NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents

Sample Answer for NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents Included After Question

NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.

The agonist and antagonist are understood to be the main players in the human body and pharmacology and are considered as two basic drug groups, working in opposite directions where the agonist generates an action, while the antagonist opposes the action. In this case, the agonist may occur naturally or as a drug, that binds to the activated receptor, while the antagonist binds to receptors, leading to no activation, inhibiting the agonist from binding (Clark, 2018). Consequently, the agonist produces changes in the G-protein sites, activating and signaling another messenger to the highest possible extent in a cascade effect, which also works with the ligand-gated ion channels (Berg & Clarke, 2018). The antagonist in return inhibits the agonist action and stabilizes the site of the receptor in a rest state. The agonist spectrum is categorized into four types including agonist, partial agonist, antagonist, and inverse agonist. Thus, the agonist opens the channel to a full amount and regularity permitted by the site of binding, while the antagonist lying in the center of the spectrum retains the state of rest with the sporadic opening of the channel. The inverse agonist puts the ion channel in a closed and inactive state, where the antagonist holds the capability of blocking everything in the agonist spectrum, returning the ions to their state of resting in every instance. In psychopharmacologic treatments, the antagonist plays a significant role in controlling the transmission of neurons because it is the full activation of the signal transduction cascade, which may lead to undesirable impacts. Conferring to Ma, Raivio, Sabria, and Ortiz (2015), an atypical antipsychotic drug aripiprazole binds with a great affinity to the G-protein coupled receptors, which includes the Dopamine D2 receptors, though its effectiveness as a partial agonist is still contentious.

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NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents
NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents

In the second part of NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents, Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.

Both the G coupling proteins and the ion gated channels’ structural patterns and the linked pathways follow the same patterns between the receptors (Clark, 2018). However, the ion gated channels bind a ligand and open a channel via the membrane, permitting special ions to go through while the G couple

protein binds the ligand, activating the protein-membrane known as G-protein, which then interacts with either the ion channel or an enzyme inside the membrane (Zhao et al., 2016). In addition, the ion gated channels response occurs within milliseconds while the response of the G couple protein occurs within seconds because of the mechanism of coupling, which adds additional complexity to stimulate a response (Stahl, 2013). This means that the G couple proteins have a slower response to signals compared to the ion gated channels.

In the third part of NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents,

Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.

Epigenetics is defined as the study of how our behaviors and surroundings lead to modifications affecting how our genes work (CDC, 2020). In this case, the genes are transcribed from the DNA to the RNA proteins, where the epigenetic mechanisms activate and deactivate the genes by changing the structure of the chromatin in the nucleus cells (Mason, 2018). Thus, through epigenetics, the control of the activities of the genes is significant in maintaining the cell’s normal phenotypic activities. This has been proven by extensive researches, especially in the development of ailments like cancer and neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer’s (Stefanska & McEwan, 2015). However, new drug classes have been and are still developed to control the mechanism of epigenetics to respond to illnesses. For instance, Dogan et al., (2018), carried out research on integrated genetic and epigenetic prediction of coronary artery disease in a Framington heart study. The aim was to incorporate genetic and epigenetic facts to establish a classifier that will predict symptomatic CAD as a step towards showing the capability of using an incorporated method for risk models in the future as a substitute to current algorithms.

In the fourth part of NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents, Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

When the Psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner is prescribing medication he/she needs to understand the mechanism of action to ensure the patient is prevented or minimized from severe side effects or fatal events (Stahl, 2013). This is because the neural transmitters interact at all its subtypes of the receptor, whereas a lot of drugs tend to be more selective compared to the neurotransmitter itself for specific subtypes of the receptors (Clarks, 2018). This defines and explains the pharmacological receptor subtype, where they interact specifically. For example, when prescribing psychotropic medications the nurse needs to be more careful since a lot of drugs have been linked to prolongation of the QT interval. For instance, the use of amitriptyline is to treat depression and pain in the nerves, where the TCA prevents the channels of potassium (Stahl, 2013). As a result, this leads to hyperkalemia, which is normally linked to torsades de pointes a ventricular tachycardia, which may cause sudden cardiac death.

References

Berg, K., A., Clarke, W., P. (2018). Making Sense of Pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and Functional Selectivity, International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 21, (10): 962–977. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyy071

Clarks, C. (2018). Basic principles of pharmacology. Tulane University School of Medicine. Retrieved 2021 March, 03 from http://tmedweb.tulane.edu/pharmwiki/doku.php/basic_principles_of_pharm?do=

CDC. (2020 August, 03). What is Epigenetics? Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/disease/epigenetics.htm

Dogan, M. V., Grumbach, I. M., Michaelson, J. J., & Philibert, R. A. (2018). Integrated genetic and epigenetic prediction of coronary heart disease in the Framingham Heart Study. Plos ONE, 13 (1), 1-18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190549

Ma, G. F., Raivio, N., Sabria, J., & Ortiz, J. (February 19, 2015). Agonist and Antagonist Effects of Aripiprazole on D2-Like Receptors Controlling Rat Brain Dopamine Synthesis Depend on the Dopaminergic Tone. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol.18: 4.

Mason, L. E. (2018). Epigenetics and Drug Discovery. Retrieved 2021 February, 03 from: Technology Networks: https://www.technologynetworks.com/drug-discovery/articles/epigenetics-and-drug-discovery-306821

Stefanska, B., & McEwan, D. J. (2015). Epigenetics and pharmacology. British journal of pharmacology, Vol. 172 (11): 2701-4. doi: 10.1111/bph.13136\

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press

Zhao, J., Deng, Y., Jiang, Z., Oing, H. (2016). G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Alzheimer’s Disease; A Focus om BACE1 Related GPCRs. Frontier in Aging Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00058

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents

Title: NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents

Foundational Neuroscience

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.

An inverse agonist binds to the receptor and prevents the occurrence of the normal activity and exerts the occurrence of an opposite pharmacological action. An agonist binds to a receptor resulting in the activation of the receptor and signal transduction leading to a biological response. On the other hand, an antagonist binds to a receptor and blocks it from binding in any agonist, resulting in no biological response. A partial agonist binds and results in the activation of a receptor but only with partial efficacy that is relative to the endogenous and full agonist (Berg & Clarke, 2018).

Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.

Both the g-protein and ion gated channels are triggered by the neurotransmitters. They are, however, distinct in the sense the g-couple proteins are involved in the transmission of signals to different transductions within a cell, whereas the ion gated channels trigger the movement of certain types of ions through receptors by selectively opening and closing. They are similar in some way- both allow both the transmission of signals and ions internally. The G-couple originates from the plasma (Stahl, 2018).

Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.

Epigenetics comprise heritable genetic modifications that alter gene function and expression without changes in DNA sequence. Epigenetics explains the capability of gene expression regulation without modifying the genetic sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms occur due to alterations in either the molecules or characteristics that, in turn, affect the gene expression without changing sequences of DNA, DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs(Waghmare et al., 2020).

Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

It is clear that a lot remains to be discovered in terms of the effect of epigenetics in neuroscience. New evidence implicates the dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms in neurodegenerative disorders and diseases. This necessitates openness in terms of thinking about the effects of epigenetics when administering medications (Waghmare et al., 2020).

References

Berg, K. A., & Clarke, W. P. (2018). Making Sense of Pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and Functional Selectivity. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 962. https://doi.org/10.1093/IJNP/PYY071

Stahl, S. M. (2018). Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press

Waghmare, S. S., Bhusnure, O. G., Mali, M. R., & Mule, S. T. (2020). Epigenetics: Pharmacology and Modification Mechanisms Involved in Cardiac, Hepatic and Renal Disease. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 10(4), 260–266. https://doi.org/10.22270/JDDT.V10I4.4148

Discussion – Week 2

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1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.Medications work by various mechanisms, which are still being studied and understood today. There is thought to be a spectrum of action related to how psychopharmacologic agents produce the effects we see in patients when medications are used to treat various symptoms. The spectrum ranges from agonist, inverse agonist, and antagonist, describing the function by which medications influence receptor activity (Berg & Clarke, 2018). The term agonist represents medications that bind to a receptor and can modify receptor action, ranging to partial or full efficacies (Berg & Clarke, 2018). Inverse agonists, on the contrary, reduce the activity of a receptor, while antagonists bind to receptors to inhibit the receptor from producing a response (Berg & Clarke, 2018). Research is still advancing to understand these functions drugs cause on receptors. It helps us better understand how medication produces effects and aid in the understanding needed to make new medications with specific desired results.

2. Compare and contrast the actions of g-couple-proteins and ion gated channels.

Both G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion gated channels are cell membrane receptors that regulate the function of cells in our body to produce specific effects valuable in targeting pharmacology at a cellular level (Dolphin et al., 2020). GPCRs are activated by molecules that bind to the cell, causing activation of signals transduction pathways to cause a cascade of cellular activity, causing the seen effects (Wang et al., 2020). Ion-gated channels, in contrast, open and allow the passage of specific ions into the cell via the channel pathway when specific binding sites are activated (Dolphin et al., 2020).

3. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.

Epigenetics is the study of how an individual’s behaviors can influence a person’s genes and environmental stimuli, altering the way the gene expression occurs or when genes are active or inactive due to gene expression changes (CDC, 2020). Since these alterations can be affected by environment and behaviors, epigenetic changes can be reversed when changes to lifestyle such as diet modification, monitoring the substances ingested, and exercise occurs. In contrast, some are affected by permanent changes like age or disease and may not be reversible (CDC, 2020). Pharmacologic action can better be understood by appreciating how a gene’s current function would be altered by medication or medications to treat various conditions that may be more or less effective with some gene expression (Lockwood & Youssef, 2017).

4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

While the specific details of the complex interworking of cells may be intimidating and challenging to comprehend, the nurse practitioner must have a basic understanding of these processes to prescribe medications appropriately. It is crucial to have the knowledge to assess the patients for desired outcomes from medication administration. Likewise, making prescribing choices with knowledge of the way the medicines will cause binding actions in the cells, how the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum will affect the efficacy of the medications, and how the role of epigenetics will affect the pharmacologic activity of prescribed medications. For example, if a psychiatric nurse practitioner thought it would be beneficial to prescribe the antidepressant bupropion, it would be essential to understand a few things. Bupropion acts by inhibiting the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters and acts as an antagonist on ion channel receptors (Pandhare et al., 2017). Understanding the drug action helps the practitioner make informed prescribing choices and helps better understand effects in the body that may occur because of the administration. Also, contradictions with prescribing the medication may exist when given with certain conditions or coupled with other medicines. When inadequate treatment results occur, we have some possible explanations to explain the outcome. For instance, a study related to epigenetics reported that low DNA methylation, a gene expression change, present in some study participants was related to decreased response to bupropion treatment (Webb et al., 2020). Understanding these gene expression changes affect treatment outcomes helps explain why one patient may respond well and others not to certain medication regimes.

Berg, K. A., & Clarke, W. P. (2018). Making sense of pharmacology: Inverse agonism and functional selectivity. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 962–977. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyy071

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). What is epigenetics? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/disease/epigenetics.htm.

Dolphin, A. C., Insel, P. A., Blaschke, T. F., & Meyer, U. A. (2020). Introduction to the theme “ion channels and neuropharmacology: From the past to the future.” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 60(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-082719-110050

Lockwood, L., & Youssef, N. (2017). Systematic review of epigenetic effects of pharmacological agents for bipolar disorders. Brain Sciences, 7(12), 154. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7110154

Pandhare, A., Pappu, A. S., Wilms, H., Blanton, M. P., & Jansen, M. (2017). The antidepressant bupropion is a negative allosteric modulator of serotonin type 3A receptors. Neuropharmacology, 113, 89–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.09.021

Wang, Y., Yutuc, E., & Griffiths, W. J. (2020). Neuro‐oxysterols and neuro‐sterols as ligands to nuclear receptors, gpcrs, ligand‐gated ion channels and other protein receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 178(16), 3176–3193. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.15191

Webb, L. M., Phillips, K. E., Ho, M. C., Veldic, M., & Blacker, C. J. (2020). The relationship between DNA methylation and antidepressant medications: A systematic review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030826

NURS 6630 Explain The Agonist-to-Antagonist Spectrum of Action of Psychopharmacologic Agents Grading Rubric Guidelines DQ

Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Scholarliness

Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic decisions.

  • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry clearly stating how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions
  • Evaluates literature resources to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.
  • Uses valid, relevant, and reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion
  • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry but does not clearly state how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Evaluates information from source(s) to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
  • Uses some valid, relevant, reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion.
  • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is taken from source(s) with some interpretation/evaluation, but not enough to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
  • Little valid, relevant, or reliable outside sources are used to contribute to the threaded discussion.
  • Demonstrates little or no understanding of the topic.
  • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation/evaluation.
  • The posting uses information that is not valid, relevant, or reliable
  • No evidence of the use of scholarly inquiry to inform or change professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is not valid, relevant, or reliable
Performance Category  10 9 8 4 0
Application of Course Knowledge –

Demonstrate the ability to analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles and concepts learned in the course lesson and outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations

  • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources;
  • Applies concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life.
  • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources.
  • Applies concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Interactions with classmates are relevant to the discussion topic but do not make direct reference to lesson content
  • Posts are generally on topic but do not build knowledge by incorporating concepts and principles from the lesson.
  • Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Does not demonstrate a solid understanding of the principles and concepts presented in the lesson
  • Posts do not adequately address the question posed either by the discussion prompt or the instructor’s launch post.
  • Posts are superficial and do not reflect an understanding of the lesson content
  • Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Posts are not related to the topics provided by the discussion prompt or by the instructor; attempts by the instructor to redirect the student are ignored
  • No discussion of lesson concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life
Performance Category  5 4 3 2 0
Interactive Dialogue

Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days.

(5 points possible per graded thread)

  • Exceeds minimum post requirements
  • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts three or more times in each graded thread, over three separate days.
  • Replies to a post posed by faculty and to a peer
  • Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week.
  • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days
  • Replies to a question posed by a peer

Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week.

  • Meets expectations of 2 posts on 2 different days.
  • The main post is not made by the Wednesday deadline
  • Does not reply to a question posed by a peer or faculty
  • Has only one post for the week
  • Discussion posts contain few, if any, new ideas or applications; often are a rehashing or summary of other students’ comments
  • Does not post to the thread
  • No connections are made to the topic
  Minus 1 Point Minus 2 Point Minus 3 Point Minus 4 Point Minus 5 Point
Grammar, Syntax, APA

Note: if there are only a few errors in these criteria, please note this for the student in as an area for improvement. If the student does not make the needed corrections in upcoming weeks, then points should be deducted.

Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing.

The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition

  • 2-3 errors in APA format.
  • Written responses have 2-3 grammatical, spelling, and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is generally clear, focused, and facilitates communication.
  • 4-5 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is somewhat focused.
  • 6-7 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is slightly focused making discussion difficult to understand.
  • 8-10 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is not focused, making discussion difficult to understand.
  • Post contains greater than 10 errors in APA format.
  • Written responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style does not facilitate communication.
  • The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor
0 points lost       -5 points lost
Total Participation Requirements

per discussion thread

The student answers the threaded discussion question or topic on one day and posts a second response on another day. The student does not meet the minimum requirement of two postings on two different days
Early Participation Requirement

per discussion thread

The student must provide a substantive answer to the graded discussion question(s) or topic(s), posted by the course instructor (not a response to a peer), by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT of each week. The student does not meet the requirement of a substantive response to the stated question or topic by Wednesday at 11:59 pm MT.

As we begin this session, I would like to take this opportunity to clarify my expectations for this course:

Please note that GCU Online weeks run from Thursday (Day 1) through Wednesday (Day 7).

 

Course Room Etiquette:

  • It is my expectation that all learners will respect the thoughts and ideas presented in the discussions.
  • All postings should be presented in a respectful, professional manner. Remember – different points of view add richness and depth to the course!

 

Office Hours:

  • My office hours vary so feel free to shoot me an email at [email protected] or my office phone is 602.639.6517 and I will get back to you within one business day or as soon as possible.
  • Phone appointments can be scheduled as well. Send me an email and the best time to call you, along with your phone number to make an appointment.
  • I welcome all inquiries and questions as we spend this term together. My preference is that everyone utilizes the Questions to Instructor forum. In the event your question is of a personal nature, please feel free to post in the Individual Questions for Instructor forumI will respond to all posts or emails within 24 or sooner.

 

Late Policy and Grading Policy

Discussion questions:

  • I do not mark off for late DQ’s.
  • I would rather you take the time to read the materials and respond to the DQ’s in a scholarly way, demonstrating your understanding of the materials.
  • I will not accept any DQ submissions after day 7, 11:59 PM (AZ Time) of the week.
  • Individual written assignments – due by 11:59 PM AZ Time Zone on the due dates indicated for each class deliverable.

Assignments:

  • Assignments turned in after their specified due dates are subject to a late penalty of -10%, each day late, of the available credit. Please refer to the student academic handbook and GCU policy.
  • Any activity or assignment submitted after the due date will be subject to GCU’s late policy
  • Extenuating circumstances may justify exceptions, which are at my sole discretion. If an extenuating circumstance should arise, please contact me privately as soon as possible.
  • No assignments can be accepted for grading after midnight on the final day of class.
  • All assignments will be graded in accordance with the Assignment Grading Rubrics

Participation

  • Participation in each week’s Discussion Board forum accounts for a large percentage of your final grade in this course.
  • Please review the Course Syllabus for a comprehensive overview of course deliverables and the value associated with each.
  • It is my expectation that each of you will substantially contribute to the course discussion forums and respond to the posts of at least three other learners.
  • substantive post should be at least 200 words. Responses such as “great posts” or “I agree” do notmeet the active engagement expectation.
  • Please feel free to draw on personal examples as you develop your responses to the Discussion Questions but you do need to demonstrate your understanding of the materials.
  • I do expect outside sources as well as class materials to formulate your post.
  • APA format is not necessary for DQ responses, but I do expect a proper citation for references.
  • Please use peer-related journals found through the GCU library and/or class materials to formulate your answers. Do not try to “Google” DQ’s as I am looking for class materials and examples from the weekly materials.
  • will not accept responses that are from Wikipedia, Business com, or other popular business websites. You will not receive credit for generic web searches – this does not demonstrate graduate-level research.
  • Stay away from the use of personal pronouns when writing.As a graduate student, you are expected to write based on research and gathering of facts. Demonstrating your understanding of the materials is what you will be graded on. You will be marked down for lack of evidence to support your ideas.

Plagiarism

  • Plagiarism is the act of claiming credit for another’s work, accomplishments, or ideas without appropriate acknowledgment of the source of the information by including in-text citations and references.
  • This course requires the utilization of APA format for all course deliverables as noted in the course syllabus.
  • Whether this happens deliberately or inadvertently, whenever plagiarism has occurred, you have committed a Code of Conduct violation.
  • Please review your LopesWrite report prior to final submission.
  • Every act of plagiarism, no matter the severity, must be reported to the GCU administration (this includes your DQ’s, posts to your peers, and your papers).

Plagiarism includes:

  • Representing the ideas, expressions, or materials of another without due credit.
  • Paraphrasing or condensing ideas from another person’s work without proper citation and referencing.
  • Failing to document direct quotations without proper citation and referencing.
  • Depending upon the amount, severity, and frequency of the plagiarism that is committed, students may receive in-class penalties that range from coaching (for a minor omission), -20% grade penalties for resubmission, or zero credit for a specific assignment. University-level penalties may also occur, including suspension or even expulsion from the University.
  • If you are at all uncertain about what constitutes plagiarism, you should review the resources available in the Student Success Center. Also, please review the University’s policies about plagiarism which are covered in more detail in the GCU Catalog and the Student Handbook.
  • We will be utilizing the GCU APA Style Guide 7th edition located in the Student Success Center > The Writing Center for all course deliverables.

LopesWrite

  • All course assignments must be uploaded to the specific Module Assignment Drop Box, and also submitted to LopesWrite every week.
  • Please ensure that your assignment is uploaded to both locations under the Assignments DropBox. Detailed instructions for using LopesWrite are located in the Student Success Center.

Assignment Submissions

  • Please note that Microsoft Office is the software requirement at GCU.
  • I can open Word files or any file that is saved with a .rtf (Rich Text Format) extension. I am unable to open .wps files.
  • If you are using a “.wps” word processor, please save your files using the .rtf extension that is available from the drop-down box before uploading your files to the Assignment Drop Box.

Grade of Incomplete

  • The final grade of Incomplete is granted at the discretion of the instructor; however, students must meet certain specific criteria before this grade accommodation is even possible to consider.
  • The grade of Incomplete is reserved for times when students experience a serious extenuating circumstance or a crisis during the last week of class which prevents the completion of course requirements before the close of the grading period. Students also must pass the course at the time the request is made.
  • Please contact me personally if you are having difficulties in meeting course requirements or class deadlines during our time together. In addition, if you are experiencing personal challenges or difficulties, it is best to contact the Academic Counselor so that you can discuss the options that might be available to you, as well as each option’s academic and financial repercussions.

Grade Disputes

  • If you have any questions about a grade you have earned on an individual assignment or activity, please get in touch with mepersonally for further clarification.
  • While I have made every attempt to grade you fairly, on occasion a misunderstanding may occur, so please allow me the opportunity to learn your perspective if you believe this has occurred. Together, we should be able to resolve grading issues on individual assignments.
  • However, after we have discussed individual assignments’ point scores, if you still believe that the final grade you have earned at the end of the course is not commensurate with the quality of work you produced for this class, there is a formal Grade Grievance procedurewhich is outlined in the GCU Catalog and Student Handbook.