NURS 6501 Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis SAMPLE
Understanding cardiovascular and respiratory changes is critical for advanced practice registered nurses in establishing an accurate diagnosis and educating patients on how to manage their diseases effectively. These changes have a substantial impact on patients’ health, and it is critical to recognize the symptoms connected with them. The author discusses a case of a 65-year-old post-op patient who complains of shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain, and palpitations following total knee replacement. When the patient presented to the emergency department, an EKG indicated new-onset atrial fibrillation and a right ventricular strain pattern – T wave inversions in the right precordial leads (V1-4) (II, III, aVF). The essay covers the circulatory and cardiopulmonary pathological processes associated with these symptoms, the impact of racial characteristics on physiological functioning, and how these variables interact to affect the patient.
Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Events Correlated With Patient Symptoms
Total knee arthroplasty is most frequently performed on the elderly, who are more susceptible to cardiovascular and pulmonary illnesses (Gao et al., 2020). Atrial fibrillation is a condition in which the heart beats irregularly as a result of disordered electrical signals. Atrial fibrillation that develops suddenly is frequently related with surgical treatments. According to the EKG interpretation, the patient is most likely suffering from a pulmonary embolism, a disorder in which blood clots obstruct one or more arteries. While early detection is critical, the disease’s clinical presentation is variable and broad, making precise diagnosis difficult. Dyspnoea at rest or with exertion, pleuritic chest pain, cough, orthopnoea, and calf or thigh pain or swelling are all symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism. Additionally, reduced breath sounds, an enhanced pulmonic component of the second heart sound, and jugular venous extension are present. Atrial arrhythmias, peripheral low voltages, pseudoinfarction patterns (Q waves) in leads III and aVF, ST-segment alterations, and total right bundle branch block are all associated with the condition (Boey et al., 2015). These symptoms are caused by the interaction of cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems. The cardiovascular system initiates the raid firing of impulses in the SA node, resulting in atrial fibrillation due to the rapid focused activity. Assignment for NURS 6501 Module 2: Case Study Analysis SAMPLE
Racial and Ethnic Variables that Impact Physiologic Functioning
According to research, black individuals with atrial fibrillation are at an increased risk of stroke than their white counterparts. A significant explanation for this phenomenon rests on the premise that African Americans are more prone to well-established risk factors for atrial fibrillation, such as hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses. A study conducted by Stamos & Darbar (2016) showed that these traditional risk factors are responsible for up to 50 percent of the atrial fibrillation burden among African Americans. Another feasible explanation for the atrial fibrillation paradox among black individuals relates to the underlying genetic basis. Research shows that most African Americans have the 1q21, 4q25, and 16q22 chromosomes associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. These genomic loci were associated with African Americans.
How these Processes Interact to Affect the Patient
Atrial fibrillation affects the patient in numerous ways (Streur, 2019). The chaotic rhythm cause blood to pool in the upper chambers of the heart resulting in the formation of clots. Ultimately, the clots obstruct blood flow to the brain resulting in a stroke. The interplay of increased heart rate, dyspnea, and increased breathing rates cause a life-threatening condition to patients.
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In summary, new-onset atrial fibrillation is common among patients who have undergone total knee replacement surgeries. If untreated, the condition is life-threatening and can result in a stroke. The interplay of cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular alterations are significant factors behind atrial fibrillation. While the condition has a high prevalence among older populations, black individuals are at a higher risk of adverse outcomes related to atrial fibrillation. This is explained by a higher incidence of risk factors such as hypertension and heart diseases and the presence of triggering genes among this population. NURS 6501 Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis SAMPLE
Boey, E., Teo, S., & Poh, K. (2015). Electrocardiographic findings in pulmonary embolism. Singapore Medical Journal, 56(10), 533-537. https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2015147
Gao, J., Xing, D., Dong, S., & Lin, J. (2020). The primary total knee arthroplasty: A global analysis. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-22046/v2
Stamos, T. D., & Darbar, D. (2016). The “Double” paradox of atrial fibrillation in Black individuals. JAMA Cardiology, 1(4), 377. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2016.1259
Streur, M. (2019). Atrial fibrillation symptom perception. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15(1), 60-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2018.08.015