NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN

Sample Answer for NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN Included After Question

Many experts predict that genetic testing for disease susceptibility is well on its way to becoming a routine part of clinical care. Yet many of the genetic tests currently being developed are, in the words of the World Health Organization (WHO), of “questionable prognostic value.

NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN
NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN

—Leslie Pray, PhD

Obesity remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the United States. As a leading cause of United States mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, the high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the United States healthcare system (Obesity Society, 2016).

More than one-third (39.8%) of U.S. adults have obesity (CDC, 2018). The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight (CDC, 2018).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents considered obese (CDC, 2018). When seeking insights about a patient’s overall health and nutritional state, body measurements can provide a valuable perspective. This is particularly important with pediatric patients.

Measurements such as height and weight can provide clues to potential health problems and help predict how children will respond to illness. Nurses need to be proficient at using assessment tools, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts, in order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being sensitive to other factors that may affect these measures. Body Mass Index is also used as a predictor for measurement of adult weight and health.

Assessments are constantly being conducted on patients, but they may not provide useful information. In order to ensure that health assessments provide relevant data, nurses should familiarize themselves with test-specific factors that may affect the validity, reliability, and value of these tools.

This week, you will explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients’ conditions. You will examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. You will also examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests
  • Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments
  • Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment
  • Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories

Week 3: Assignment 1 – Case Study Assignment: Assessment of Nutrition in Children

When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

For this Assignment, you will  consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

RESOURCES

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

TO PREPARE

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
  • Based on the risks you might identify consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
  • Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.

THE ASSIGNMENT

Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment: Child Health Case:

Include the following:

  • An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
  • Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
  • Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
  • Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
  • Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

Case 1:     Acklin, Alvarez, Amama, Basco, Black, Bolivard, Brown & Colyer

4-year-old overweight female with normal weight parents who are living with elderly grandparents in their home

Case 2:    Curry, Fobanjong, Garcia, Green, Hutcheson, Iskander, Jean & Johnson

10-year-old severely underweight male in 3rd grade who lives with her normal weight mom on the weekends and her underweight father during the week.

Case 3: Jordan, Moore, Parfait, Pina, Queija, Raymond & Russell

5-year-old severely underweight male who lives with his normal weight adopted mother and father.

LEARNING RESOURCES

  •   Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2023). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

o   Chapter 3, “Examination Techniques and Equipment”
This chapter explains the physical examination techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. This chapter also explores special issues and equipment relevant to the physical exam process.

o   Chapter 8, “Growth and Nutrition”
In this chapter, the authors explain examinations for growth, gestational age, and pubertal development. The authors also differentiate growth among the organ systems.

  •   Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Student checklist: Health history guide Download Student checklist: Health history guide. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Credit Line:  Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  •  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, April 9). Childhood overweight & obesityhttp://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/
    This website provides information about overweight and obese children. Additionally, the website provides basic facts about obesity and strategies to counteracting obesity.
  •   Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
    Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.

o   Chapter 1, “Clinical Reasoning, Evidence-Based Practice, and Symptom Analysis
This chapter introduces the diagnostic process, which includes performing an analysis of the symptoms and then formulating and testing a hypothesis. The authors discuss how becoming an expert clinician takes time and practice in developing clinical judgment.

  •   Nyante, S. J., Benefield, T. S., Kuzmiak, C. M., Earnhardt, K., Pritchard, M., & Henderson, L. M. (2021). Population‐level impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on breast cancer screening and diagnostic procedures. Cancer, 127(12), 2111–2121. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33460
  •   Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2011). History subjective data checklist. In Mosby’s guide to physical examination (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
    Credit Line: Mosby’s Guide to Physical Examination, 7th Edition by Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  •   Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

o   Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam” (Previously read in Week 1)

o   Chapter 5, “Pediatric Preventative Care Visits” (pp. 91 101)

Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources

Use the following resources to guide you through your Shadow Health orientation as well as other support resources:

Required Media

Taking a Health History
How do nurses gather information and assess a patient’s health? Consider the importance of conducting an in-depth health assessment interview and the strategies you might use as you watch. (16m)

Assessment Tool, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurements, and Nutrition in Adults and Children – Week 3 (11m)

Optional Resources

  •   LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2020). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical.

o   Chapter 3, “The Screening Physical Examination”

o   Chapter 17, “Principles of Diagnostic Testing”

o   Chapter 18, “Common Laboratory Tests”

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN

Title: NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN

A seven-year-old Hispanic female who is in second grade is brought in severely underweight. On physical examination, she has a weak pulse, bilateral pedal edema, and is apathetic. However, she has an overweight mother who she lives with during the week and an average-weight father who she lives with during weekends. The purpose of this paper is to address the child’s health issues and risks and create strategies to make the parents more proactive with their child’s health.

Health Issues and Risks That Are Relevant to the Child

Undernutrition directly causes micronutrient deficiencies such as iron, vitamins A and D, folate, thiamine, and zinc. As a result, the child has an increased risk of developing nutritional anemia, night blindness, rickets, poor growth, and poor muscle activity, deteriorating their quality of life (Dipasquale et al., 2020). Additionally, fat and muscle mass depletion is due to reductive adaptation, where the child’s energy source is drawn from muscle, adipose, and bone. This results in reduced muscle function, fractures,and alteration in electrolyte balance.

Malnutrition may also affect the child’s cardiac function. Reductive adaptation causes cardiac muscle loss, resulting in decreased cardiac output and low blood pressure (De Sanctis et al., 2021). In addition, there is micronutrient deficiency and alterations in electrolyte balance which alter cardiac function. Decreased cardiac output leads to poor tissue perfusion, causing delayed wound healing. Reduced cardiac output and electrolyte imbalance may further worsen renal function by reducing renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate.

Malnutrition affects gastrointestinal function, resulting in changes in pancreatic exocrine function, intestinal blood flow, villous architecture, and intestinal permeability, reducing the gut’s ability to absorb nutrients. In addition, the colon loses its ability to reabsorb water and electrolytes, resulting in diarrhea and worsened nutritional losses. The liver is also affected, and all its metabolic, synthesis, detoxification, and excretory function are affected resulting in hypoglycemia and accumulation of toxic metabolites (Schuetz et al., 2021). Immune function is also affected, increasing the risk of infection due to innate and adaptive immunity predisposing the child to respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tract infections (Fontane et al., 2023). However, due to a failed immune system, most signs of infection, such as fever, may be absent.

Additional Information I Would Need to Further Assess Her Weight-Related Health

Undernutrition causes multisystem organ dysfunction. It is thus crucial to inquire whether the parents have noticed whether the child has had persistent vomiting or diarrhea. In addition, it is crucial to note any temperature changes, signs of shock, open skin lesions, edema, dehydration, tachypnea, and cyanosis (Brits et al., 2020). I may also need to look at her growth curve to check for any previous abnormalities and compare her growth versus the standard. I would also need a mid-upper arm circumference, Z-scores, and basal metabolic index. Laboratory tests are also essential for assessing malnutrition(Kabashneh et al., 2020). Necessary tests include complete blood count, hemogram, septic screen, liver and renal function tests, urinalysis, protein tests, urea-electrolytes and creatinine test, and tests for inflammatory markers. While performing a physical exam, I would need to look for any hair, nail, eye, skin, and mouth changes, such as fissures, cheilitis, and stomatitis (De Sanctis et al., 2021). I would also need to check for distended abdomen and hepatomegaly, observe for behavioral changes, and assess for development.

Risks and Further Information I Would Need to Gain a Full Understanding of the Child’s Health

Undernutrition occurs when one does not have an adequate diet or has malabsorption conditions. In assessment of the child’s weight-related health condition, it is essential to take note of the quality and quantity of the food she takes through a food diary history (Vassilakau, 2021). Inadequate diet and non-nutritious foods like processed juices predispose to micro and macronutrient deficiencies. Additionally, it is crucial to inquire whether she has any food allergies, fads, restrictions, and preferences, as they may predispose her to undernutrition.

It is crucial to ask whether the child has any underlying medical condition that may affect the ability to swallow, digest, or absorb foods. It is crucial to assess whether they have nausea and anorexia or are taking medications that may be causing both. Additionally, it is vital to rule out any cause of dysphagia, which can limit oral intake of food (Schuetz et al., 2021). Medical conditions such as chronic diarrhea or childhood malignancies have been linked to undernutrition due to increased metabolic needs. One may also need to inquire about malabsorption disorders such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease that may cause excessive nutritional loss.

Undernutrition can also be caused due to mental health conditions and feeding environments. It is thus crucial to screen for eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia that may have an impact on the child, considering that the mother is overweight. Additionally, one may need to consider behaviors that discourage eating, such as bullying at school and childhood depression and anxiety disorders. Additionally, one may need to inquire about parental involvement in meals to inquire whether there is a source of discouragement to feeding (Engidaye et al., 2022). Lastly, it is vital to inquire about the ability of the parents to access nutritional foods and their feeding habits.

Specific Questions to Ask About the Child to Gather More Information

  1. What type of food do you occasionally give your child, and does she have any preferences?
  2. How do both of you contribute and participate in your daughter’s feeding patterns?
  3. Are there foods you prefer not to give your daughter, and why?
  4. Has your child ever been diagnosed with health conditions that may have affected her nutrition?
  5. Have you noticed any behavior change that may have affected your daughter’s well-being or her relationship with food?

Strategies to Encourage the Parents to Be Proactive about Their Child’s Health and Weight

The strategies I would employ to encourage the parents to be proactive about the child’s health include educating them on child nutrition. I would provide them with resources and inform them of signs of child malnutrition to empower them with knowledge to make right decisions (Vassilakou, 2021). Secondly, I would encourage the parents to involve their daughter in discussions regarding nutrition and have a feedback session with her. I would also organize regular follow-ups to monitor for improvement and highlight positive changes.

Conclusion

Undernutrition is a common malnutrition condition that affects children. It is crucial to note the effects it has on different organ systems. Causes of undernutrition are organic, inorganic, or both. It is thus crucial to identify the cause before initiating management. Active management of malnutrition in children requires parental and child’s active participation to achieve necessary nutritional goals.

References

Brits, H., Botha, L., Maakomane, W., Malefane, T., Luthfiya, T., Tsoeueamakwa, T., &Joubert, G. (2020). The profile and clinical picture of children with undernutrition admitted to National District Hospital. The Pan African medical journal, 37, 237. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.37.237.25261

De Sanctis, V., Soliman, A., Alaaraj, N., Ahmed, S., Alyafei, F., &Hamed, N. (2021). Early and Long-term Consequences of Nutritional Stunting: From Childhood to Adulthood. Acta bio-medica :AteneiParmensis, 92(1), e2021168. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v92i1.11346

Dipasquale, V., Cucinotta, U., & Romano, C. (2020). Acute Malnutrition in Children: Pathophysiology, Clinical Effects and Treatment. Nutrients, 12(8), 2413. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082413

Engidaye, G., Aynalem, M., Adane, T., Gelaw, Y., Yalew, A., &Enawgaw, B. (2022). Undernutrition and its associated factors among children aged 6 to 59 months in Menz Gera Midir district, Northeast Ethiopia: A community-based cross-sectional study. PloS one, 17(12), e0278756. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278756

Fontaine, F., Turjeman, S., Callens, K., &Koren, O. (2023). The intersection of undernutrition, microbiome, and child development in the first years of life. Nature communications, 14(1), 3554. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-39285-9

Kabashneh, S., Alkassis, S., Shanah, L., & Ali, H. (2020). A Complete Guide to Identify and Manage Malnutrition in Hospitalized Patients. Cureus, 12(6), e8486. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8486

Schuetz, P., Seres, D., Lobo, D. N., Gomes, F., Kaegi-Braun, N., &Stanga, Z. (2021). Management of disease-related malnutrition for patients being treated in hospital. Lancet (London, England), 398(10314), 1927–1938. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01451-3

Vassilakou, T. (2021). Childhood Malnutrition: Time for Action. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 8(2), 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020103

NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric

NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome In 3–4 pages, address the following: An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
25 to >24.0 ptsExcellentThe response clearly, accurately, and in detail explains the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child. 24 to >23.0 ptsGoodThe response accurately explains the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child. 23 to >17.0 ptsFairThe response vaguely and with some inaccuracy explains the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child. 17 to >0 ptsPoorThe response is inaccurate and/or missing explanations of the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child.
25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
25 to >24.0 ptsExcellentThe response clearly and accurately describes detailed additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health. 24 to >23.0 ptsGoodThe response accurately describes additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health. 23 to >17.0 ptsFairThe response vaguely and with some inaccuracy describes additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health. 17 to >0 ptsPoorThe response is inaccurate and/or missing a description of additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health.
25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Identify and describe any risks, and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
20 to >17.0 ptsExcellentThe response clearly and accurately identifies and describes in detail any risks to the child’s health. The response clearly and accurately identifies and describes in detail further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with a detailed explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child. 17 to >14.0 ptsGoodThe response accurately identifies and describes any risks to the child’s health. The response accurately identifies and describes further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with a clear explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child. 14 to >13.0 ptsFairThe response vaguely and with some inaccuracy identifies and describes any risks to the child’s health. The response vaguely identifies and describes further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with a vague explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child. 13 to >0 ptsPoorThe response identifies inaccurately and/or is missing descriptions of any risks to the child’s health. The response identifies inaccurately and/or is missing descriptions of further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with an inadequate or missing explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child.
20 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
10 to >9.0 ptsExcellentThe response clearly and accurately lists three or more specific questions that would gather more information about the child. Specific questions are carefully worded to clearly demonstrate sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child. 9 to >8.0 ptsGoodThe response lists three specific questions that would gather more information about the child. Specific questions are worded to demonstrate sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child. 8 to >7.0 ptsFairThe response lists three questions with wording that is vague and lacking specificity for gathering more information about the child. Some wording of the questions lacks sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child. 7 to >0 ptsPoorThe response lists two or fewer confusing or inadequate questions, or is missing questions, for gathering more information about the child. Wording of questions provided lacks sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child.
10 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.
5 to >4.0 ptsExcellentThe response clearly describes two or more detailed strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight. 4 to >3.0 ptsGoodThe response describes at least two strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight. 3 to >2.0 ptsFairThe response vaguely describes two strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight. 2 to >0 ptsPoorThe response inadequately describes one strategy or is missing strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight.
5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
5 to >4.0 ptsExcellentParagraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria. 4 to >3.0 ptsGoodParagraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive. 3 to >2.0 ptsFairParagraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic. 2 to >0 ptsPoorParagraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.
5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 to >4.0 ptsExcellentUses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. 4 to >3.0 ptsGoodContains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 3 to >2.0 ptsFairContains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 2 to >0 ptsPoorContains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
5 to >4.0 ptsExcellentUses correct APA format with no errors. 4 to >3.0 ptsGoodContains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors. 3 to >2.0 ptsFairContains several (3 or 4) APA format errors. 2 to >0 ptsPoorContains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
5 pts
Total Points: 100

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN

Title: NURS 6512 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION IN CHILDREN

 

 

Case Study Assignment: Assessment of Nutrition In Children 

 

 

Assignment: Child Health Case 

The assigned case study concerns an 8-year-old overweight male foster child. The child has normal-weight foster parents but overweight biological parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe the child’s health issues, additional information needed, risks, and strategies to encourage the caregivers to be proactive about the child’s health.  

An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned. 

The health issue associated with this child is his overweight status. The child’s overweight can be attributed to genetics since his biological parents are also overweight. Genetics is one of the main factors identified as a cause of obesity, with various studies establishing that BMI is 25–40% genetic (Kansra et al., 2021). An overweight child is at risk of being obese in adolescence and adulthood. He also has a high risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like Type 2 diabetes, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance,  hyperlipidemia, some types of cancer, fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, impaired balance, and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age (Sanyaolu et al., 2019). 

Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. 

In assessing the child’s weight-related health, I would require additional information about his lifestyle preferences, environment, and cultural environment, which play a fundamental role in the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. I would need information on the child’s diet, emphasizing his daily caloric, sugar, and fat intake. I would inquire about the types of food the child takes at home and school, portion size, and the frequency of intake as well as his food preferences, fast food consumption, and snack foods. Most fast foods usually have a high number of calories but low nutritional values compared to home-prepared foods contributing to obesity. Furthermore, common snack foods like chips, baked items, and candy increase the overall caloric intake contributing to obesity. In addition, I would inquire about his physical activity level, including the child’s hobbies, the games he like playing, and the amount of screen time (Di Maglie et al., 2022). I need information on the sports the child participates in school and how often he engages in them. Physical inactivity and increased screen time are highly associated with childhood obesity.  

Identify and describe any risks, and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion. 

There is a need to assess the consequences of the child’s overweight on his physical health, psychological wellbeing, social wellbeing, and academic performance. Childhood obesity can significantly affect a child’s physical health, emotional and social wellbeing, and self-esteem. I will need to inquire if the child has any medical conditions linked to being overweight, like obstructive sleep apnea, dyspnea on exertion, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia (Sanyaolu et al., 2019). Besides, I would inquire if the child is usually stigmatized by his peers by being teased or bullied for his weight. This is because childhood obesity is one of the most stigmatizing and least socially acceptable disorders in childhood (Kansra et al., 2021). As a result, overweight/obese children are frequently excluded from activities, especially competitive activities requiring physical activity. 

Further information on the child’s psychological wellbeing will include asking him about his self-esteem, self-confidence, and perception of his body image. Overweight/obese children with low self-confidence, low self-esteem, and a negative body image often face difficulties in weight management (Kanellopoulou et al., 2022). Moreover, childhood overweight/obesity negatively impacts children’s school performance. Therefore, I would inquire about the child’s school performance and if he has been lagging in his class or if his grades are dropping.  

The information will be obtained by initiating the conversation with the parents in a responsive, non-blaming manner. Eli et al. (2022) explain that the providers’ attitudes and tone during conversations about children’s weight are fundamentally crucial. The nurse will invite the foster parents to reflect on the child’s situation, and the nurse will make them feel more supported and empowered. Uy et al. (2019) assert that effective conversations about children’s weight should be non-judgmental. The provider should consider the parents’ needs and prior knowledge and offer concrete and tailored advice. 

Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information. 

  1. What types of food do you frequently consume as a family? 
  1. How often do you allow the child to go and play outside with his peers? 
  1. What measures have you taken to manage his weight as the child’s caregiver? 

Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight. 

The conversation about the child’s weight can offer a crucial chance of successfully encouraging the parents to be proactive in their child’s health and taking initiatives to lower the child’s weight and implement a healthier lifestyle. The nurse would encourage the parents to be proactive by inviting them to express their concerns and reflect on how to introduce lifestyle changes to the child (Ames et al., 2020). The nurse should discuss concerns about the child’s weight and eating habits and explore with the parents how to address these concerns.  

The second measure is by the nurse presenting relevant information to the caregivers and having a conversation. Besides, the nurse should explain the reason behind the concern and recommendations (Uy et al., 2019). The nurse should offer the parents practical suggestions to implement appropriate resources for the child’s weight loss and allow them to decide on their interventions. Allowing the parents to decide is important since it encourages them to implement the interventions, thus promoting adherence. 

Conclusion 

The child’s overweight can be linked to genetics since his biological parents are overweight. Being overweight puts him at risk of NCDs like diabetes, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular diseases. Additional information that will be needed includes the child’s dietary patterns, food preferences, and physical activity levels. The nurse should allow the parents to express their concerns and propose measures to manage the child’s weight. 

 . 

 

References 

Ames, H., Mosdøl, A., Blaasvær, N., Nøkleby, H., Berg, R. C., & Langøien, L. J. (2020). Communication of children’s weight status: what is effective, and what are the children’s and parents’ experiences and preferences? A mixed methods systematic review. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-22. 

Di Maglie, A., Marsigliante, S., My, G., Colazzo, S., & Muscella, A. (2022). Effects of a physical activity intervention on schoolchildren fitness. Physiological reports, 10(2), e15115. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.15115 

Eli, K., Neovius, C., Nordin, K., Brissman, M., & Ek, A. (2022). Parents’ experiences following conversations about their young child’s weight in the primary health care setting: a study within the STOP project. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 1540. 

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