is also important to explore the weakest correlation in the matrix. From the output, the weakest correlation is the correlation between the Body Mass Index and SF12: Mental Health Component score, standardized. The correlation value is -0.078, which indicates a weak correlation.

## The Number of Original Correlations In the Matrix

From the provided output, there are a total of nine correlations. The correlation includes Number of doctor visits, past 12 months and Body Mass Index, Number of doctor visits, past 12 months, and SF12: physical health component score. The next is the Number of doctor visits, past 12 months, and SF12: Mental Health Component Score, standardized; the BMI and SF12: Physical Health Component Score standardized, and Body Mass Index and Weight-pounds. The next correlations are BMI and Weight, SF12: Physical Health Component Score, standardized, and SF12: Mental Health Component Score, standardized. The other includes SF12:Physical Health Component Score, standardized and Body Mass Index, SF12: Mental Health Component Score, standardized, and Number of doctor visits, past 12 months.

## What the Entry of 1.00 Indicates on the Diagonal of the Matrix

The entry of 1.00 on the diagonal matrix indicates that each variable is in perfect correlation with itself (Pandey, 2020). It is easily observable as it is indicated from the top left to the bottom right of the main diagonal.

## The Strength and Direction of The Relationship Between BMI and Physical Health

### Component Subscale

The strength of the correlation between body mass index and the physical health component subscale is -0.134. In terms of direction, it is negative, which implies that when the BMI increases, the physical health component subscale decreases. It implies that the two variables are inversely related. In addition, it shows a weak relationship.

## The Variable That Is Most Strongly Correlated With BMI, Coefficient, and Sample Size

From the SPSS output, the variable that is most strongly correlated with Body Mass Index is the Weigh-pounds. The correlational coefficient between the two variables is 0.937. In addition, the sample size for the relationship between Body Mass Index and Weight-pounds is 970. The correlation indicates a very strong positive relationship. The direction is positive, which shows that when the Body Mass Index is high, there is a substantial increase in the weight in pounds. In addition, the strong positive correlation is an indication that a positive and close connection exists between weight in pounds and body mass index.

## The Mean and Standard Deviation for BMI and Doctor Visits

From the output, the mean for Body Mass Index is 29.222, with a standard deviation of 7.379. In addition, the mean for the Number of Doctor Visits in the past 12 months is 6.80, with a standard deviation of 12.720.

## The Mean and Standard Deviation for Weight and BMI

From the provided output, the mean for BMI is 29.22, with a standard deviation of 7.38. besides, the mean of weight-pounds is 171.462, with a standard deviation of 7.38.

## The Strength and Direction of the Relationship Between Weight and BMI

The relationship between weight and BMI is positive and very strong, as the correlation coefficient is 0.937. The positive sign is an indication that when BMI increases, the weight also increases notably.

## Description of Scatterplot and the Information It Provides to the Researcher

Scatterplots are applied to help show the connection between variables. The scatterplot provided in the output displays a relationship between weight and Body Mass Index. The dots in the scatter plot show particular data points, and they can be used to determine patterns. In instances where the horizontal values are given, it becomes easier to predict the vertical value (Ali & Younas, 2021). In the output offered, the distribution of the scatter plots is concentrated in one region. Besides, the distance between the dots is negligible. There is a positive correlation between the variables. There is also a BMI outlier point, which shows that weight may have a higher effect on BMI.

Conclusion

This assignment has entailed an exploration of an SPSS output showing correlational analysis. Therefore, various aspects have been explored, including mean, standard deviation, and the magnitude of the relationships. In addition, the direction of relationships has also been explored and discussed.

## References

Ali, P., & Younas, A. (2021). Understanding and interpreting regression analysis. Evidence-Based Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2021-103425

Janse, R. J., Hoekstra, T., Jager, K. J., Zoccali, C., Tripepi, G., Dekker, F. W., & van Diepen, M. (2021). Conducting correlation analysis: important limitations and pitfalls. Clinical Kidney Journal14(11), 2332-2337. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab085

Makowski, D., Ben-Shachar, M. S., Patil, I., & Lüdecke, D. (2020). Methods and algorithms for correlation analysis in R. Journal of Open Source Software5(51), 2306. https://joss.theoj.org/papers/10.21105/joss.02306.pdf

Pandey, S. (2020). Principles of correlation and regression analysis. Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences6(1), 7-11. Doi: 10.4103/jpcs.jpcs_2_20

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### NURS 8201 Week 6 Assignment Correlations Walden Grading Rubric

 Performance Category 100% or highest level of performance 100% 16 points Very good or high level of performance 88% 14 points Acceptable level of performance 81% 13 points Inadequate demonstration of expectations 68% 11 points Deficient level of performance 56% 9 points Failing level of performance 55% or less 0 points Total Points Possible= 50 16 Points 14 Points 13 Points 11 Points 9 Points 0 Points Scholarliness Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic topics. Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements: Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s). Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts. Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.* Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information. Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements: Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s). Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts. Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.* Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information. Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in all of the following elements: Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s). Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts. Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.* Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information. Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in one of the following elements: Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s). Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts. Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.* Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information. Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in two of the following elements: Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s). Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts. Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.* Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information. Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three or more of the following elements Provides evidence of scholarly inquiry relevant to required TD topic(s). Presents specific information from scholarly sources to develop a comprehensive presentation of facts. Uses at least one outside scholarly reference that is relevant, less than 5 years old (use of older references requires instructor permission) and reliable for the required topic.* Uses in-text citation and full reference at end of posting when presenting another person’s thoughts as quotes or paraphrase of information 16 Points 14 Points 13 Points 11 Points 9 Points 0 Points Application of Course Knowledge Demonstrate the ability to analyze and apply principles, knowledge and information learned in the outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations Presentation of information was exceptional and included all of the following elements: Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic. Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience. Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic. Presentation of information was good, but was superficial in places and included all of the following elements: Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic. Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience. Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic. Presentation of information was minimally demonstrated in the all of the following elements: Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic. Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience. Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic. Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in one of the following elements: Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic. Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from and scholarly resources to a professional experience. Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic. Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in two of the following elements: Applies principles, knowledge and information from scholarly resources to the required topic. Applies facts, principles or concepts learned from scholarly resources to a professional experience. Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic. Presentation of information is unsatisfactory in three of the following elements Applies principles, knowledge and information and scholarly resources to the required topic. Applies facts, principles or concepts learned scholarly resources to a professional experience. Application of information is comprehensive and specific to the required topic. 10 Points 9 Points 6 Points 0 Points Interactive Dialogue Initial post should be a minimum of 300 words (references do not count toward word count) The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each (references do not count toward word count) Responses are substantive and relate to the topic. Demonstrated all of the following: Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each. Responses are substantive Responses are related to the topic of discussion. Demonstrated 3 of the following: Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each. Responses are substantive Responses are related to the topic of discussion. Demonstrated 2 of the following: Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each. Responses are substantive Responses are related to the topic of discussion. Demonstrated 1 or less of the following: Initial post must be a minimum of 300 words. The peer and instructor responses must be a minimum of 150 words each. Responses are substantive Responses are related to the topic of discussion. 8 Points 7 Points 6 Points 5 Points 4 Points 0 Points Grammar, Syntax, APA Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing. The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition Error is defined to be a unique APA error. Same type of error is only counted as one error. The following was present: 0-3 errors in APA format AND Responses have 0-3 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors AND Writing style is generally clear, focused on topic,and facilitates communication. The following was present: 4-6 errors in APA format. AND/OR Responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors AND/OR Writing style is somewhat focused on topic. NURS 8201 Week 6 Assignment Correlations Walden The following was present: 7-9 errors in APA format. AND/OR Responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors AND/OR Writing style is slightly focused on topic making discussion difficult to understand. The following was present: 10- 12 errors in APA format AND/OR Responses have 8-9 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors AND/OR Writing style is not focused on topic, making discussion difficult to understand. The following was present: 13 – 15 errors in APA format AND/OR Responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors AND/OR Writing style is not focused on topic, making discussion difficult to understand. AND/OR The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor. The following was present: 16 to greater errors in APA format. AND/OR Responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. AND/OR Writing style does not facilitate communication 0 Points Deducted 5 Points Lost Participation Requirements Demonstrated the following: Initial, peer, and faculty postings were made on 3 separate days Failed to demonstrate the following: Initial, peer, and faculty postings were made on 3 separate days 0 Points Lost 5 Points Lost Due Date Requirements Demonstrated all of the following: The initial posting to the graded threaded discussion topic is posted within the course no later than Wednesday, 11:59 pm MT. A minimum of one peer and one instructor responses are to be posted within the course no later than Sunday, 11:59 pm MT. Demonstrates one or less of the following. The initial posting to the graded threaded discussion topic is posted within the course no later than Wednesday, 11:59 pm MT. A minimum of one peer and one instructor responses are to be posted within the course no later than Sunday, 11:59 pm MT.