NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts

Sample Answer for NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts Included After Question

NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts

When building a house, contractors and architects rely on a blueprint to help determine what features and structures are needed to support the house and provide those features sought after by potential buyers. If a potential error occurs in the construction of a support beam, for example, it is likely that the house will sustain damage and, possibly, crumble. 

In much the same way, the features and structures of your brain provide a blueprint that help to support your body and provide the mechanisms with which to sustain your well-being. Individuals who suffer from mental illness, according to the fundamental premise of psychiatric neuroscience, are a result of abnormal brain function. Yet, as advancements in neuroimaging and genetics emerge, a whole new understanding of how to address mental illness remains for the psychiatric nurse practitioner (PNP). Neuroimaging and genetic techniques help provide insights, such as a blueprint of the brain, for detailing how the brain’s structure and wiring is functioning. 

By determining what functions and structures of the brain or central nervous system are implicated in psychopathologies observed PNPs are able to synthesize biological explanations into treatment protocols for sustained, positive patient outcomes. A solid foundation and understanding of the functions and structures of the central nervous system is the first pillar of solidifying your understanding of psychopharmacology. 

What’s Happening This Module? 

This course is composed of three separate modules covering 11 weeks of content. Each module consists of an overarching topic in which each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. Module 1, Introduction to Neuroanatomy and Adherence, is a 3-week module. During Week 1, you will review foundational aspects of neuroanatomy as they relate to psychopharmacology. You will examine your knowledge of these foundational aspects of neuroanatomy by completing a Short Answer Assessment. During Week 2, you will explore neurotransmitters and receptor theory as they apply to psychopharmacology. You will engage in a Discussion with your colleagues on foundational neuroscience. In Week 3, you will examine medication adherence and strategies to mitigate non-adherence as it applies to specific treatment plans for patients. You will then complete a Quiz to test your knowledge of the entire module.  

What do I have to do?      When do I have to do it?     
Review your Learning Resources.  Days 1–7, Weeks 1, 2, and 3 
Assignment: Short Answer Assessment  Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1. 
Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience  Post by Day 3 of Week 2 and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 2. 
Quiz: Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts  Complete Quiz by Day 7 of Week 3. 

Go to the Weekly Content 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts

Title: NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts

NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts

Question 1

  1. Which neurotransmitter is considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter?
A. Glycine
B. GABA
C. Glutamate
D. Serotonin

0 points

Question 2

  1. The synaptic cleft is best characterized by which of the following statements?
A. The synaptic cleft is the space between a single neuron’s dendrites and axon terminals in which intracellular communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters allowing for signal conduction throughout the central nervous system.
B. The synaptic cleft is the space between the cell body and axon terminals that allows for release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron for intercellular communication with an adjacent neuron (post synaptic neuron).
C. The synaptic cleft is an area where dendrites and axon terminals are within close proximity, allowing for the release of a neurotransmitter from a presynaptic neuron that can interact with receptors on dendritic cells of a post synaptic neuron, which is the main basis for intercellular communication of neurons.

0 points

Question 3

  1. Which of the following consists of all the known major neurotransmitters that are relevant in psychiatry?
A. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, steroids, nitric oxide
B. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, endogenous opioids, steroids, cannabinoids, nitric oxide
C. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, endogenous opioids, nitric oxide, cannabinoids, steroids
D. glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, endogenous opioids, steroids, histamine, nitric oxide

0 points

Question 4

  1. Receptors trigger one of two effector pathways resulting in changes in neuronal activity. These changes will, ultimately, effect gene expression. Which effector pathway is characterized by ion flux through transmitter-activated channels resulting in an altered membrane potential and neuronal activity?
A. Slow effector pathways
B. Modulated effector pathways
C. Rapid effector pathways
D. NMDA glutamate receptor pathways

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NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts
NURS 6630 Self Assessment Neurobiology and Medication Adherence Concepts

Question 5

  1. Serotonin (5HT) is a neurotransmitter associated with mood, sleep, and psychosis. There are several serotonin receptors all over the human body. A unique aspect of the second generation antipsychotics is their ability to block 5HT2a receptors. What is the effect of this inhibition?
A. Stabilizes dopamine concentrations in the CNS
B. Induces anxiety
C. Causes hallucinations
D. Reduces platelet function

0 points

Question 6

  1. 1Neurons are classified in several different ways. From the following statements, select which ones are true.
  • The two structural classifications are projection neurons and local inter-neurons.
  • Function classifications are made up of two subcategories: excitatory and inhibitory.
  • Histological classification includes bipolar, unipolar, and multipolar.
  • Classifications using a combination of structural, functional, and neurotransmitter type provide the most robust and useful description.
  • Classification by neurotransmitter type alone provides the most useful description.
A. I only
B. III only
C. I, II, and V only
D. I, II, III, IV, and V
E. I, III, and IV

0 points

Question 7

  1. Treatment adherence is affected by several different factors. Clinical factors include mood, anxiety, psychosis, and substance misuse. There are also patient factors such as knowledge, attitude, and beliefs; economic and racial/ethnic disparities, and clinical encounters. A patient who presents hopeless, with decreased energy, and poor concentration is affected by which factor?
A. Substance misuse
B. Knowledge deficits
C. Attitude ad belief system
D. Mood

0 points

Question 8

  1. The human brain is subcategorized into four major structures. These structures include the cerebral cortex, brainstem, subcortical structures, and the cerebellum. Of these major categories, which one houses the area of the brain that has been found in some neuropathological studies of patients with schizophrenia to be of smaller size?
A. Cerebral cortex
B. Brainstem
C. Subcortical structures
D. Cerebellum

0 points

Question 9

  1. When dopamine (subtype 2) receptors are blocked in this pathway (system), it is evident by EPS.
A. Mesocortical
B. Tuberoinfundibular
C. Nigrostriatal
D. Mesolimbic

0 points

Question 10

  1. Introducing adherence in facilitating treatment goals is something that would be necessary in a patient who has previously displayed nonadherence patterns.
A. True
B. False

0 points

Question 11

  1. Neurotransmitters are defined by four essential characteristics. These are:
A. Neurotransmitters are synthesized within presynaptic neurons.
B. Depolarization of a neuron results in the release of a neurotransmitter, which exerts a multitude of actions on the postsynaptic neuron.
C. Their action on postsynaptic neurons can be replicated by administering a drug that mimics the activity of the endogenous neurotransmitter.
D. Their action in the synaptic cleft is terminated by a specific action.
E. A, C, and D only

0 points

Question 12

  1. Glia cells play a supportive role to the neuron. A few of the functions of the glial cells include providing nutrition, maintaining homeostasis, stabilizing synapses, and myelinating axons. The glial cells are categorized as microglia and macroglia. Of these two cell types, which one plays an active and critical role in glutamatergic neurotransmission by providing a co-agonist required for glutamate receptor function?
A. microglial
B. macroglial

0 points

Question 13

  1. Motivation is a component of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence. Based on the transtheoretical model, readiness to change can fluctuate across five stages. Which stage is represented by the patient who is aware that a problem exists and, while seriously thinking about overcoming it, has not yet committed to a plan of action?
A. Preparation
B. Action
C. Contemplation
D. Maintenance

0 points

Question 14

  1. If a patient admits to taking his medication every other day (instead of daily, as prescribed), a potential concern would be:
A. Sufficient understanding or acceptance of the illness
B. Abuse of the medication
C. Expense
D. Is the desired effect recognized at a lower daily dose?

0 points

Question 15

  1. Of the components of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence, which component includes the following strategies: adaptive thinking, use of cues, and support?
A. Motivation
B. Skills
C. Logistics
D. Education

0 points

Question 16

  1. G-protein coupled receptors are examples of what type of effector pathway?
A. Slow effector pathways
B. Rapid effector pathways
C. NMDA glutamate receptor pathways
D. Modulated effector pathways

0 points

Question 17

  1. G-protein coupled receptors are targets for several psychiatric medications. Given what we know about these receptors, what is the ultimate result we will see when one of them is activated in a way that would potentiate an action?
A. Intracellular activation of second messengers
B. Protein phosphorylation
C. Modification of gene expression

0 points

Question 18

  1. Upon blocking a Serotonin reuptake pump, what happens in the synaptic cleft and on the post synaptic cell membrane?
A. The result will be an increase in available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post synaptic cell to increase the number of Serotonin receptors.
B. The result will be an increase in the available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post synaptic neuron to reduce the number of Serotonin receptors.
C. The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in an increase in reuptake pumps on the presynaptic neuron.
D. The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in a decrease in reuptake pumps on the pre-synaptic neuron.

0 points

Question 19

  1. Neurotransmission is unidirectional insofar as chemical and electrical conduction is concerned within the individual neuron. Of the following descriptions, which best characterizes the order of neurotransmitter/receptor interaction that results in an electrical signal impulse and the release of another neurotransmitter for interaction in the synaptic cleft (signal conduction through a neuron)?
A. Cell body, dendrites, Axon, Axon terminals
B. Dendrites, Axon, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals
C. Dendrites, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals
D. Axon terminals, Axon, Cell body, Dendrites

0 points

Question 20

  1. A patient arrives in the ED via EMS having a grand mal seizure. The ED physician instructs the RN to give 10 milligrams of Diazepam IV X1 dose STAT. The patient’s seizure breaks within 2 minutes of the Diazepam being administered. The mechanism by which this medication causes rapid resolution of seizure activity is via which receptor type (effector pathway/receptor subtype)?
A. Slow effector pathways/G-protein coupled receptor
B. Slow effector pathway/ion channel
C. Rapid effector pathways/G-protein coupled receptor
D. Rapid effector pathway/ion channel

Question 7

0 / 0 pts

G-protein coupled receptors are examples of what type of effector pathway?

Correct Answer

 

  1. Slow effector pathways

 

You Answered

 

  1. Rapid effector pathways

 

 

  1. NMDA glutamate receptor pathways

 

 

  1. Modulated effector pathways

 

Answer D is fictitious, B represents ion channel receptors, and C is a type of rapid effector pathway.

 

Question 8

0 / 0 pts

Which neurotransmitter is considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter?

 

  1. Glycine

 

 

  1. GABA

 

Correct!

 

  1. Glutamate

 

 

  1. Serotonin

 

A and B are inhibitory, and D is involved in mood and sleep.

 

Question 9

0 / 0 pts

When dopamine (subtype 2) receptors are blocked in this pathway (system), it is evident by EPS.

 

  1. Mesocortical

 

 

  1. Tuberoinfundibular

 

Correct!

 

  1. Nigrostriatal

 

 

  1. Mesolimbic

 

D is associated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia, B is associated with lactation, A is associated with affect.

 

Question 10

0 / 0 pts

1Neurons are classified in several different ways. From the following statements, select which ones are true.

  1. The two structural classifications are projection neurons and local inter-neurons.
  2. Function classifications are made up of two subcategories: excitatory and inhibitory.
  • Histological classification includes bipolar, unipolar, and multipolar.
  1. Classifications using a combination of structural, functional, and neurotransmitter type provide the most robust and useful description.
  2. Classification by neurotransmitter type alone provides the most useful description.

 

I only

 

III only

 

I, II, and V only

 

You Answered

 

I, II, III, IV, and V

Correct Answer

 

I, III, and IV

Statement II would need to include modulatory function to be correct, and Statement V does not include structural and functional classification systems.

 

Question 11

0 / 0 pts

The human brain is subcategorized into four major structures. These structures include the cerebral cortex, brainstem, subcortical structures, and the cerebellum. Of these major categories, which one houses the area of the brain that has been found in some neuropathological studies of patients with schizophrenia to be of smaller size?

 

Cerebral cortex

 

 

Brainstem

 

Correct!

 

Subcortical structures

 

 

Cerebellum

 

The area of the brain in question is part of the thalamus, which is located in the subcortical structures. The other options are incorrect, geographically speaking.

 

Question 12

0 / 0 pts

Receptors trigger one of two effector pathways resulting in changes in neuronal activity. These changes will, ultimately, effect gene expression. Which effector pathway is characterized by ion flux through transmitter-activated channels resulting in an altered membrane potential and neuronal activity?

 

  1. Slow effector pathways

 

You Answered

 

  1. Modulated effector pathways

 

Correct Answer

 

  1. Rapid effector pathways

 

 

  1. NMDA glutamate receptor pathways

 

Answer B is fictitious, D is a type of rapid effector pathway, and A represents G-protein coupled receptors.