Sample Answer for NURS 6501 WEEK 10 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS Included After Question

An understanding of the factors surrounding women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders can be critically important to disease diagnosis and treatment in these areas. This importance is magnified by the fact that some diseases and disorders manifest differently based on the sex of the patient.  

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond the human systems involved. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.. 

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in systems based on these characteristics is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans. 

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.  


To prepare: 

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor. 

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis) 

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following: 

  • The factors that affect fertility (STDs). 
  • Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID. 
  • Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction. 
  • Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP. 
  • Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic). 

Day 7 of Week 10 

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10 

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at All papers submitted must use this formatting. 

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Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10 


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A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6501 WEEK 10 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS


Genitourinary disorders affect a significant proportion of the population, resulting in low quality of life and increased disease burden. Nurses and other healthcare providers adopt evidence-based interventions to promote optimum outcomes. Therefore, this paper examines a case study involving a 14-year-old female that is brought to the urgent care with complaints of bruises and gum bleeding. The purpose of this assignment is to examine topics that include factors affecting fertility, rise of inflammatory markers in STDs/PID, anemia and different types, and the need for splenectomy after ITP.  

The Factors that Affect Fertility (STDs) 

The assigned case study does not relate to sexually transmitted infections (STDs). STDs affect fertility. Untreated STDs ascend the reproductive tract to cause tubal damage, inflammation, and scarring, which cause infertility. STDs caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis cause morbidities such as pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor that are associated with infertility. In addition, pathogenesis such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium play a role in causing tubal damage and potentiating the likelihood of patients developing infertility(Smolarczyk et al., 2021). The interaction between these causes, patient factors, co-infections, and vaginal microbiome affects fertility.  

Why Inflammatory Marker Rise in STD/PID 

STD or pelvic inflammatory disease are associated with a significant rise in inflammatory markers. The rise in the inflammatory markers is attributable to the presence of bacteria and other organisms that cause these infections. The presence of these organisms stimulates the immune system to release inflammatory markers such as interleukins 1, 66, and 8 and cytokines(Mokotedi et al., 2019). The role of these inflammatory markers is to respond to the infection by attempting to eliminate the infectious agents from the body.  

Why Prostatitis and Infection Happens 

STDs can also cause prostatitis and other secondary infections. Patients affected by prostatitis experience symptoms such as difficult or painful urination because of inflamed prostate gland. Microorganisms such as bacteria associated with STDs and PID may access the prostate gland, resulting in their multiplication and inflammation of the gland. In addition, systemic reaction may arise from STDs and PID. The spread of the bacterial infection through blood and the lymphatic tissue my cause widespread systemic reaction in a patient. Besides, acute prostatitis due to bacterial infections may also contribute to systemic infections(Bielecki et al., 2020). Therefore, this explains the correlation between STDs, PID, prostatitis, and systemic reaction.  

Why a Patient would Need a Splenectomy After a Diagnosis of ITP 

Splenectomy is considered an effective treatment for patients diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The spleen plays the crucial role of platelet clearance and production of autoantibodies. It also acts as the niche where immune cells promote antiplatelet antibody formation. The spleen also stores long-lived plasma cells that have anti-platelet antibody producing properties. These functions make the spleen the primary organ involved in ITP pathogenesis. Splenectomy, which entails the surgical removal of the spleen eliminates autoantibody production and platelet clearance site, which improves ITP symptoms. Splenectomy also reduces the risk of relapses of ITP and improved response to medical therapies adopted for ITP(Al-Samkari& Kuter, 2020; Mageau et al., 2022). Patients also benefit from the stabilization in the platelet count in most of the patients who undergo the treatment.  

Anemia and Different Kinds of Anemia 

Anemia is a condition characterized by the low hemoglobin level below the expected level for a patient’s age and gender. Anemia exists in different types. One of them is microcytic anemia. In microcytic anemia, the red blood cells are smaller than the normal red blood cells because of the inadequate hemoglobin. Normocytic anemia is the other type where there are inadequate red blood cells to meet the body’s needs. Macrocytic anemia is the other type anemia. Macrocytic anemia has features that include abnormally large red blood cells. It arises from defects in the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. The other sub-types of anemia include iron-deficiency, sideroblastic, thalassemia, and hemolytic anemias(Guo et al., 2019; Tvedten, 2022).  


STDs cause infertility. Inflammatory markers rise in PID and STDs. Splenectomy is an effective treatment for ITP. Anemia exists in different types that affect the treatment approaches. ss 



Al-Samkari, H., & Kuter, D. J. (2020). Immune Thrombocytopenia in Adults: Modern Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 46(3), 275–288. 

Bielecki, R., Ostaszewska-Puchalska, I., Zdrodowska-Stefanow, B., Baltaziak, M., Skawrońska, M., &Sokołowska, M. (2020). The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men with chronic prostatitis. Central European Journal of Urology, 73(3), 362–368. 

Guo, W., Zhou, Q., Jia, Y., & Xu, J. (2019). Increased Levels of Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Review. Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 25, 8371–8378. 

Mageau, A., Terriou, L., Ebbo, M., Souchaud-Debouverie, O., Orvain, C., Graveleau, J., Lega, J.-C., Ruivard, M., Viallard, J.-F., Cheze, S., Dossier, A., Bonnotte, B., Perlat, A., Gobert, D., Costedoat-Chalumeau, N., Jeandel, P.-Y., Dernoncourt, A., Michel, M., Godeau, B., &Comont, T. (2022). Splenectomy for primary immune thrombocytopenia revisited in the era of thrombopoietin receptor agonists: New insights for an old treatment. American Journal of Hematology, 97(1), 10–17. 

Mokotedi, L., Millen, A. M. E., Mogane, C., Gomes, M., Woodiwiss, A. J., Norton, G. R., & Michel, F. S. (2019). Associations of inflammatory markers and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 with endothelial dysfunction in collagen-induced arthritis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 865, 172786. 

Smolarczyk, K., Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, B., Rudnicka, E., Szukiewicz, D., Meczekalski, B., Smolarczyk, R., & Pieta, W. (2021). The Impact of Selected Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Pregnancy and Female Fertility. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(4), Article 4. 

Tvedten, H. (2022). Classification and Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia. In Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology (pp. 198–208). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NURS 6501 WEEK 10 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS


A 30-year-old female presents with a yellow, creamy vaginal discharge and difficulty with urination that started about three days ago. The patient has had unprotected sexual intercourse in the last two weeks with her new partner but denies having abdominal and lower back pain, foul-smelling urine, or increased frequency. A pelvic exam shows mucopurulent vaginal discharge and erythema to the cervix, with some bleeding noted to the cervix when touched with the swab. The purpose of the paper is to describe the factors that affect sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), why inflammatory markers rise, why the infection happens, and the causes of a systemic reaction from infection.

Factors That Affect Fertility (STDs)

STDs and PIDs are often complicated by infertility due to the damage they cause to the tubes and uterus. Common etiologies that cause the complications include Gonococcal and Chlamydia infections. Ascending infection from the cervix may cause salpingitis, destroying the ciliary processes and fibrosis in the tube (Wihlfarht et al., 2021). As a result, partial or complete tubal blockage may occur, resulting in either ectopic pregnancy or infertility. Additionally, severe endometritis may cause Asherman’s syndrome, a condition characterized by adhesive fibrosis of the anterior and posterior uterine wall (Mitchell et al., 2021). The syndrome has been associated with amenorrhea, infertility, and recurrent miscarriages.

Why Inflammatory Markers Rise in STD and PID

STDs and PIDs are marked by increased inflammatory markers such as CRP, ESR, and leucocytes. Genital infections stimulate resident epithelial cells and innate immune cells to produce chemokines and cytokines that cause an increase in inflammatory leukocytes (Frock-Welnak et al., 2022). The activated leucocytes, such as neutrophils and lymphocytes, release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factor that stimulate the liver to release acute-phase reactants such as pro-calcitonin, prothrombin, fibrinogen, and CRP. The inflammatory state marked by increased CRP and prothrombin causes the red blood cells to aggregate easily, increasing ESR.

Why the Infection Happens

Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland that often follows urinary tract infections. Common bacteria that may cause prostatitis include Escherichia coli, Proteus, and Klebsiella. Some bacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis, often associated with STIs, have also been implicated (Zhang et al., 2020). The bacteria may infect the prostate as a result of a backward flow from the valve where prostatic fluid empties at the urethra, resulting in inflammation.

Causes of a Systemic Reaction from Infection

Prostatitis often presents with systemic symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, and abdominal pain. An enlarged prostate causes urinary tract obstruction due to the external pressure it has on the prostatic urethra. As a result, symptoms of urinary tract obstruction such as dysuria, increased urgency, urinary retention, and increased frequency occur (Mancuso et al., 2023). Urine retention in the bladder, ureter, and kidney may predispose the patients to UTIs. As a result, there is a release of large amounts of inflammatory cytokines that alter the thermoregulation, causing fever and chills. In addition, urinary retention may cause pyelonephritis, whose symptoms include nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and abdominal pain. Lastly, lower abdominal and back pain may also result from an enlarged inflamed prostrate and cystitis.


STIs are common diseases that affect sexually active women and men, predisposing them to sub-fertility and infertility. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of STI and PID. Prostatitis has been noted to cause urinary tract and systemic symptoms resulting from urinary tract obstruction and retention. Urinary retention predisposes the patients to pyelonephritis and cystitis worsening the prognosis.



Frock-Welnak, D. N., & Tam, J. (2022). Identification and treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease and associated sequelae. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics49(3), 551-579.

Hillier, S. L., Bernstein, K. T., & Aral, S. (2021). A review of the challenges and complexities in the diagnosis, etiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of pelvic inflammatory disease. The Journal of Infectious Diseases224(Supplement_2), S23-S28.h ttps://

Mancuso, G., Midiri, A., Gerace, E., Marra, M., Zummo, S., & Biondo, C. (2023). Urinary tract infections: the current scenario and future prospects. Pathogens12(4), 623.

Mitchell, C. M., Anyalechi, G. E., Cohen, C. R., Haggerty, C. L., Manhart, L. E., & Hillier, S. L. (2021). Etiology and diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease: Looking beyond gonorrhea and chlamydia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases224(Supplement_2), S29-S35.

Wihlfahrt, K., Günther, V., Mendling, W., Westermann, A., Willer, D., Gitas, G., … & Alkatout, I. (2023). Sexually transmitted diseases—an update and overview of current research. Diagnostics13(9), 1656.

Zhang, J., Liang, C., Shang, X., & Li, H. (2020). Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a disease or symptom? Current perspectives on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. American Journal of Men’s Health14(1), 1557988320903200.