NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition

Sample Answer for NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition Included After Question

NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition

Insomnia is one of the most common medical conditions you will encounter as a PNP. Insomnia is a common symptom of many mental illnesses, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and ADHD (Abbott, 2016). Various studies have demonstrated the bidirectional relationship between insomnia and mental illness. In fact, about 50% of adults with insomnia have a mental health problem, while up to 90% of adults with depression experience sleep problems (Abbott, 2016). Due to the interconnected psychopathology, it is important that you, as the PNP, understand the importance of the effects some psychopharmacologic treatments may have on a patient’s mental health illness and their sleep patterns. Therefore, it is important that you understand and reflect on the evidence-based research in developing treatment plans to recommend proper sleep practices to your patients as well as recommend appropriate psychopharmacologic treatments for optimal health and well-being. 

Reference: Abbott, J. (2016). What’s the link between insomnia and mental illness? Health. https://www.sciencealert.com/what-exactly-is-the-link-between-insomnia-and-mental-illness#:~:text=Sleep%20problems%20such%20as%20insomnia%20are%20a%20common,bipolar%20disorder%2C%20and%20attention%20deficit%20hyperactivity%20disorder%20%28ADHD%29 

For this Discussion, review the case Learning Resources and the case study excerpt presented. Reflect on the case study excerpt and consider the therapy approaches you might take to assess, diagnose, and treat the patient’s health needs.   

Case: An elderly widow who just lost her spouse.  

Subjective: A patient presents to your primary care office today with chief complaint of insomnia. Patient is 75 YO with PMH of DM, HTN, and MDD. Her husband of 41 years passed away 10 months ago. Since then, she states her depression has gotten worse as well as her sleep habits. The patient has no previous history of depression prior to her husband’s death. She is awake, alert, and oriented x3. Patient normally sees PCP once or twice a year. Patient denies any suicidal ideations. Patient arrived at the office today by private vehicle. Patient currently takes the following medications:  

  • Metformin 500mg BID  
  • Januvia 100mg daily  
  • Losartan 100mg daily  
  • HCTZ 25mg daily  
  • Sertraline 100mg daily  

Current weight: 88 kg 

Current height: 64 inches 

Temp: 98.6 degrees F 

BP: 132/86  

By Day 3 of Week 7 

Post a response to each of the following: 

  • List three questions you might ask the patient if she were in your office. Provide a rationale for why you might ask these questions.  
  • Identify people in the patient’s life you would need to speak to or get feedback from to further assess the patient’s situation. Include specific questions you might ask these people and why.  
  • Explain what, if any, physical exams, and diagnostic tests would be appropriate for the patient and how the results would be used.  
  • List a differential diagnosis for the patient. Identify the one that you think is most likely and explain why.  
  • List two pharmacologic agents and their dosing that would be appropriate for the patient’s antidepressant therapy based on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. From a mechanism of action perspective, provide a rationale for why you might choose one agent over the other.  
  • For the drug therapy you select, identify any contraindications to use or alterations in dosing that may need to be considered based on ethical prescribing or decision-making. Discuss why the contraindication/alteration you identify exists. That is, what would be problematic with the use of this drug in individuals based on ethical prescribing guidelines or decision-making? 
  • Include any “check points” (i.e., follow-up data at Week 4, 8, 12, etc.), and indicate any therapeutic changes that you might make based on possible outcomes that may happen given your treatment options chosen.  

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. 

By Day 6 of Week 7 

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways: 

  • If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained. 
  • If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days and 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition

Title: NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition

NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition

Poor or insufficient sleep has been known to have profound effects on people’s health and well-being. Some people experience difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, while others find it hard to wake up in the morning. Insomnia can also be caused by depression or psychological distress. It can be categorized as a type of sleep disorder or a medical condition (MacFarlane, 2022). When it comes to assessing the cause, it is important to ask the following questions: What do you feel is causing it? Do you believe that it is a specific situation that triggers it? This is also important to determine if the client has a sense of belief that it is the main reason for their anxiety. Having a deeper understanding of the cause of the problem is also important to help the client identify the triggers that are contributing to their condition. For instance, if the client is anxious about certain things, such as being around certain stimulants, then it is important that they identify the reason for their anxiety (Oh et al., 2019).

Identify people in the patient’s life you would need to speak to or get feedback from to further assess the patient’s situation. Include specific questions you might ask these people and why. 

Next of kinIt is important to contact the patient’s next of kin as they may know her well enough to provide helpful details about her condition. Even if the patient has never had children, it is still important to contact them as they may also be able to provide helpful information.

Friends/family -If the patient does not have children or friends who are frequently in touch with her, then friends may be interviewed. These individuals could be the ones who she has been sharing her thoughts about her condition.

Primary care physician- PCP may be able to provide her with more details about her health history. He or she may also be able to help her manage her condition and improve her quality of life. In addition, working with her PCP can help ensure that the patient receives the best possible care.

 

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Questions could be asked include have you noticed recent significant mood changes in the client, or has the client shared with you any of her thoughts or worries, have you seen any of her health condition that affects her quality of life, etc.

 

Explain what, if any, physical exams, and diagnostic tests would be appropriate for the patient and how the results would be used. 

 

The tests will be ordered include labs test, physical examination, and psychiatric evaluation. A chemical laboratory test is often

NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition
NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition

performed to identify the cause of a particular condition and to confirm the presence of other organic health conditions. This can be done to ensure that the patient’s symptoms are not related to other conditions. A comprehensive physical examination is often performed to check for other possible causes of the patient’s symptoms. This can be done in the form of a cephalocaudal physical examination. This type of examination can be performed to identify the presence of other conditions such as the environment or medications. A psychiatric evaluation is often performed to diagnose a patient’s condition. It can be performed to collect information about the patient’s thoughts, feelings, behavior patterns, and symptoms in association with a specific criterion in the DSM-5. Besides a general interview, the patient can also be asked to complete various condition-specific questionnaires. Some of these include the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Zung Self-rating Scale (Legg, 2018).

List a differential diagnosis for the patient. Identify the one that you think is most likely and explain why. 

According to Psych Scene (2020), the following is the list of differential diagnosis

  1. Depression- is a type of mood disorder that lingers in one’s mind for a prolonged period of time. It can manifest in feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and loss of interest.

This condition is referred to as organic. It can be caused by various factors such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and other mental health conditions. For patients, it is more likely that the condition is caused by these factors. It can also be caused by various factors that affect a person’s mood. For instance, a person can experience depression following a major event in their life, such as the death of their husband. The signs and symptoms of depression include a hopeless outlook, which can be accompanied by various other symptoms such as irritability, fatigue, and anxiety. Although the patient denies having active suicidal thoughts, she should still be evaluated for the presence of these thoughts. For instance, if the patient wishes to die in bed or in an accident, then these thoughts should be considered.

  1. Anxiety – Continuing worrying about things during the day often carries over into night. That can cause mental hyperarousal leading to insomnia.
  2. Organic- There are various types of insomnia diagnoses that are organic. For instance, it could be that the patient has a mental disorder or that their condition is caused by a substance.

 

List two pharmacologic agents and their dosing that would be appropriate for the patient’s antidepressant therapy based on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. From a mechanism of action perspective, provide

Although it’s not widely used, Prozac is one of the few antidepressants approved by the FDA for children and teenagers. It’s also safe to use in people with diabetes, as it doesn’t increase blood sugar levels. One of the most common types of antidepressant is fluoxetine, which has a high effectivity rate. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These are designed to increase the levels of serotonin in the body, which helps improve mood and well-being (Sohel et al., 2022).

Another common type of antidepressant is Escitalopram, which is also known as Lexapro. It’s safe to use in children and teenagers, as it doesn’t increase blood sugar levels. It can additionally help alleviate anxiety symptoms.

For the drug therapy you select, identify any contraindications to use or alterations in dosing that may need to be considered based on ethical prescribing or decision-making. Discuss why the contraindication/alteration you identify exists. That is, what would be problematic with the use of this drug in individuals based on ethical prescribing guidelines or decision-making

There has been little difference in the response time and outcome of patients between white and minority groups in depression. Despite the various investigations that have been conducted on the subject, the exact effects of ethnicity on the treatment response remains unclear. There is still a need for further studies to understand the possible effects of different ethnic groups on the treatment response (Lesser 2010).There is currently not enough evidence supporting the link between ethnicity and the treatment outcomes of depression. In previous studies, it was shown that minority patients had worse outcomes than white patients. However, more recent studies have shown that the effects of race on the response time of African-Americans and Latinos to treatment have been refuted (Murphy et. al., 2013).

Although it is not yet clear if ethnicity affects the response time of certain medications, there are still contraindications that should be considered when taking these drugs (Pediatric Oncall, 2020). For patient who has hypersensitivity to fluoxetine or any component in its formulation or seizure should not use Prozac. It is also contraindicated to patient who is taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI).  Contraindication of Lexapro include Serotonin Syndrome, taking MAOIs, hypersensitivity to Lexapro, Activation of Mania/Hypomania, Abnormal Bleeding, Angle Closure Glaucoma etc.

 

Include any “check points” (i.e., follow-up data at Week 4, 8, 12, etc.), and indicate any therapeutic changes that you might make based on possible outcomes that may happen given your treatment options chosen.

 

Fluoxetine-It should be given at a dosage of 20 mg/day in the morning. A dose adjustment may be ordered if the symptoms do not improve or if the patient’s clinical condition worsens. An increase should not exceed the maximum daily dosage of fluoxetine. Since the patient is an older adult, a lower or less frequent dosage may be considered. It should be maintained until the patient stops taking the medication, or if they can no longer tolerate the side effects. A gradual reduction should also be performed if the patient decides to stop taking the medication (Sohel et al., 2022).

Escitalopram- The appropriate dose adjustments should be made according to the patient’s needs. For instance, if she is taking extended therapy, the lowest effective dose may be maintained. In addition to age, other factors such as drug interactions and the effects of other medications should also be taken into account. Should the patient experience intolerable symptoms, a gradual reduction in the dose may be performed (NLM, n.d.)

 

NURS 6630 Treatment for a Patient With a Common Condition References

Lesser, I. M., Myers, H. F., Lin, K.-M., Bingham Mira, C., Joseph, N. T., Olmos, N. T., … Poland, R. E. (2010). Ethnic differences in antidepressant response: a prospective multi-site clinical trial. Depression and anxiety. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3113513/#:~:text=Evidence%20comparing%20depressio.

Legg, T. J. (2018). Diagnosing Depression. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/depression/tests-diagnosis.

MacFarlane, J. (2022, May). Insomnia: Asking the Right Questions. The Canadian Journal of CME. Retrieved July 13, 2022, from http://www.stacommunications.com/

Murphy, E., Hou, L., Maher, B. S., Woldehawariat, G., Kassem, L., Akula, N., … McMahon, F. J. (2013, December). Race, genetic ancestry and response to antidepressant treatment for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828530/.

Oh, C.-M., Kim, H. Y., Na, H. K., Cho, K. H., & Chu, M. K. (2019). The effect of anxiety and depression on sleep quality of individuals with high risk for insomnia: A population-based study. Frontiers in Neurology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00849

Pediatric Oncall. (2020, September 13). Fluoxetine. Pediatric Oncall. https://www.pediatriconcall.com/drugs/fluoxetine/590.

Psych Scene. (2020). What are the Differential Diagnoses for Depression? Psych Scene Hub. https://psychscenehub.com/psychpedia/depression-co-morbidities/.

Sohel, A. J., Shutter, M. C., & Molla, M. (2022, May). Home – books – NCBI. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved July 13, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Escitalopram: Medlineplus Drug Information. MedlinePlus. Retrieved July 13, 2022, from https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a603005.html