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NURS 6521 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

NURS 6521 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). There are different types of diabetes and they are managed in different ways. Some require the use of insulin while others can be prevented with change in diet and exercise, while others may only require an oral agent. Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune-mediated disease where your pancreas doesn’t make insulin or makes very little (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). There is a destruction of pancreatic beta cells which are responsible for insulin synthesis and the release of insulin into the blood stream (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).  Insulin is a hormone that helps sugar enter he body so it can be used for energy. Without insulin the blood sugar can’t get into the cells and builds up in the bloodstream Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults but can develop and any age (Type 1 diabetes, 2021). Type 1 diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, 2021).

In type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent of the different forms of diabetes. This is where the cells in your body do not respond correctly to insulin which causes insulin resistance (Type 2 diabetes, 2019).  This causes your pancreas to make more insulin to get the cells to respond (Type 2 diabetes, 2019).   Eventually it gets to a  point where your pancreas can not produce enough to do its job and the blood sugar rises causing type 2 diabetes (Type 2 diabetes, 2019).  There are three causes for insulin resistance: reduced binding of insulin to its receptors, reduced receptor numbers, and reduced receptor responsiveness (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Hyperglycemia causes diminished pancreatic beta cell function and insulin production and secretion decline due to the beta cells working to hard (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).

Gestational Diabetes is found in women that did not have diabetes before pregnancy but develops it while pregnant (Gestational diabetes, 2020).  One reason is that the placenta produces hormones that antagonize insulin’s actions (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Another is the production of cortisol that promotes hyperglycemia (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Lastly, hyperglycemia in the mother will stimulate excessive secretion of insulin in the fetus (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Gestational diabetes subsides rapidly after delivery (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).

In the inpatient setting type 2 diabetes is found in the majority of patients seen on a medical surgical floor. This is where I want to focus when discussing medications. The medication that I would like to discuss is the long acting insulins. There are 2 specifically, Lantus and Levemir. I have worked at two different hospitals and one only gave Lantus and the other only Levemir. So it is important for myself to better understand the difference between the two.

 

Lantus is a modified human insulin that has a prolonged duration of action (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). The authors discuss it can be used to treat both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. They also mention that dosing can be given at any time of the day but should be given at the same time every day. When injected, if forms microprecipitates that slowly dissolve which releases insulin glargine in small amounts over an extended time (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). The authors mention that Lantus does not have a peak time and achieves blood levels that are relatively steady.

Levemir is a human insulin with a slow onset and dose-dependent duration of action (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). When given low doses the effects can last up to 12 hours, when given higher doses the effects can last up to 24 hours (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Levemir peaks at 12-24 hours (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).

Both of these long acting insulins come in vial or pen format. They are both given subcutaneously. Most people take these medications at night time around/after dinner time.

When taking insulin it is important to monitor your blood glucose levels. Since you are not eating while you sleep, some people can wake up and be hypoglycemic which is when your blood sugar is less than 70mg/dL (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021).  It is important that if your glucose levels are low that you drink a cup of juice, take glucose tablets, eat sugar cubes, etc. If levels are too low Intravenous glucose might be given.

 

 

(2019). Type 2 diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Retrieved 20

June 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/type2.html

(2020). Gestational diabetes and pregnancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC.

Retrieved 20 June 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/diabetes-gestational.html

(2021). What is type 1 diabetes? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Retrieved 20

June 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/what-is-type-1-diabetes.html

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice

nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

The endocrine system is composed of eight major glands that regulate growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and mood (National Institutes of Health). Hypothyroidism, diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease are just a few of the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorders. Not surprisingly, treating one endocrine disorder may have an effect on the functioning of other body systems. As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may have endocrine disorders requires a thorough understanding of the endocrine system’s structure and function. Additionally, a thorough understanding of patient factors and behaviors will aid in the development of the most effective drug therapy plans for your patients. Several of the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorders include the following:

This week, you’ll learn about the different types of diabetes and the effects of diabetes medications on patients. Additionally, you evaluate alternative diabetes management strategies such as alternative drug treatments and patient education.

Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Differentiate types of diabetes
  • Evaluate the impact of diabetes drugs on patients
  • Evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)
  • Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Speed Pharmacology. (2017). Drugs for Diabetes (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWDQyaKVols&t=79s
Note:
This media program is approximately 17 minutes.


Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Photo Credit: [Mark Hatfield]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

To Prepare
  • Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
  • Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
  • Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.
By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 5

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 5 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 5

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 5 Discussion


What’s Coming Up in Module 5?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Looking Ahead: Midterm Exam

Please review the Resources and content in the previous modules in preparation for your Midterm Exam in Module 5.

Next Week

Gestational Diabetes Doud.S Main post

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Main Post Doud.S

Diabetes Management

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes is commonly thought to be related to eating too many sweets and to be managed by avoiding sweets, but since the condition

is an issue of carbohydrate metabolism it is much more involved than managing sugary food intake. Each type of diabetes has the sign of sustained hyperglycemia without treatment, but the process and treatment of Type 1, Type 2, gestational and other causes of diabetes has some variance and particular considerations for treatment (Burchum, 2017). According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2019), a basic breakdown of differences are as follows

NURS 6521 Discussion Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

NURS 6521 Discussion Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

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  • Type 1 diabetes is characterized by beta cell destruction in an autoimmune response resulting in the body’s ability to produce little to no insulin. (Known previously as juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a decrease in the beta cell secretion of insulin and increased resistance to insulin.
  • Gestational diabetes is characterized by second and third trimester diagnosis of diabetes that was not apparent prior to pregnancy and resolves with birth.
  • Other types of diabetes are due to a destructive process interfering with insulin production or processing and causing sustained hyperglycemia dependent on factors of the specific disease.

One Drug Used specific to one type of Diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellites (GDM) develops and resolves with pregnancy. According to McIntyre et al. (2019) GDM is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and increases risk factors for both mother and child for multiple long-term health conditions. While diet modification and increased physical activity are the ideal treatment for GDM, one drug used to manage the immediate pregnancy outcomes usually includes insulin (McIntyre et al., 2019).

Insulin does not cross the placenta, which makes it safe for the fetus while providing the glycemic control necessary for the mother, but can be concerning to the mother due to the increased burden of pregnancy related to the discomfort from needles, costs of treatment and episodes of hypoglycemia (McIntyre et al., 2019). Human insulin is given in multiple daily doses, according to blood glucose monitoring results, drawn up in a syringe and administered subcutaneously (ADA, 2019).   NURS 6521 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

Dietary considerations related to treatment

Pharmacological treatment is initiated to manage GDM if hyperglycemia persists for more than one to two weeks after lifestyle interventions are initiated (McIntyre et al., 2019). Many patients are able to manage GDM with diet and exercise to avoid the necessity of pharmacological interventions and the related complications of poorly managed GDM (McIntyre et al., 2019). According to the ADA (2019) Glucose self-monitoring throughout day timed around meal with consideration to carbohydrate intake and activity is an aspect of pharmacological or diet-controlled management of GDM. Avoiding excessive weight gain is one aspect of lifestyle focused interventions.

Short term affects

The intensity of pharmacological treatment is determined by monitoring and measurement of the rate of fetal growth and is intended to prevent the short-term complications of GDM of fetal overgrowth and pregnancy complications (McIntyre et al., 2019). Complications of pregnancy reported by Johns et al. (2018) can include gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, Caesarean section, and shoulder dystocia creating an urgent need for diabetic management.

Long term affects

Johns et. Al (2018) reports a rate seven times higher for women that experienced GDM to develop Type 2 diabetes. Both maternal and offspring long term complications include development of Type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease (McIntyre et al., 2019)

Conclusion

Glycemic control is a cornerstone goal of diabetes management, but one type of diabetes may respond to a combination of treatment differently than another type of diabetes. Diabetes is a complex condition that is essential for the nurse practitioner to understand thoroughly and gain expertise in managing treatment and patient education. NURS 6521 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

References

American Diabetes Association. (2019). 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes care, 42(Supplement 1), S13-S28. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-S002

Burchum, L.R. J. (2017). Lehne’s Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Providers – E-Book. [MBS Direct]. Retrieved from https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780323447799/

Johns, E. C., Denison, F. C., Norman, J. E., & Reynolds, R. M. (2018). Gestational diabetes mellitus: mechanisms, treatment, and complications. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 29(11), 743-754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2018.09.004

McIntyre, H. D., Catalano, P., Zhang, C., Desoye, G., Mathiesen, E. R., & Damm, P. (2019). Gestational diabetes mellitus (primer). Nature Reviews: Disease Primers,https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0098-8

Repost related to formatting RE: Gestational Diabetes Doud.S Main post

Attempting to repost due to the formatting issue. Does anyone have tips how to post from the web application of word and keep formatting?

Diabetes Management 

Types of Diabetes 

Diabetes is commonly thought to be related to eating too many sweets and to be managed by avoiding sweets, but since the condition is an issue of carbohydrate metabolism it is much more involved than managing sugary food intake. Each type of diabetes has the sign of sustained hyperglycemia without treatment, but the process and treatment of Type 1, Type 2, gestational and other causes of diabetes has some variance and particular considerations for treatment (Burchum, 2017). According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2019), a basic breakdown of differences are as follows: 

  • Type 1 diabetes is characterized by beta cell destruction in an autoimmune response resulting in the body’s ability to produce little to no insulin. (Known previously as juvenile diabetes.) 
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a decrease in the beta cell secretion of insulin and increased resistance to insulin. 
  • Gestational diabetes is characterized by second and third trimester diagnosis of diabetes that was not apparent prior to pregnancy and resolves with birth.  
  • Other types of diabetes are due to a destructive process interfering with insulin production or processing and causing sustained hyperglycemia dependent on factors of the specific disease. 

One Drug Used specific to one type of Diabetes 

Gestational diabetes mellites (GDM) develops and resolves with pregnancy. According to McIntyre et al. (2019) GDM is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and increases risk factors for both mother and child for multiple long-term health conditions. While diet modification and increased physical activity are the ideal treatment for GDM, one drug used to manage the immediate pregnancy outcomes usually includes insulin (McIntyre et al., 2019). 

Insulin does not cross the placenta, which makes it safe for the fetus while providing the glycemic control necessary for the mother, but can be concerning to the mother due to the increased burden of pregnancy related to the discomfort from needles, costs of treatment and episodes of hypoglycemia (McIntyre et al., 2019). Human insulin is given in multiple daily doses, according to blood glucose monitoring results, drawn up in a syringe and administered subcutaneously (ADA, 2019).  

Dietary considerations related to treatment 

Pharmacological treatment is initiated to manage GDM if hyperglycemia persists for more than one to two weeks after lifestyle interventions are initiated (McIntyre et al., 2019). Many patients are able to manage GDM with diet and exercise to avoid the necessity of pharmacological interventions and the related complications of poorly managed GDM (McIntyre et al., 2019). According to the ADA (2019) Glucose self-monitoring throughout day timed around meal with consideration to carbohydrate intake and activity is an aspect of pharmacological or diet-controlled management of GDM. Avoiding excessive weight gain is one aspect of lifestyle focused interventions.  

Short term affects 

The intensity of pharmacological treatment is determined by monitoring and measurement of the rate of fetal growth and is intended to prevent the short-term complications of GDM of fetal overgrowth and pregnancy complications (McIntyre et al., 2019). Complications of pregnancy reported by Johns et al. (2018) can include gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, Caesarean section, and shoulder dystocia creating an urgent need for diabetic management. 

Long term affects 

Johns et. Al (2018) reports a rate seven times higher for women that experienced GDM to develop Type 2 diabetes. Both maternal and offspring long term complications include development of Type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease (McIntyre et al., 2019) 

Conclusion 

Glycemic control is a cornerstone goal of diabetes management, but one type of diabetes may respond to a combination of treatment differently than another type of diabetes. Diabetes is a complex condition that is essential for the nurse practitioner to understand thoroughly and gain expertise in managing treatment and patient education. 

References 

American Diabetes Association. (2019). 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes care42(Supplement 1), S13-S28. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-S002 

Burchum, L.R. J. (2017). Lehne’s Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Providers – E-Book. [MBS Direct]. Retrieved from https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780323447799/ 

Johns, E. C., Denison, F. C., Norman, J. E., & Reynolds, R. M. (2018). Gestational diabetes mellitus: mechanisms, treatment, and complications. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism29(11), 743-754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2018.09.004 

McIntyre, H. D., Catalano, P., Zhang, C., Desoye, G., Mathiesen, E. R., & Damm, P. (2019). Gestational diabetes mellitus (primer). Nature Reviews: Disease Primers. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0098-8 

Week 5 discussion

Type 1 diabetes, previously known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin. The reason is the body’s own immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin- producing (islets of Langerhans) beta cells in the pancreas.  These symptoms can go on for months or years before any symptoms appear. Type 1 diabetics will need to take insulin for the rest of their lives.

Type 2 diabetes previously known as adult/late onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In this disease process, the pancreas still makes insulin, but the cells cannot use insulin efficiently; therefore, glucose builds up in the blood. This is referred to as insulin resistance. The pancreas works increasingly hard to release enough insulin to overcome the body’s resistance and keep blood sugar levels down. Over time, the pancreas’ ability to release insulin begins to decrease, which leads to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is developed during pregnancy. It is typically seen in pregnant women who did not have diabetes before getting pregnant. Between 2% to 10% of pregnancies in the U.S. are affected by gestational diabetes every year. Testing is completed between 24 and 28 weeks pregnant.

Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of all diabetes cases. The onset of age is usually childhood and adolescence, without family history. The etiology is an autoimmune process which then destroys the pancreatic beta cells (Copenhave, 2017). The symptoms are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss. Daily dosing of insulin is the cornerstone to the management of type 1 diabetes. Insulin can be delivered via syringes or pens, inhaled, pumps or new artificial pancreas systems. Though the administration method, frequency and type of insulin dosage vary on a case-by-case basis, injections may be needed multiple times per day. In addition to managing diabetes, there is also a strong recommendation to manage hypertension and dyslipidemia. In doing so, it can also manage the diabetes.

Recommendations from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for youth with type 1 diabetes incorporate specific guidelines for glycemic control, and management of lipids, blood pressure and weight to support healthful growth and development and prevent chronic complications. The ADA recommendations for nutrition therapy for diabetes emphasize predominantly plant-based forms of carbohydrate (CHO) from fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes along with low fat milk to minimize saturated fat (SFA) and added sugar (Summer, 2019). The short-term impact of diabetes is the signs and symptoms such as polyuria, polydipsia, ketonuria and weight loss. Over time, hyperglycemia can lead to heart disease, renal failure, blindness, neuropathy, amputations, impotence, and stroke. Some complications of insulin is that it can cause hypoglycemia; blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL. A major cause of insulin excess is overdose. Imbalance between insulin levels and insulin needs can also result from reduced intake of food, vomiting and diarrhea (which reduce absorption of nutrients), alcohol consumption (which promotes hypoglycemia), and childbirth (which reduces insulin requirements) ( Rosenthal,  2021, pg. 406).

Copenhaver, M., & Hoffman, R. P. (2017). Type 1 diabetes: where are we in 2017?. Translational pediatrics6(4), 359–364. https://doi.org/10.21037/tp.2017.09.09

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice

nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Summer, S. S., Couch, S. C., Shah, A. S., McNeill, M. P., & Peairs, A. D. (2019). Evaluating a dietary pattern in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: The dash-d approach. Diabetes management (London, England)9(1), 28–38.

Week 5 discussion Response 1

Another factor of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is faulty or impaired glucagon production.  Glucagon is a peptide hormone secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in response to lower blood glucose levels.  It acts by increasing hepatic glucose production, and affects overall energy homeostasis in times of limited energy supply by stimulating lipid and protein catabolism (Rix et al., 2019).  One theory suggest that because T1D does not excrete endogenous insulin, then glucagon is not stimulated to respond in times of hypoglycemia.  Thus, there can be large variance in T1D blood sugar levels and hypoglycemic events can be severe with rapid onset.  Traditionally, patients with T1D, especially children and adolescents, are prescribed an emergency kit of Glucagon.  Glucagon is a powdered substance requiring reconstitution with sterile water and is an intramuscular injection.  However, there is currently an intranasal application under investigation for the emergency treatment of hypoglycemia. Of the 24 intramuscular participants and 58 of the 59 intranasal doses produced a ≥25 mg/dL rise in glucose within 20 min of dosing. Times to peak plasma glucose and glucagon levels were similar with both routes of administration. Transient nausea, the most common side effect of Glucagon, occurred in 67% of intramuscular sessions versus 42% of intranasal sessions (P = 0.05) (Sherr et al., 2016, p. 556).   The benefit of intranasal dosing could be increased response time and decreased pain to the receiver, because the injection must be mixed prior to administration.

References

Rix, I., Nexøe-Larsen, C., Bergmann, N., Lund, A., & Knop, F. (2019, July 16). Glucagon physiology. Medtext.com. Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279127/

Sherr, J. L., Ruedy, K. J., Foster, N. C., Piché, C. A., Dulude, H., Rickels, M. R., Tamborlane, W., Bethin, K., DiMeglio, L. A., Fox, L. A., Wadwa, P., Schatz, D., Nathan, B., Marcovina, S. M., Rampakakis, E., Meng, L., & Beck, R. (2016). Glucagon nasal powder: a promising alternative to intramuscular glucagon in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 39(4), 555–562. Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-1606

RE: Week 5 discussion

Thank you Gregorie for a concise and informative post on classification and the management of diabetes mellitus. I concur with you that IDDM culminates from the partial or complete failure by the beta cells Islets of Langerhans to produce insulin (McCance & Huether, 2019). Similarly, NIDDM results from insulin resistance and later a combination of insulin resistance and inadequacies in insulin production (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2017). As described in your discussion, the gestational diabetes as diabetes which occurs during pregnancy and subsides significantly after delivery (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2017). However, during the search of evidence on juvenile diabetes I found out that even though IDDM accounts for about 90% of the juvenile diabetes cases (McCance & Huether, 2019). As such, I believe the term juvenile diabetes should be reserved for all types of diabetes mellitus amongst children and young adults below the legal age. I also concur with your exploration on the use of insulin in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus including the recommendations by the America Diabetes Association, as well as, the short-term and long-term effects of IDDM to the patients. It is worth noting that the severity of the effects of diabetes are directly proportionate to exposure of the body tissues to hyperglycemia (McCance & Huether, 2019). As such sustaining the blood sugar levels within the normal range alleviates or reduce the burden of diabetes. NURS 6521 Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Walden

References

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th Ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Mosby/Elsevier. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Rosenthal, L., & Burchum, J. (2017). Lehne’s Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurses and Physician Assistants-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Rubric Detail

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Name: NURS_6521_Week5_Discussion_Rubric
Grid View
List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
40 (40%) – 44 (44%)
Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.
35 (35%) – 39 (39%)
Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.
0 (0%) – 34 (34%)
Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Post: Timeliness
10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by day 3
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post by day 3
First Response
17 (17%) – 18 (18%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. .

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
15 (15%) – 16 (16%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. .

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
13 (13%) – 14 (14%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 12 (12%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Second Response
16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Responds fully to questions posed by faculty.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. .

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.
12 (12%) – 13 (13%)
Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. .

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.
0 (0%) – 11 (11%)
Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.
Participation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6521_Week5_Discussion_Rubric

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