# NURS 8201 Week 4 Discussion Levels of Measurement ANSWERS

## Week 4: Quantitative Methods: Analyzing Quantitative Data

Research allows us to learn more. It allows us to go beyond simple questioning and curiosity. It provides us the opportunity to dig deeper, search for outcomes, and explore meaning. Throughout your practice, you will experience the need for research. Whether it is in your educational journey or within your career, research is an integral skill set for your role as a DNP-prepared nurse.
Research begins as a question which leads to the study and collection of data. Through understanding and examining variables, determining levels of measurement, and analyzing outcomes, the question presented comes into clearer focus. This week, you consider the role of research in the field of nursing. You will explore variables in research and analyze data to develop understanding and meaning.

## Learning Objectives

Students will:
• Analyze independent and dependent variables for research questions
• Identify levels of measurement for independent and dependent variables
• Analyze approaches for addressing advantages and challenges in the data analysis for variables and levels of measurement
• Evaluate frequency and descriptive statistics
• Summarize descriptive statistics
________________________________________
Learning Resources

Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.
• Chapter 21, “Introduction to Statistical Analysis” (pp. 635–651)
• Chapter 22, “Using Statistics to Describe Variables” (pp. 652–662)
• Chapter 26, “Interpreting Research Outcomes” (pp. 699–716)

Gholami, S., Mojen, L. K., Rassouli, M., Pahlavanzade, B., & Farahani, A. S. (2020). The predictors of postoperative pain among children based on the theory of unpleasant symptoms: A descriptive-correlational study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 55, 141–146. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2020.08.006

Huang, J., Qi, H., Lv, K., Chen, X., Zhuang, Y., & Yang, L. (2020). Emergence delirium in elderly patients as a potential predictor of subsequent postoperative delirium: A descriptive correlational study. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 35(5), 478–483. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2019.11.009

Document: Week 4 Descriptive Statistics SPSS Output (PDF)

Document: CITI Program Learner Registration Guide (PDF)

## ________________________________________ Discussion: Levels of Measurement

What is the incidence of blood clots from COVID-19 in females over the age of 35?
The above question is an example of a research question. A research question consists of three parts and guides the methods and approaches in which you will study the question to find answers. The research question includes: the question, the topic, and the population or variables. In the example provided above, the question is examining the prevalence of blood clots from severe COVID-19 in a selected population. From this question, the variables can be assessed, considerations can be analyzed, and populations can be sampled in order to guide the research.

### Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NURS 8201 Week 4 Discussion Levels of Measurement ANSWERS

Photo Credit: Socha, A. (n.d.). Scale question, balance [Photograph]. pixabay.com. https://pixabay.com/photos/puzzle-last-part-joining-together-3223922/
During Week 2, you developed a research problem statement based on a topic of interest to you or your specific area of practice. Using this research problem statement, you will develop a research question. “A research question is a concise, interrogative statement that is worded in the present tense and includes one or more of a study’s principal concepts or variables” (Gray & Grove, 2020). These questions typically point to the type of study that will be conducted and serves as a guide for the research.
For this Discussion, reflect on your research problem statement. Consider the independent and dependent variables of your research problem through the construction of a research question. Reflect on the potential levels of measurement for your variables and the rationale for the labels, as well as consider the advantages and challenges that you might experience in the statistical analysis of your proposed variables.
Reference: Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

## To Prepare:

• Review your research problem statement from Week 2 to develop your research question.
• Review the Learning Resources on how to describe variables.
• Consider the levels of measurement for your variables: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio.
• After reviewing your research question and considering the levels of measurement, analyze your classification for each variable. What was behind your reasoning for labeling the variables? How might the data be analyzed based on these labels?
• Consider advantages and challenges that you might encounter in the statistical analysis of your proposed variables.

## By Day 3 of Week 4

Post your research question and describe the independent and dependent variables. Then, identify the level of measurement of both your independent and dependent variables. Provide a brief rationale for your classification of each variable. Be specific. Explain considerations of analyzing data related to each variable based on its level of measurement. Be sure to include any advantages or challenges that you might encounter in your statistical analysis of each variable and explain why.

## By Day 6 of Week 4

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by noting any discrepancies and/or suggesting alternatives in the levels of measurement and statistical analyses described.

Week 4 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 4 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 4

To Participate in this Discussion:
Week 4 Discussion

## ________________________________________ Assignment: Frequency and Descriptive Statistics

Imagine that you have collected data from 100 patients. You have carefully compiled vitals, pain scores, and medications for each of the patients. However, what does all of this data mean? Is your work now done?
How do we make data meaningful? Why must we move beyond the raw data to ensure that data is purposeful?
Descriptive analysis is the analysis of the data to develop meaning. Descriptive analysis provides meaning through showing, describing, and summarizing the data compiled to “reveal characteristics of the sample and to describe study variables” (Gray & Grove, 2020). This allows the researcher to present data in a more meaningful and simplified way.

Photo Credit: Getty Images
For this Assignment, summarize your interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided to you in the Week 4 Descriptive Statistics SPSS Output document. You will evaluate each variable in your analysis.
Reference: Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

## To Prepare:

• Review the Week 4 Descriptive Statistics SPSS Output provided in this week’s Learning Resources.
• Review the Learning Resources on how to interpret descriptive statistics, including how to interpret research outcomes.
• Consider the results presented in the SPSS output and reflect on how you might interpret the frequency distributions and the descriptive statistics presented.

## The Assignment: (2–3 pages)

• Summarize your interpretation of the frequency data provided in the output for respondent’s age, highest school grade completed, and family income from prior month.
• Note: A frequency analysis is way of summarizing data by depicting the number of times a data value occurs in the data table or output. It is used to analyze the data set including where the data are concentrated or clustered, the range of values, observation of extreme values, and to determine intervals for analysis that could make sense in categorizing your variable values.
• Summarize your interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided in the output for respondent’s age, highest school grade completed, race and ethnicity, currently employed, and family income from prior month.
• Note: The descriptive analysis includes N (size of your sample), the mean, the median, the standard deviation, the size and spread of your data to determine the variability/variance in your data.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

## By Day 7

Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4.
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
• Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
• Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
• Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
• Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
• If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global

## Reference Database.

• Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 4 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:
Submit your Week 4 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

To participate in this Assignment:
Week 4 Assignment

### ________________________________________ What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images
In the next module, you will continue your exploration of quantitative research and data analysis. You will look more closely at additional techniques and methods of conducting quantitative data analysis and interpretation.
Looking Ahead: Assignment: CITI Program Training
As a doctorally-prepared nurse, you may have opportunities to collaborate in research activities in your practice. The Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI Program) provides education on protection of human subjects. In the United States, the CITI Program is the training module that most research institutions use. Therefore, as a part of this course, you are required to successfully complete the CITI Program training by Day 7 of Week 9.

Photo Credit: Андрей Яланский / Adobe Stock
This online course may take up to 8 hours to complete. You will receive an electronic Certificate of Completion upon successfully passing the training. You will submit this Certificate of Completion to the Walden University Institutional Review Board office when you submit an application to conduct research.

## To Prepare

• Follow the instructions on the CITI Program Learner Registration webpage to create your account (https://www.citiprogram.org/index.cfm?pageID=154&icat=0&clear=1).
o Review the CITI Program Learner Registration Guide for step-by-step instructions on completing the registration process.
o Be sure to select Walden University under the “Select Your Organization Affiliation” section. If you do not select Walden University, you will not be able to access the training at no cost.
• Create and record your CITI Program User Name and Password for future reference.
To complete:

## By Day 7 of Week 9

• Complete the five required Citi Program training modules as well as the two elective modules.
• Copy and paste the Certificate of Completion into a Word document and save the file as a “.doc” or “.rtf” file.
You are not required to submit this Assignment this week.
Note: This Assignment must be completed by Day 7 of Week 9 in order for you to successfully complete this course.
Next Module

## Title: NURS 8201 Week 4 Discussion Levels of Measurement ANSWERS

My research question which has been adjusted is “Does the level of prenatal care in African American women ages 18-40 influence the maternal mortality rate?” The variables involved which are the independent variable and dependent variable play an essential part in the prospective research study. These study variables can take on different values and vary which makes it a part of an empirical phenomenon.

The purpose of independent and dependent variables is to be used as tools to formulate and design the research study (Flannelly, Flannelly, Jankwoski, 2014). The independent variable from the research question is the level of prenatal care. The dependent variable from the research question is the maternal mortality rate. The independent variable is the variable that will have the presumed effect on the dependent variable.

The independent variable will be displayed as a nominal measurement which implies numbers that aim to categorize reactions into discreet, jointly, and selected categories. The basis for these categories will serve to identify and separate information using numbers (Prion,2013). In this case, African American women would be the known nominal variable in this research study. The dependent variable is demonstrated as the ordinal measurement which is known as rankings that are prioritized based on the criterion. The maternal mortality rate will be evaluated based on a chart, score, or survey data system.

Factors to consider when analyzing each variable based on the level of measurement includes the purpose of the study, hypotheses, questions, or objectives, research design, level of measurement, previous experience in statistical analysis, statistical knowledge level, availability of statistical consultation, financial resources; and access to statistical software (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017). Out of

these factors, I would say the hypothesis is one of the most important elements because it clearly determines what statistics are needed to test the variables. A decision tree is also imperative to put together when analyzing data based on the variables because it can guide your decisions by narrowing alternatives presented. A challenge in making a decision tree, however, is that if you make an incorrect or uninformed decision (guess), you can be led down a path where you might select an inappropriate statistical procedure for your study (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017).

## References

Flannelly, L.T., Flannelly, K.J., & Jankwoski, K.R. (2014). Independent, Dependent, and Other Variables in Healthcare and Chaplaincy Research, Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20(4), 161-170.
Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burn’s and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.), St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier
Prion, S. (2013). Making Sense of Methods and Measurement: Levels of Measurement for Quantitative Research. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(1), 35-36.

## Title: NURS 8201 Week 4 Discussion Levels of Measurement ANSWERS

A research question, as the name suggests, is the question that a research study or project attempts to answer through its thesis statement (Fandino, 2019). It is also the question concerning a specific problem or issue that is answered in a research study’s conclusion following a concise analysis and data interpretation. A research question is written in a way that outlines the different elements of a project, including the study population, study design, and the variables (Fandino, 2019). The primary goal of a research question is to narrow down a broad topic of interest to a specific area of study. A study design may combine qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-method (Fandino, 2019). This discussion will post a research question and describe the independent and dependent variables. It will also identify the level of measurement of both independent and dependent variables and the rationale for classifying each variable.

## Research question

The research problem statement developed during week 2 is to study the link between social media usage and adolescent body image disturbance, considering various moderating factors and potential interventions. Therefore, the study’s research question would be: What is the relationship between social media use and adolescent body image disturbance?

## The independent and dependent variables

Independent variables are the factors that a researcher can manipulate or control in an experimental study (Andrade, 2021). The name independent is given to mean that other variables do not influence the variables in the study. The independent variables in this research question include the duration of social media use, the type of content viewed, and the diversity of social media platforms visited.

A dependent variable refers to the variable being tested or measured in a scientific experiment (Andrade, 2021). In other words, dependent variables depend on independent variables in a research study. Simply put, it happens due to manipulating the independent variables (Andrade, 2021). The dependent variable in the developed study question is body image disturbance. Body image dissatisfaction is influenced by negative self-perception of one’s body and adherence to societal beauty standards.

## The level of measurement of independent and dependent variables

There are various levels of measurement appropriate for the independent variables. For instance, variables such as the diverse social media platforms and the type of content viewed fall under the nominal level of measurement (Allanson & Notar, 2020). The diversity of social media platforms can also fall under the ordinal level of measurement (Allanson & Notar, 2020). The variable duration of social media use in hours per day falls under interval and ratio levels of measurement (Allanson & Notar, 2020).

Several levels of measurement apply for the dependent variable body image disturbance. For instance, the body image disturbance could be high, low, or moderate, which qualifies it under the nominal level of measurement (Allanson & Notar, 2020). Similarly, the body image disturbance measured using a Likert scale falls under the ordinal level of measurement (Allanson & Notar, 2020). Also, the interval level becomes the most appropriate when a numerical scale measures body image disturbance (Allanson & Notar, 2020).

## The considerations of analyzing data related to each variable

The study must consider significant considerations on the relationship between social media use and adolescent body image disturbance. The first issue is confidentiality, as the analysis may interfere with the adolescent’s private and sensitive information (Nakalega et al., 2021). Also, the issue of informed consent may be at play in the analysis of data relating to the body image disturbance variable (Nakalega et al., 2021). This is because the participants are minors and may need help understanding the various aspects of the research. This also means they may be unable to make informed decisions about participating in the study. The issue of beneficence may also be considered in this variable as it emphasizes the need to prioritize the well-being of patients and cause no harm (Nakalega et al., 2021). Moreover, the investigating team should pay much attention to the issue of veracity, provide truthful information, and be honest while interacting with participants (Nakalega et al., 2021).

## Advantages or challenges that might be encountered in statistical analysis of each variable

The variable duration of social media use may have significant advantages. For instance, it may help provide insight into the amount of time spent on social media platforms that negatively impacts adolescents’ body image. However, the challenge is that the accuracy of the information presented may be subject to participants’ memory and misreporting. Examining diverse media platforms accessed may also be advantageous because it helps compare how each media platform affects the user’s body image. The challenge here is that categorizing the impact of every media platform may be a complex process.

In conclusion, the research study focusing on the relationship between social media use and adolescent body image disturbance provides a comprehensive understanding of the variables involved and their respective levels of measurement. Independent variables like the duration of social media use, the type of content viewed, and the diversity of social media platforms demonstrate a range of measurement levels from nominal to ratio, offering a detailed perspective on the factors influencing adolescent body image. The dependent variable, body image disturbance, measured through various scales, highlights the complexity and multifaceted nature of this psychological phenomenon. The study also emphasizes the importance of ethical considerations such as confidentiality and informed consent, particularly when dealing with sensitive data from minors. While the statistical analysis of these variables presents both advantages and challenges, such as insights into the impact of social media and the difficulties in accurately categorizing this impact, the research holds significant potential for understanding and addressing body image disturbances among adolescents in the context of their social media usage. This understanding is crucial for developing effective interventions and promoting healthier social media practices among this vulnerable age group.

## References

Allanson, P. E., & Notar, C. E. (2020). Statistics as measurement: 4 scales/levels of measurement. Education Quarterly Reviews3(3).

Andrade C. (2021). A Student’s Guide to the Classification and Operationalization of Variables in the Conceptualization and Design of a Clinical Study: Part 1. Indian journal of psychological medicine43(2), 177–179. https://doi.org/10.1177/0253717621994334

Fandino, W. (2019). Formulating a good research question: Pearls and pitfalls. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia63(8), 611.

## Title: NURS 8201 Week 4 Discussion Levels of Measurement ANSWERS

### Practice Problem (Wk2)

In mental health and substance abuse treatment centers it is expected to encounter highly complex patients due to the nature of the disease of addiction. Patients with mental illness face an enormous amount of challenges due to stigma, lack of resources, and poor coping skills. The combination of mental illness and substance use disorder is understandably more challenging than mental illness alone. The concern of how patients are being treated continues to be evident in practice. It is not often understood fully that patients who struggle from addiction will present with co- occurring mental illnesses and difficult behaviors. These mental illnesses often include personality disorders, mood disorders, depression, anxiety, and adhd. The proper response to this problem is to ask questions that will result in answers that will provide ways to improve the care of dual diagnosis patients, ultimately preventing relapse, overdose, and death.

## Research Question

“Can an improvement in ethical and compassionate practices from healthcare workers reduce relapse and death for dual diagnosis patients in addiction treatment centers ?

The independent variable is the improvement of ethical and compassionate practices of healthcare workers. In order to create a more measurable independent variable I could potentially state variables that are specific to improved compassion and ethics such as one to one attention, being present, assurance of patient rights, or special privileges based on need. I am not sure why I find the concept challenging, I do not feel confident that I have it laid out correctly because I continue to switch my dependent and independent variables. I attempted to make it more precise because I do know, from nursing school and my experience, that having a measurable research question is very important to avoid confusion and increase accurate results. The dependent variable is the reduction in relapse and death for the dual diagnosis patients in addiction treatment centers. Gray & Grove (2020) state that the value of the dependent variable, in this case percentage in reduction of relapse and death, a final equation should be presented that explains the change in the variables.

Levels of measurement for the independent variables (one to one attention, being present, assurance of patient rights, or special privileges based on need) would be nominal and ordinal. Nominal because the list of these four variables would be assigned a classification of V1, V2, V3, V4 and ordinal because for each of these four categories would be present as well as ranked as rarely/sometimes/frequently related to occurrence.

For example:

V1- frequent

V2-frequent

V3-rarely

V4-sometimes

Result in 4% reduction overall relapse and death rates over

considerations of analyzing this data would be accuracy of the record keeping from staff. What systems are in place to make sure the info is being recorded daily and accurately? As I work through this idea of approaching a practice problem I can see how easy it is to get caught up or distracted with the sheer possibilities of the variables that one can choose. It is important to stay focused on how to achieve the most valid and accurate date. Scott et al. (2019) report that researchers could be not be reporting measurement considerations or be using valid and reliable measurements for the data presented and recommend replication studies should be utilized to strengthen evidence. I recognize that in order to have the results that I seek, I need to remain focused on specific independent and dependent variables. I also find it important to build off the nominal by adding ordinal measurements summarizing how the data points relate to each other. Allanson & Notar (2020) helped me understand that knowledge and understanding of the measurements of data will greatly assist in making the most informed conclusions.

## References

Allanson, P. E., & Notar, C. E. (2020, September 3). Statistics As Measurement: 4 Scales/Levels of Measurement. Papers.ssrn.com. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3685215

Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

Scott, P. J., Brown, A. W., Adedeji, T., Wyatt, J. C., Georgiou, A., Eisenstein, E. L., & Friedman, C. P. (2019). A review of measurement practice in studies of clinical decision support systems 1998–2017. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA26(10), 1120–1128. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocz035

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NURS 8201 Week 4 Discussion Levels of Measurement ANSWERS