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Sample Answer for NURS 6521 Alzheimer’s Disease 76-year-old Iranian Male Essay Included After Question
For your Assignment, your Instructor will assign you one of the decision tree interactive media pieces provided in the Resources. As you examine the patient case studies in this module’s Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting symptoms of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.
Photo Credit: KATERYNA KON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Science Photo Library / Getty Images
- Review the interactive media piece assigned by your Instructor.
- Reflect on the patient’s symptoms and aspects of the disorder presented in the interactive media piece.
- Consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with the symptoms of the patient case study you were assigned.
- You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this patient. Reflect on potential co-morbid physical as well as patient factors that might impact the patient’s diagnosis and treatment.
By Day 7 of Week 8
Write a 1- to 2-page summary paper that addresses the following:
- Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented.
- Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
- What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
- Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decision in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples.
You will submit this Assignment in Week 8.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
- Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
- Click the Week 8 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
- Click the Week 8 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
- Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
- If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
- Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
To access your rubric:
Week 8 Assignment Rubric
Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity
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Submit your Week 8 Assignment draft and review the originality report.
Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8
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Week 8 Assignment
A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6521 Alzheimer’s Disease 76-year-old Iranian Male Essay
Title: NURS 6521 Alzheimer’s Disease 76-year-old Iranian Male Essay
Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian male who is brought to your office by his eldest son for “strange behavior.” Mr. Akkad was seen by his family physician who ruled out any organic basis for Mr. Akkad’s behavior. All laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests (including CT-scan of the head) were normal.
According to his son, he has been demonstrating some strange thoughts and behaviors for the past two years, but things seem to be getting worse. Per the client’s son, the family noticed that Mr. Akkad’s personality began to change a few years ago. He began to lose interest in religious activities with the family and became more “critical” of everyone. They also noticed that things he used to take seriously had become a source of “amusement” and “ridicule.”
Over the course of the past two years, the family has noticed that Mr. Akkad has been forgetting things. His son also reports that sometimes he has difficult “finding the right words” in a conversation and then will shift to an entirely different line of conversation.
During the clinical interview, Mr. Akkad is pleasant, cooperative and seems to enjoy speaking with you. You notice some confabulation during various aspects of memory testing, so you perform a Mini-Mental State Exam. Mr. Akkad scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall. The score suggests moderate dementia.
MENTAL STATUS EXAM
Mr. Akkad is 76 year old Iranian male who is cooperative with today’s clinical interview. His eye contact is poor. Speech is clear, coherent, but tangential at times. He makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tic. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect however is restricted. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations. No delusional or paranoid thought processes noted. He is alert and oriented to person, partially oriented to place, but is disoriented to time and event [he reports that he thought he was coming to lunch but “wound up here”- referring to your office, at which point he begins to laugh]. Insight and judgment are impaired. Impulse control is also impaired as evidenced by Mr. Akkad’s standing up during the clinical interview and walking towards the door. When you asked where he was going, he stated that he did not know. Mr. Akkad denies suicidal or homicidal ideation.
A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NURS 6521 Alzheimer’s Disease 76-year-old Iranian Male Essay
Title: NURS 6521 Alzheimer’s Disease 76-year-old Iranian Male Essay
Alzheimer’s is one of the most common progressive neurological disorders among the elderly caused by dementia. Patients will present with mild to moderate cognitive signs and symptoms at the onset of the disorder, which will progress to severe memory loss with time, as they grow much older (Li et al., 2019). However, several treatment options have been proven to be effective in the management of Alzheimer’s disorder among the elderly. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate the decision process in selecting the most effective drug, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors, for treating an elderly patient diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.
Patient Case Study Summary
The assigned case study demonstrates a 76-year-old Iranian male with symptoms of Alzheimer’s disorder. The patient displays strange behavior upon arrival at the clinic reporting symptoms of memory loss, forgetfulness, confusion, and diminished interest in religious activities for the last 2 years. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic patient factors which contributed to the selection of drugs for this patient include his advanced age, male gender, Iranian race, and presenting symptoms in addition to the mini-mental exam results of moderate dementia. the patient’s diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disorder will also be considered.
Based on the patient history and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors mentioned above, the most appropriate intervention is to initiate Exelon 1.5mg twice daily. Exelon (rivastigmine) is an FFDA-approved drug for treating mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (Fish et al., 2019). Previous studies support great effectiveness, and safety profile for use of the drug among the elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer’s (Khoury et al., 2018). The second decision was to increase the dose of Exelon to 4.5 mg twice daily as recommended by most clinical practice guidelines for patients who have displayed great tolerance but with minimal effectiveness. The last decision was to increase the dose further to 6mg twice daily, to promote optimal effectiveness as the patient still displayed limited remission of symptoms with the previous intervention.
Studies show that Exelon when administered appropriately takes between 8 to 12 weeks to completely manage symptoms of Alzheimer’s among elderly patients. As such, with the initial intervention of 1.5mg Exelon twice daily, the patient was expected to display approximately 50% remission of symptoms (Nguyen et al., 2021). The dose was however to be titrated to obtain the optimum outcome, not exceeding 6mg twice daily. The same results were expected with the second and third interventions with no side effects expected.
Difference Between Expected Outcome and Actual Outcome
Just like expected, the patient displayed a minimal reduction of symptoms of Alzheimer’s with no side effects reported with the first intervention. After the dose was increased in the second intervention, the patient reported further remission of symptoms, but at a slow rate, hence increasing the dose in the last intervention, which led to optimal remission of Alzheimer’s symptoms just as expected (Huang et al., 2020).
Alzheimer’s is a common disorder among the elderly compromising their quality of life and well-being. For the patient in the provided case study, it was necessary to administer Exelon at a starting dose of 1.5 mg which was titrated to 4.5mg then 6.5mg twice daily. The patient displayed great effectiveness with this medication in the management of his Alzheimer’s symptoms, with no side effects reported.
Fish, P. V., Steadman, D., Bayle, E. D., & Whiting, P. (2019). New approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 29(2), 125-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.11.034
Huang, L. K., Chao, S. P., & Hu, C. J. (2020). Clinical trials of new drugs for Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of biomedical science, 27(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0609-7
Khoury, R., Rajamanickam, J., & Grossberg, G. T. (2018). An update on the safety of current therapies for Alzheimer’s disease: focus on rivastigmine. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 9(3), 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098617750555
Li, D. D., Zhang, Y. H., Zhang, W., & Zhao, P. (2019). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in neuroscience, 13, 472. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00472
Nguyen, K., Hoffman, H., Chakkamparambil, B., & Grossberg, G. T. (2021). Evaluation of rivastigmine in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurodegenerative Disease Management, 11(1), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.2217/nmt-2020-0052