NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

Sample Answer for NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS Included After Question

NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 

Throughout history, technological advancements have appeared for one purpose before finding applications elsewhere that lead to spikes in its usage and development. The internet, for example, was originally developed to share research before becoming a staple of work and entertainment. But technology—new and repurposed—will undoubtedly continue to be a driver of healthcare information. Informaticists often stay tuned to trends to monitor what the next new technology will be or how the next new idea for applying existing technology can benefit outcomes. 

In this Discussion, you will reflect on your healthcare organization’s use of technology and offer a technology trend you observe in your environment. 

RESOURCES 

NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.  

WEEKLY RESOURCES 

To Prepare: 

  • Reflect on the Resources related to digital information tools and technologies. 
  • Consider your healthcare organization’s use of healthcare technologies to manage and distribute information. 
  • Reflect on current and potential future trends, such as use of social media and mobile applications/telehealth, Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled asset tracking, or expert systems/artificial intelligence, and how they may impact nursing practice and healthcare delivery. 

BY DAY 3 OF WEEK 6 

Post a brief description of general healthcare technology trends, particularly related to data/information you have observed in use in your healthcare organization or nursing practice. Describe any potential challenges or risks that may be inherent in the technologies associated with these trends you described. Then, describe at least one potential benefit and one potential risk associated with data safety, legislation, and patient care for the technologies you described. Next, explain which healthcare technology trends you believe are most promising for impacting healthcare technology in nursing practice and explain why. Describe whether this promise will contribute to improvements in patient care outcomes, efficiencies, or data management. Be specific and provide examples. 

BY DAY 6 OF WEEK 6 

Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days, offering additional/alternative ideas regarding opportunities and risks related to the observations shared. 

*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues. 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

Title: NURS 6501 HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

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Collapse SubdiscussionAnupa Mukundram Mehta 

Anupa Mukundram Mehta 

Jan 1, 2023Jan 1 at 6:50pm 

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A general healthcare technology trend related to information that I have observed in my nursing practice is the increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs allow multiple healthcare providers to access and update a patient’s information digitally, as opposed to relying on locating or faxing over paper records (HealthIT.gov, 2018). When I worked in an outpatient office that did not use an EHR, I saw how this slowed down patient care. We wanted to avoid repeating tests a patient had already gotten and wanted to fully understand the patient’s history, but it could mean hours of waiting for the patient’s record to be faxed over from the other office. Sometimes we would finally get a record, but a crucial page would be missing, or an important page would have handwriting from the provider that was barely legible, which further delayed patient care and could have caused patient harm. This shows how a benefit of EHRs is the improvement in patient care outcomes by giving providers complete and up-to-date information about their patients immediately. This allows more accurate diagnosis, quicker treatment, and the ability to communicate with other healthcare providers in the team. 

 

EHRs help avoid many of the problems of paper records, but also come with their own set of risks. For example, security and confidentiality of patient information that is now visible by possibly hundreds of healthcare providers is a concern, as well as the risk of data loss or system outages. My current hospital uses an EHR, and the system shut down during shift change one Sunday morning. This caused a lot of confusion and risk for patient harm, as we could not access the patient’s information needed to give report to the oncoming nurse, hand off critical medications, give medication, and more.  There is also a risk of data breaches with EHRs, which could lead to patient information being disclosed without their consent to unauthorized parties. This risk can be mitigated by having strong security measures, such as two-factor authentication that my hospital uses, and regularly training staff on how to protect patient data (Abouelmehdi et al., 2018). 

 

A healthcare technology trend that I believe is promising for impacting healthcare technology in nursing practice is telehealth. I believe it will help patient care outcomes and efficiencies. Telehealth allows healthcare providers to deliver care remotely, using video conferencing and other digital tools (Skiba, 2017). This is especially useful in areas that do not have nearby access to healthcare providers, such as rural or underserved areas. For patients that have chronic conditions or who cannot easily travel to a healthcare facility, telehealth is also valuable. During the beginning of the covid pandemic when social distancing was paramount for everyone’s safety, I met with my healthcare provider through telehealth. 

 

A potential risk of telehealth is thinking that it is suitable for all types of care, as a physical exam is a key to diagnosing and treating most conditions; a provider may not be able to safely diagnose a condition with only a history and your description of your symptoms. Another risk is the quality of the technology being used, as a zoom meeting with choppy audio or internet outages will not allow you to have a productive telehealth visit. There is also a risk of a lack of confidentiality of patient data. However, overall, both EHRs and telehealth can improve patient care outcomes, efficiencies, and data management for nursing practice, as long as we consider the risks associated with these technologies and take steps to mitigate them. 

 

References: 

HealthIT.gov. (2018c). What is an electronic health record (EHR)?  Retrieved from 
https://www.healthit.gov/faq/what-electronic-health-record-ehrLinks to an external site. 

Abouelmehdi, K., Beni-Hessane, A. & Khaloufi, H. (2018) Big healthcare data: preserving security and privacy. J Big Data5, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-017-0110-7Links to an external site. 

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation tools to appraise social media and mobile applications Links to an external site.. Informatics, 4(3), 32–40.  

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Collapse SubdiscussionFatmata Mansaray 

Fatmata Mansaray 

Jan 3, 2023Jan 3 at 10:45pm 

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Indeed most healthcare organizations are shifting from paperwork to electronic health records and electronic medical records. Electronic medical records to document medication dosages, administration, and other treatments help nurses avoid medical errors and confusion during practice. The electronic systems keep the patient information safe and confidential. Patient safety is also increased due to minimal errors during treatment and care management. I am sure there are organizations using cradle for recording patient information and this has improved nursing care and reduced medical errors because there is no misleading information about drug administration and care planning (Agbo et al., 2019). Communication has also been enhanced by applying new technology. Clinicians are not being trained fast enough to keep pace with the rate of service demand. In addition, given the rising cost of care, new models for reimbursing hospitals and other providers have begun to emphasize quality and efficiency rather than units of delivered services. 

Reference 

Agbo, C. C., Mahmoud, Q. H., & Eklund, J. M. (2019). Blockchain technology in healthcare: a systematic review. In Healthcare (Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 56). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. 

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Collapse SubdiscussionKristi Lynn Woodall 

Kristi Lynn Woodall 

Jan 4, 2023Jan 4 at 9:30pm 

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Anupa, 

I enjoyed reading your post. Electronic Health Records or EHR have been in development since 1960, but it was not until 2009 that it became mandated by the United States (Atherton, 2011). This shaped the healthcare industry in an amazing way. It improved the legibility of orders, comprehensiveness, and ease of access to information and improved the way we track the data for quality of care more easily (Atherton, 2011). Some barrier to obtaining the EHR would be the high cost. According to the agency for healthcare research and quality, for small, private practices, some EHR is not practical due to high cost, concerns that the system will become obsolete, lack of skilled resources for implementation and support, and concern regarding the negative unintended consequences of technology (n.d.) Overall, the era of utilizing the electronic health record is here, and embracing this technology and overcoming these barriers can help advance the healthcare industry. 

 

References: 

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). Electronic Medical Record Systems. Electronic Medical Record Systems | Digital Healthcare Research. Retrieved January 4, 2023, from https://digital.ahrq.gov/electronic-medical-record-systems 

Atherton, J. (2011). Development of the electronic health record. AMA Journal of Ethics, 13(3), 186–189. https://doi.org/10.1001/virtualmentor.2011.13.3.mhst1-1103 

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Collapse SubdiscussionShirley Moreta 

Shirley Moreta 

Jan 5, 2023Jan 5 at 11:23am 

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Thank you Anupa for your discussion response and I agree with you that the use of electronic health records (EHRs) is critical in the current healthcare dispensation as it offers various benefits to patients and providers. EHRs allow seamless flow of patient health information from one provider to another and ensures correct and accurate data for effective decision-making and development of care plans. As you note, the use of EHRs solves a host of issues like delays in information sending from one facility and provider to another and minimizes paper work that is prone to human errors and mistakes (Lee & Yoon, 2021). EHRs offer complete and up-to-date patient health information for effective actions and decisions to improve care and this enables better diagnosis and fast treatment as well as enhanced communication (Rutledge & Gustin, 2021). 

However, as you note, all technologies have their disadvantages that require effective actions and measures. For instance, data security, confidentiality and privacy are not just legal but also ethical aspects that impact the use of EHRs in healthcare systems. Furthermore, data breaches are always a concern and this implores organizations to have safety and security measures to mitigate such occurrences (Mayer et al., 2019). The implication is that organizations should have robust security protocols on access to such data and information. 

Again, the use of telehealth as a promising technology cannot be overemphasized because of the benefits that it provides. Other technologies like artificial intelligence, mobile apps and texting as well as machine learning also promise to enhance care delivery and improve access to healthcare services for patients and health promotion for different populations. Artificial intelligence allows for fast diagnosis and ensures that providers make better decisions while mobile apps enhance telehealth and telemedicine to improve overall access and quality of care offered (Mishra et al., 2022). While these technologies offer certain benefits, they also have certain risks that providers should mitigate. 

References 

Lee, D., & Yoon, S. N. (2021). Application of artificial intelligence-based technologies in the 

healthcare industry: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 271. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010271 

Mayer, M. A., Blanco, O. R., & Torrejon, A. (2019). Use of health apps by nurses for 

professional purposes: Web-based survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Research mHealth and uHealth, 7(11), e15195. https://doi.org/10.2196/15195 

Mishra, S., Dhuna, N., Lancki, N., Yeh, C., & Larson, D. N. (2022). Telehealth utilization and 

patient satisfaction in an ambulatory movement disorders center during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X221146819. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221146819 

Rutledge, C. M., & Gustin, T. (2021). Preparing nurses for roles in telehealth: Now is the time. 

            The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 26(1). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol26No01Man03 

 

 

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Collapse SubdiscussionOluremilekun Taylor 

Oluremilekun Taylor 

Jan 5, 2023Jan 5 at 11:27am 

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Hello, and thanks for sharing. 

You have put across potential challenges which occur commonly in health care technology. This needs technology as well to address. To add on challenges, data safety and its breech is also big. The transmission of data from an app or medical device is a huge advancement in technology. A patient who once had to spend multiple nights in admission in a hospital to monitor cardiovascular issues can now wear a portable monitor at home that will electronically transmit this information to their cardiologist. This technology cuts down on healthcare costs, increases efficiency, and is more convenient for the patient. Unfortunately, breech of data safety comes with this. This is associated with data transmission security; some data may unintentionally be shared with third parties for promotional purposes. Also possible are transmissions of undesired information, such as exchanges with a spouse, and the possibility of alerting intruders when no one is home (Hall & McGraw, 2014).  

Reference 

Hall, J. L., & McGraw, D. (2014). For Telehealth To Succeed, Privacy And Security Risks Must Be Identified And Addressed. Health Affairs, 33(2), 216–221. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0997Links to an external site. 

 

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Collapse SubdiscussionAtem Orock 

Atem Orock 

Jan 5, 2023Jan 5 at 10:10pm 

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Hi Anupa,  

Thanks for sharing your experience before Electronic Health Records (EHR). I had the same experience working at a nursing home when I first graduated. It was very time consuming to document on paper manually, and I would be at work for almost 2 hours extra after end of shift. Most of the nurses who had been working there for almost 15 to 20 years ,thought it was a tactic for me to get paid for extra hours. This led to many problems for me, fresh out of nursing school and having no guidance from the senior nurses. I took my time because it was my first time doing anything like that and I did not want to make any mistakes. That was many years ago, and I am so grateful EHR is available for nurses now, especially in bigger hospitals like the one I currently work at with the large amount of data we have to deal with.  

With EHR, protecting patient privacy is important (Abouelmehdi et al., 2018). 

Telehealth is promising just like you mentioned. Providing care remotely is something we saw a lot during Covid 19 (Skiba, 2017). For those who just need to see the doctor for some minor consultations or yearly checkups, this works perfectly. But for those who need the doctor to physically assess something on their body, this might not be ideal. Sometimes, the doctor needs to physically touch something or physically see it to make the right diagnosis as you mentioned as well.  

 

References 

Abouelmehdi, K., Beni-Hessane, A. & Khaloufi, H. (2018) Big healthcare data: preserving security and privacy. J Big Data5, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-017-0110-7Links to an external site. 

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation tools to appraise social media and mobile applications Links to an external site.. Informatics, 4(3), 32–40.  

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Collapse SubdiscussionVida Sarpong 

Vida Sarpong 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 5:58pm 

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Hello Anupa, 

         I reckon that the potential risk while using EHR is data breaches of sensitive patients’ information. With the continued advancement of electronic health records (EHRs), there is increasing concern that a potential loss of documentation integrity could lead to compromised patient care, care coordination, and quality reporting and research as well as fraud and abuse.  (The American Health Information Management Association., n.d.).  The patient’s confidential material can often be accessed by licensed and unauthorized employees of the healthcare companies which leaves the patient’s health information without protection. Fortunately, it is known that by failing to keep patient records private, your organization could face substantial penalties under HIPAA’s Privacy and Security Rules, as well as potential harm to its reputation within your community. Most importantly, patient safety and care delivery may also be jeopardized (AHA, n.d.). Despite its advantages and continuing shortcomings in the healthcare industry, electronic health records have significantly contributed to improving patient care and the provision of better patient outcomes. 

References 

American Hospital Association. (n.d.). The importance of cybersecurity in protecting patient safety | Cybersecurity | Center  AHA.  

https://www.aha.org/center/cybersecurity-and-risk-advisory-services/importance-cybersecurity-protecting-patient-safetyLinks to an external site. 

The American Health Information Management Association. (n.d.). The American Health Information Management Association. Integrity of the Healthcare Record: Best Practices for EHR Documentation.  

https://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=300257#.Y7ilDHbMKUkLinks to an external site. 

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Collapse SubdiscussionVida Sarpong 

Vida Sarpong 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 5:59pm 

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Hello Anupa, 

         I reckon that the potential risk while using EHR is data breaches of sensitive patients’ information. With the continued advancement of electronic health 

records (EHRs), there is increasing concern that a potential loss of documentation integrity could lead to compromised patient care, care coordination, and 

quality reporting and research as well as fraud and abuse.  (The American Health Information Management Association., n.d.).  The patient’s confidential 

material can often be accessed by licensed and unauthorized employees of the healthcare companies which leaves the patient’s health information without 

protection. Fortunately, it is known that by failing to keep patient records private, your organization could face substantial penalties under HIPAA’s Privacy 

and Security Rules, as well as potential harm to its reputation within your community. Most importantly, patient safety and care delivery may also be 

jeopardized (AHA, n.d.). Despite its advantages and continuing shortcomings in the healthcare industry, electronic health records have significantly contributed to improving patient care and the provision of better patient outcomes. 

References 

American Hospital Association. (n.d.). The importance of cybersecurity in protecting patient safety | Cybersecurity | Center  AHA.  

https://www.aha.org/center/cybersecurity-and-risk-advisory-services/importance-cybersecurity-protecting-patient-safetyLinks to an external site. 

The American Health Information Management Association. (n.d.). The American Health Information Management Association. Integrity of the Healthcare Record: Best Practices for EHR Documentation.  

https://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=300257#.Y7ilDHbMKUk 

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Collapse SubdiscussionAmbria Boutan 

Ambria Boutan 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 10:08pm 

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Hi Anupa,  

Thank you for sharing on this topic. It is a big shift for healthcare organizations to switch from paper charts to electronic charts. Many hospitals while utilizing EHRs, also still have paper charts for their patients. I think this is interesting as in my experience I have not seen many hospitals putting any information into the paper charts. It seems that they just have them for the sake of having them but do not really utilize them for any specific patient information. At the end of the day, making the switch from paper charts to electronic health records has many benefits and is a smart decision from healthcare organizations. The biggest benefit to EHR is that it creates efficient patient care practices and efficient communication between providers which will result in better patient outcomes (Medical Practice Efficiencies & Cost Savings | HealthIT.gov, n.d.).  

I also agree with you that Telehealth is a promising aspect of technology in healthcare. Telehealth has the potential to provide many benefits to all aspects of patient care and creates a patient provider contact method that many be much more convenient for patients (Alu, 2022). With the use of Telehealth, patients who live in rural access have the ability to be seen by their provider same day. Patients also have the ability to continue follow up care with their provider and ensure that they are being compliant with their care while maintaining their health. A big downside to Telehealth is that providers are unable to assess their patients, which could cause them to miss big clues about the patient’s health condition and could result in misdiagnoses. 

References  

Alu, A. (2022, September 15). The Future of Telehealth. School of Public Health. https://publichealth.tulane.edu/blog/future-of-telehealth/ 

Medical Practice Efficiencies & Cost Savings | HealthIT.gov. (n.d.). https://www.healthit.gov/topic/health-it-and-health-information-exchange-basics/medical-practice-efficiencies-cost-savings 

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Shirley Moreta 

Jan 4, 2023Jan 4 at 12:09pm 

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Thank you Fatmata for your in-depth discussion about health care technology trends and I agree that the sector is evolving and embracing innovative ideas as well as implementation of evidence-based practices to enhance patient care outcomes. The increased use of telehealth as a health technology emanates from the need to expand services for patients in remote locations (Totten et al., 2022). Telehealth has been a prominent part of care delivery as the health system battles the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to reduce exposure to the infectious disease, especially among patients with terminal illnesses and weakened immunity (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). Telehealth also improves quality of care and patient’s well-being. 

Conversely, the technology entails risks as you observe, like coverage setbacks and lack of regulatory guidelines, particularly from federal agencies like Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Organizations are leveraging benefits of telehealth and this will ensure that more patients have access to healthcare services despite their location. 

As you note, despite its risks and challenges, telehealth remains one of the promising technology trends that will define and influence care delivery for patients and improve nursing practice due to seamless exchange of information and better decision making for providers (Rutledge & Gustin, 2021). For instance, the use of telehealth in triage seems revolutionary but is possible while mobile applications can improve the intervention to help patients get access to their providers and monitor their status, particularly those with chronic conditions (Mishra et al., 2022). As you observe, telehealth will health providers and patients lower the overall cost of healthcare and improve interventions accessible to diverse populations. The implication is that these benefits will lead to better care provision, efficiencies and effective decision making for all stakeholders. 

References 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge 

            (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Mishra, S., Dhuna, N., Lancki, N., Yeh, C., & Larson, D. N. (2022). Telehealth utilization and 

patient satisfaction in an ambulatory movement disorders center during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X221146819. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221146819 

Rutledge, C. M., & Gustin, T. (2021). Preparing nurses for roles in telehealth: Now is the time. 

            The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 26(1). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol26No01Man03 

Totten, A. M., Womack, D. M., Griffin, J. C., McDonagh, M. S., Davis-O’Reilly, C., Blazina, I., 

… & Elder, N. (2022). Telehealth-guided provider-to-provider communication to improve rural health: A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X221139892. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221139892 

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Collapse SubdiscussionVida Sarpong 

Vida Sarpong 

Jan 5, 2023Jan 5 at 4:26pm 

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Hello Fatmata,  

 

          I completely concur with your response. Telehealth represents one of the most promising technological innovations that has a beneficial impact on 

nursing practice. To meet the patients’ needs and with the current nursing shortage, many homecare agencies have to look at innovative ways to care for the 

increasing numbers of patients. Telehealth technology offers productivity improvement for nurses by reducing travel time to remote areas, through increasing 

the average daily caseload. Telenursing offers an access to care and the ability to export nursing care using technology. It is a powerful tool for overall 

improvement in healthcare. Several measures should be taken for telenursing implementation into practice for all nurses (Glinkowski et al., 2013). In terms 

of providing better patient outcomes, nurses are often a patient’s first point of contact when seeking healthcare and a patient’s primary source of health 

education and long-term health monitoring. In many institutions, nurses have also taken the lead on integrating telehealth services into patient care (Southern 

New Hampshire University, 2020). In all, through telenursing, nurses can provide monitoring, education, follow-up, remote data collection and interventions, 

pain management, family support, and multidisciplinary care in an innovative way. It is a good tool to deliver care in remote regions and to facilitate practice 

(Glinkowski et al., 2013).  

References 

 

Glinkowski, W., Pawłowska, K., & Kozłowska, L. (2013). Telehealth and Telenursing Perception and Knowledge Among University Students of Nursing in Poland. Telemedicine and E-Health, 19(7), 523–529.  

https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2012.0217Links to an external site. 

Southern New Hampshire University. (2020, May 4). The Role of Telehealth in Nursing. Links to an external site. 

https://www.snhu.edu/about-us/newsroom/health/role-of-telehealth-in-nursing/Links to an external site. 

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Collapse SubdiscussionMackenzie Hudnall-Ellington 

Mackenzie Hudnall-Ellington 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 5:02pm 

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Fatmata,  

Thank you for sharing your thoughts on telehealth! I agree that it can be a very useful tool for nurses and healthcare professionals, as it allows them to connect with patients remotely and provide care and support even when they are not physically present. Telehealth can also be very beneficial for patients, as it can provide them with more convenient and accessible healthcare options and can help to reduce barriers to care, such as transportation issues or difficulty taking time off work “special attention should be paid to ensure that telehealth narrows, and not widens, the currently existing disparities in access to healthcare.” (Mahtta, et al, 2021). Additionally, as you mentioned, telehealth can help to reduce healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes by allowing for more frequent and timely communication between patients and their healthcare teams “Increasing emphases on patient satisfaction, providing efficient and quality care, and minimizing costs have also led to higher telehealth implementation” (Gajarawaka, Pelkowski, 2020). Overall, it seems that telehealth has the potential to be a very positive development in the field of nursing and healthcare. 

References 

N.Gajarawala, S., & N.Pelkowski, J. (2020, October 21). Telehealth benefits and barriers. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. Retrieved January 6, 

2023, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1555415520305158Links to an external site. 

Mahtta, D., Daher, M., Lee, M. T., Sayani, S., Shishehbor, M., & Virani, S. S. (2021, July 16). Promise and perils of telehealth in the current era – current 

cardiology reports. SpringerLink. Retrieved January 6, 2023, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11886-021-01544-w#citeas 

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Collapse SubdiscussionAtem Orock 

Atem Orock 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 10:49pm 

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Hi Fatmata,  

Thanks for a great post. Telehealth, which is medical information transferred electronically (Tuckson et al., 2017), has improved and changed the way healthcare has been delivered in recent years. As you mentioned, this was very helpful during COVID19. During that time, most people if not everyone was so afraid to get infected. I do not know how other health issues would have been handled without telehealth. This technology has been beneficial to the healthcare industry, especially as it has saved many a trip to the ER and a lot of money (Mataxen & Webb, 2019). 

While telehealth comes with many benefits, it has many disadvantages. You mentioned lack of medicaid guidelines coverage as one of these disadvantages. This makes it difficult for most people (Tuckson et al., 2017). Despite its disadvantages, I agree with you that telehealth is promising. Not only does it save time, it enables care to be provided faster since appointments do not have to be made weeks or even months ahead (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2017). 

 

References 

Mataxen, P. A., & Webb, L. D. (2019). Telehealth nursing: More than just a phone call. Nursing, 49(4), 11–13. https://doi org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000553272.16933.4b 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Tuckson, R. V., Edmunds, M., & Hodgkins, M. L. (2017). Telehealth. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(16), 1585-1592. 

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Collapse SubdiscussionSarah Gloria Alebesun 

Sarah Gloria Alebesun 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 11:19pm 

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Hi Fatmata, 

Thank you for sharing your insight on telehealth. The delivery of health care, health education, and health information via remote technologies has positively impacted medical care. Telehealth provides medical care electronically through live video, conferencing, mobile apps, electronic transmission, and remote patient monitoring. Although both telehealth and telemedicine are used by healthcare professionals interchangeable, the advancement of telehealth has led to the incorporation of more advanced technologies. Telemedicine is the use of technologies and telecommunication systems to deliver care to patients who do not have access to healthcare due to their geographical location. Consultations via video conferences is also a component of Telemedicine. Telehealth encompasses telemedicine and the supporting technical attributes that support telemedicine. Wearable devices that record and transmit vital signs and other diagnostics test are examples of telehealth (Gu et al., 2021).  As the demand and awareness of telemedicine grows, many health insurances plans started providing coverage for teleconsultations. Insurance providers in the in the United States have plans in place to reimburse providers and encourage consultation via telehealth. In July 2022, legislations to extend vital telehealth reimbursement were passed by the House. If passed by the senate, the bill would prolong Medicare telehealth flexibilities through 2024 (Policy & Medicine, 2023). 

 

 

Reference 

Gu, D., Humbatova, G., Xie, Y., Yang, X., Zolotarev, O., & Zhang, G. (2021). Different Roles of Telehealth and Telemedicine on Medical Tourism: An Empirical Study from Azerbaijan. Healthcare, 9(8), 1073. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081073Links to an external site. 

 

House Passes Legislation to Extend Telehealth Reimbursement Flexibilities. (n.d.). Policy & Medicine. Retrieved January 7, 2023, from https://www.policymed.com/2022/09/house-passes-legislation-to-extend-telehealth-reimbursement-flexibilities.htmlLinks to an external site. 

 

 

 

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Collapse SubdiscussionAndrea White 

Andrea White 

Jan 7, 2023Jan 7 at 12:19am 

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Response #1 

Hi Fatamata,  

I enjoyed reading your discussion post. Telehealth encompasses health services provided using video and audio technology. Initially, the primary reason for offering telehealth was to provide healthcare services to rural and underserved patients. Since the COVID pandemic telehealth has become the standard in healthcare practices.  The usage of telehealth has improved overall patient satisfaction, quality of care and the minimized cost has also led to higher telehealth implementation. The widespread usage has also been hindered by regulatory, legal, reimbursement barriers, and technology usage among older adults and internet speeds in rural or underserved areas (Gajarawala & Pelkowski, 2021).  Telehealth can assist in controlling the spread of diseases such as the flu and Covid-19. This is primarily important for those who are immunocompromised, pregnant, or elderly. Providers can see firsthand how their patients live by getting a closer look at their home environment. These rapid expansions in clinical care and education have brought the need for research and policy to ensure high standards and equity in clinical care and education (Zemlak et al., 2021). 

References 

Gajarawala, S. N., & Pelkowski, J. N. (2021). Telehealth benefits and barriers. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 17(2), 218–221.  Links to an external site.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.09.013Links to an external site. 

Zemlak, J. L., Wilson, P., VanGraafeiland, B., & Rodney, T. (2021). Telehealth and the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner: Beyond the covid-19 pandemic. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 107839032110451.  Links to an external site.https://doi.org/10.1177/10783903211045119Links to an external site. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Collapse SubdiscussionOluremilekun Taylor 

Oluremilekun Taylor 

Jan 7, 2023Jan 7 at 1:30am 

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Hello Fatmata, i appreciate the fact that you mention issues regarding insurance coverages, patient satisfaction and reduced exposure. Truly, it is without doubt that the advances in technology impact health care and health science careers in a huge way. Advanced technologies are being used to improve efficacy and care, and different technologies are being built to share information with other health care providers and organizations (HealthIT.gov, 2018). This allows for collaboration and continuum of care for patients in different settings. 

In terms of threats, careers such as medical and nursing assistants face an imminent threat of extinction since robots can take up the roles of monitoring patients and alerting the nursing team or the care team- although it has been proven that technology can help detect health threats, situational awareness, response, and communications of illnesses (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2022). The deposition to robotic technology would be the lack of social interaction. 

Preclinical studies show that social interactions such as a professional healthcare and patient relationship has the potential to release certain hormones and peptides such as oxytocin that help with healing. Research also shows that neurophysiological and neurochemical effects of trauma on the brain and body can be improved by social interactions (Sharma et al., 2020). 

As we continue to advance in technology there’s an increased threat to ordinary human interaction, as we can witness now, parents on cell phones and their children on cell phones sitting across from each other at dinner with lack of interest in communicating with each other. Although modern technology is innovating and extraordinary, we must not let it blind us from life’s simple treasures such as social interactions. 

References 

HealthIT.gov. (2018c). What is an electronic health record (EHR)? Retrieved January 5, 2022, from https://www.healthit.gov/faq/what-electronic-health-record-ehrLinks to an external site. 

Sharma, S. R., Gonda, X., Dome, P., & Tarazi, F. I. (2020). What’s Love Got to do with it: Role of oxytocin in trauma, attachment and resilience. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 214, 107602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107602Links to an external site. 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2022). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

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Collapse SubdiscussionAmbria Boutan 

Ambria Boutan 

Jan 7, 2023Jan 7 at 9:15pm 

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Hi Fatmata,  

Thanks for sharing on this topic. Telehealth is a technological aspect of healthcare that really came into play during the pandemic. As the pandemic spread, the use of Telehealth was a unique opportunity for patients to visit with their providers while ensuring that patients and providers stayed safe and healthy, reducing the risk of spreading the disease.  

Telehealth also has the potential to provide care for many conditions and providers can treat physical and mental illness through the use of Telehealth (Telehealth: Technology Meets Health Care, 2022). Providers can even prescribe medications after a virtual Telehealth visit (Telehealth: Technology Meets Health Care, 2022). Providers can also implement remote monitoring using Telehealth where patients can upload different information about their health conditions and the provider can monitor progress or setbacks (Telehealth: Technology Meets Health Care, 2022). This may be useful for a diabetic who is struggling to keep their blood glucose under control – the patient can log their food as well as their sugar levels and the provider can remotely monitor their progress and symptoms (Telehealth: Technology Meets Health Care, 2022).  

There are some drawbacks to Telehealth as well that could become risks for patients. For example, patients may not see a regular provider when using a Telehealth service which may make it difficult for the patient to feel comfortable and safe in the care they are receiving as well as it being difficult for any provider to monitor true progress for the patient (Telehealth: Technology Meets Health Care, 2022). Another drawback may be seen in patients who have complex medical history as their provider will not be able to examine them physically and it may be harder to tell if certain conditions are getting better or worse (Telehealth: Technology Meets Health Care, 2022).  

Telehealth is a great tool that we now have access too but must be used in moderation and at the appropriate times. The future of Telehealth is only projected to exponentially grow with projections of Telehealth market to rise to nearly $397 billion by 2027 (Edelmann, 2022). In 2019, the Telehealth market was only worth $42 billion, so the projected growth is exponential (Edelmann, 2022). With this projected growth it will be interesting to see how Telehealth changes the future of healthcare and how patient conditions are managed in the future. As providers we must do our part and ensure that we are utilizing and recommending the utilization of Telehealth only during the appropriate times to ensure the safety and security of our patients. 

References  

Edelmann, S. (2022, April 27). The future of telehealth: 8 trends | Healthcare Transformers. HEALTHCARE TRANSFORMERS. https://healthcaretransformers.com/digital-health/future-of-telehealth/ 

Telehealth: Technology meets health care. (2022, June 18). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/telehealth/art-20044878?reDate=08012023 

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Collapse SubdiscussionShirley Moreta 

Shirley Moreta 

Jan 2, 2023Jan 2 at 11:41pm 

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Healthcare Information Technology Trends 

The use of technology in healthcare is one of the most defining directions for care provision in nursing practice in different settings and specialties. Healthcare information technology trends focus on utilization of big data generated by different activities and processes in patient care management and delivery (Whaley et al., 2020). The general technology trends in my healthcare organization and nursing practice include use of telehealth and electronic health records (EHRs). Informatics nurses, like other specialty nurses leverage telehealth to provide services to patients, especially in remote locations and those from underserved areas in rural areas and low-income urban settings (Bashir & Bastola, 2018). Telehealth provides benefits to patients as it saves on costs associated with travel time and reduces their exposure to diseases as witnessed at the peak of the Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nurses develop specific skill sets and knowledge because of telehealth to offer healthcare services virtually. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) is also a trend defining the delivery of quality care for nurses to patients (Wakefield et al., 2022). This means that nurses can offer accurate care and reduce errors because of leveraging EHRs to get patient information and devise appropriate care plans in collaboration with patients and their families. 

Conversely, the challenges associated with the use of telehealth and EHRs is the need to protect data and ensure that there is seamless sharing of patient information that is accurate and of high quality without any interferences. The risk of interference may lead to patients not feeling secure to offer their personal information. Again, telehealth requires increased resources for the healthcare system to invest in and ensure that it works to meet the set organizational goals. 

The potential benefit associated with data safety, legislation and patient care of these two technologies include increased efficiency and protection of patient information based on Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements. According to HIPAA’s privacy rule and protected health information (PHI), providers should not disclose patient information without their express consent (Totten et al., 2022). Further, the law requires that the protected health information remains confidential and private where any violation may lead to legal actions against the provider and the organization. Through these requirements, providers offer quality patient care because of minimal errors and possible chances of violations. The implication is that patient data remains safe, there is increased efficiency to meet legal mandates, and data protection as well as better service delivery that translates to quality patient care (Rutledge & Gustin, 2021). However, one possible risk is the increased chances of data violations because of hacking that may compromise the quality of data emanating from EHRs and its use in telehealth to provide patient care services. 

The healthcare technology trends that are most promising in impacting technology adoption in nursing practice include artificial intelligence and use of mobile applications supported by smartphone’s proliferation. These smart devices leverage artificial intelligence to help providers make better clinical decisions and monitor patients, especially those in remote locations with chronic conditions like hypertension (Lee & Yoon, 2021). These technologies improve access to quality care and efficiency in flow of services offered to patients. 

The use of these technologies will contribute to improvements in patient care outcomes, efficiencies as well as management of data in various ways. For instance, artificial intelligence allows nurses to optimize care interventions through AI-based diagnostic algorithms (Lee & Yoon, 2021). Nurses from underserved populations and communities can leverage mobile apps to connect with colleagues and track patients’ progress (Mayer et al., 2019). The implication is that these technologies will offer better outcomes and increase operational efficiencies in nursing practice across care continuum. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References 

Bashir, A., & Bastola, D. R. (2018). Perspectives of nurses toward telehealth efficacy and quality 

of health care: Pilot study. JMIR Medical Informatics, 6(2), e9080. DOI: 10.2196/medinform.9080 

Lee, D., & Yoon, S. N. (2021). Application of artificial intelligence-based technologies in the 

healthcare industry: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 271. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010271 

Mayer, M. A., Blanco, O. R., & Torrejon, A. (2019). Use of health apps by nurses for 

professional purposes: Web-based survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Research mHealth and uHealth, 7(11), e15195. https://doi.org/10.2196/15195 

Mishra, S., Dhuna, N., Lancki, N., Yeh, C., & Larson, D. N. (2022). Telehealth utilization and 

patient satisfaction in an ambulatory movement disorders center during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X221146819. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221146819 

Rutledge, C. M., & Gustin, T. (2021). Preparing nurses for roles in telehealth: Now is the time. 

            The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 26(1). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol26No01Man03 

Totten, A. M., Womack, D. M., Griffin, J. C., McDonagh, M. S., Davis-O’Reilly, C., Blazina, I., 

… & Elder, N. (2022). Telehealth-guided provider-to-provider communication to improve rural health: A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X221139892. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221139892 

Wakefield, M., Sankaranarayanan, J., Conroy, J. M., McLafferty, S., Moser, R., Murry, V. M., & 

Slifkin, R. (2022). National Institutes of Health pathways to prevention workshop: Improving rural health through telehealth-guided provider-to-provider communication. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 1357633X221139630. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X221139630 

Whaley, C. M., Pera, M. F., Cantor, J., Chang, J., Velasco, J., Hagg, H. K., … & Bravata, D. M. 

(2020). Changes in health services use among commercially insured US populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA network open, 3(11), e2024984-e2024984. DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24984 

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Collapse SubdiscussionAnupa Mukundram Mehta 

Anupa Mukundram Mehta 

Jan 4, 2023Jan 4 at 7:31am 

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Hi Shirley, 

Great post and very detailed! I also discussed the risks and benefits of EHRs and telehealth. EHRs are very convenient in that multiple healthcare providers can access the same patient and see up-to-date information immediately (HealthIT.gov, 2018). One risk of EHRs that interested me is the risk of data breaches, as someone who can access an EHR would have access to thousands of patients’ date of birth, address, medical information, and more. Staff at my hospital have been subject to phishing schemes by third parties, that try to get us to open a link in our email. In response, our IT department along with informatics nurses have come up with great educational materials and modules to have us always thinking of security. Two-factor authentication, regular training, and more have helped mitigate the risk of data breaches with our EHR (Abouelmehdi et al., 2018). 

References: 

HealthIT.gov. (2018c). What is an electronic health record (EHR)?  Retrieved from 
https://www.healthit.gov/faq/what-electronic-health-record-ehrLinks to an external site. 

Abouelmehdi, K., Beni-Hessane, A. & Khaloufi, H. (2018) Big healthcare data: preserving security and privacy. J Big Data5, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-017-0110-7Links to an external site. 

 

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Collapse SubdiscussionCareen Lynette Sisk 

Careen Lynette Sisk 

Jan 4, 2023Jan 4 at 5:30pm 

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                                                                                   Week 6 Discussion Response #1 

Hello Shirley. Thanks for your post this week. I agree with your statements regarding the benefits of telehealth services. What we saw increased because of COVID-19 is likely here to stay. There are many benefits to using telehealth, including increased access to care and improvements in cost containment. There are also barriers, like poor internet signals compromising the quality of the interaction with the provider and issues with reimbursement of care received with this service. Gajarawala and Pelkowski (2021) state, “approval and acceptance are increasing because telehealth is an efficient and effective tool for improving healthcare access and outcomes” (p. 220). 

Another technological advancement that isn’t going anywhere is the smartphone. Almost everyone has instant access to the internet in their pocket. The mobile applications developed have branched into the healthcare realm. Consumers can purchase apps to provide health and wellness education, and patient portals are offered through healthcare organizations so patients can readily access their personal health information. With the popularity of using the internet and these phone apps for information, “It is important that educators begin to incorporate knowledge and skills for evaluating social media tools and mobile apps into the curriculum of healthcare professionals” (Skiba, 2017, p. 37). 

                                                                                                      References: 

Gajarawala, S. N., & Pelkowski, J. N. (2021). Telehealth Ben efits and Barriers. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 17(2), p. 218-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.09.013Links to an external site. 

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation Tools to Appraise Social Media and Mobile Applications. Informatics, 4(3), p. 32-40. doi:10.3390/informatics4030032 

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Collapse SubdiscussionEsther O Adeyemo 

Esther O Adeyemo 

Jan 6, 2023Jan 6 at 1:35am 

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Hello Shirley, 

I agree with you on the challenges of HER. One potential area of concern is the security of the data. Even though technology places an emphasis on the data and information of patients, there are still concerns about privacy and security. The adoption of an electronic health record system has been shown to provide superior results since it saves time and gathers all of the relevant information in one location (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2017). It also gives relief to the patients as they need not to provide all the information again on the revisiting the healthcare organization. It has reduced the workload on the healthcare professionals. For example, how consent is obtained, and patient trust plays a part in the safety of data. If trust is not kept, then patients may not be willing to give important information when seeking care. This safety issue can be reduced or decreased by data encryption, password implementation (Hansen et al., 2018). 

References 

Hansen J, Lazow M & Hagedorn P. (2018). Reducing Interdisciplinary Communication Failures Through Secure Text Messaging: A Quality Improvement Project. doi: 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000053 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

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Collapse SubdiscussionTinuola Olaniyan 

Tinuola Olaniyan 

Jan 3, 2023Jan 3 at 8:20am 

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Healthcare Trends concerning Data Information 

The healthcare technology trend I have observed in the work environment is a technology system designed to aid in expediting discharges. The program was designed in collaboration with healthcare team members, informaticist, and the IT department. It is called “CareComm.” This program was built into Epic under the organization’s portal. It is accessed under what is called “Teams”. Only Case Management and all management have access to the program. The role nurses play in the system is participating in the safety huddle by accessing “Teams.” A physician and a patient flow facilitator lead the safety huddle. When a team member joins the conference, they can speak of any barriers via live chat with discharges, such as awaiting medical equipment, transport, and pending results, including a time frame, to name a few. Also, nurses and physicians can visualize each unit and the unit beds available within the program. Review patients with a discharge order by what is called the discharge tiles. The data with the program is ingenious as it allows the team to visualize how many discharges are identified, the units/room numbers, discharge tiles, live chat, files, meeting notes, whiteboard, calendar, calls, capacity snapshot, ED Expeditor, and patient unit managers.  

The physician and the patient flow facilitator review each unit’s discharge. When we are in a “Black Status” or “Bypass,” which means we are at maximum capacity, the management offers any assistance in expediting the patient discharge safely. This ensures efficacy, accuracy, and safety with data technology to produce quality outcomes (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2017). 

Potential Risk/Challenges of Healthcare Trend 

The physician may occasionally order a patient’s discharge, unaware that the patient is still being prepared. They sometimes need a chest x-ray, a COVID-19 test, medications from the pharmacy, additional testing, medical supplies, placement for rehabilitation, assisted living, long-term acute care facilities, home health care, or shelter. This regularly takes place. Additionally, the patient might be discharged too soon and be readmitted if the data or technology indicates that they are ready to be discharged because their vital signs, lab results, and other tests come back standard. Data and technology may indicate that a patient is ready for discharge when, in fact, they are not because of various factors. The patient may appear to be ready for discharge based on data and technology. However, in actuality, they are not because the discharge plan is not complete or external follow-up arrangements have not been established. Computer or IT errors are another risk; however, they do not frequently occur because this program is constantly being checked for accuracy. 

Benefit related to Healthcare Trend 

A potential benefit of Care Comm is that it is continuously monitored for accuracy and efficacy, and safety for expeditious discharges. In terms of benefits related to legislation, legislators are most likely on board with improving quality care outcomes and expediting process flow for the healthcare organization as this creates revenue for the organization and the government. The benefit for the patient is that it allows for an expeditious discharge based on the data within CareComm.A potential risk with this technology is that the discharge tile may depict that the patient has a discharge order but is not ready or does not have a safe discharge plan. A potential risk with legislation is not approving the utilization or use of the technology due to cost factors with operations as well as upgrades to functionality. A potential risk to the patient’s care with the utilization of this technology is that it may need to reflect an accurate picture of the patient’s status. That is why we must always check the patient and verify with team members that the patient is appropriate and has a safe discharge plan. 

Healthcare trends 

Healthcare technology is developing and transforming rapidly due to the demands of current uses and functions, suggesting a “digital revolution” (Skiba, 2017). With this in mind, the trending healthcare technologies that are projected to impact and improve patient care outcomes in practice are artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, robotics, computer and machine vision, wearable tech such as wearing a fit bit or an Apple Watch that counts steps and heart rate and detect Atrial fibrillation, Genomics, 3d Printing, Extended Reality (Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality), Digital Twins, and 5G (enabling the transmission of large imaging files), social media outlets, enhanced access to the electronic medical record for patient access and increased access for healthcare team members (Vaishya et al., 2020). With these trending healthcare technologies, it will only result in improved efficiency, improved data management, and patient care outcomes since they can accommodate the large volume of data. Some examples would be for a healthcare team member as well as the patient to have increased access to the electronic health record, organizations transmitting large radiology files for physicians as well as team members to access, utilization of robotics in more invasive procedures, wearing a fit bit to count steps to achieve a healthier lifestyle, and utilization of telehealth (seeing the physician while sick at home), just to name a few. Thus, trending healthcare technologies will continue to increase due to rapidly transforming healthcare delivery systems. These trending healthcare technologies will offer incredible opportunities to improve healthcare data and assist organizations in meeting the continuously increasing demands Impact of trends in nursing practice, Patient outcome, Efficiency, and Data Management. These new technologies will ultimately increase improved patient care outcomes as well as a daily practice. 

Telehealth as the most promising healthcare trend and Why. 

Telehealth is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunication technologies to support or promote long-distance clinical health care, patient and professional health-related education, public health, or health administration. Telehealth may include but is not limited to telemedicine. Many terms define telehealth, but some fundamental things that best describe telehealth are the remote monitoring system and its utilization of technology and consultation. It is inclusive of radiology technology. Telemedicine or telenursing is the clinical aspect of patient care, patient education, and technology. Telemedicine allows healthcare providers the opportunity to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients without the need for an in-person visit. Telehealth helps solve the shortage of healthcare providers, decreases the distance and time of the visit, and keeps patients discharged. 

References 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K.G. (2017). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of knowledge (4th ed). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation Tools to Appraise Social Media and Mobile Applications Informatics, 4(3), 32. https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9709/4/3/32 

Sood, S., Mbarika, V., Jugoo, S., Dookhy, R., Doarn, C. R., Prakash, N., & Merrell, R. C. (2007). What is telemedicine? A collection of 104 peer-reviewed perspectives and theoretical underpinnings. Telemedicine and e-Health, 13(5), 573–590. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2006.0073 

Vaishya, R., Javaid, M., Khan, I. H., & Haleem, A. (2020). Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications for COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 14(4), 337-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.012