NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW

Sample Answer for NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW Included After Question

Is there a difference between “common practice” and “best practice”? 

When you first went to work for your current organization, experienced colleagues may have shared with you details about processes and procedures. Perhaps you even attended an orientation session to brief you on these matters. As a “rookie,” you likely kept the nature of your questions to those with answers that would best help you perform your new role. 

Over time and with experience, perhaps you recognized aspects of these processes and procedures that you wanted to question further. This is the realm of clinical inquiry. 

Clinical inquiry is the practice of asking questions about clinical practice. To continuously improve patient care, all nurses should consistently use clinical inquiry to question why they are doing something the way they are doing it. Do they know why it is done this way, or is it just because we have always done it this way? Is it a common practice or a best practice? 

In this Assignment, you will identify clinical areas of interest and inquiry and practice searching for research in support of maintaining or changing these practices. You will also analyze this research to compare research methodologies employed. 

RESOURCES 

NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW
NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.  

WEEKLY RESOURCES 

To Prepare: 

  • Review the Resources and identify a clinical issue of interest that can form the basis of a clinical inquiry. Keep in mind that the clinical issue you identify for your research will stay the same for the entire course.  
  • Based on the clinical issue of interest and using keywords related to the clinical issue of interest, search at least four different databases in the Walden Library to identify at least four relevant peer-reviewed articles related to your clinical issue of interest. You should not be using systematic reviews for this assignment, select original research articles. 
  • Review the results of your peer-reviewed research and reflect on the process of using an unfiltered database to search for peer-reviewed research. 
  • Reflect on the types of research methodologies contained in the four relevant peer-reviewed articles you selected. 

Part 1: Identifying Research Methodologies 

After reading each of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected, use the Matrix Worksheet template to analyze the methodologies applied in each of the four peer-reviewed articles. Your analysis should include the following: 

  • The full citation of each peer-reviewed article in APA format. 
  • A brief (1-paragraph) statement explaining why you chose this peer-reviewed article and/or how it relates to your clinical issue of interest, including a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest. 
  • A brief (1-2 paragraph) description of the aims of the research of each peer-reviewed article. 
  • A brief (1-2 paragraph) description of the research methodology used. Be sure to identify if the methodology used was qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed-methods approach. Be specific. 
  • A brief (1- to 2-paragraph) description of the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected. 

BY DAY 7 OF WEEK 3 

Submit your Evidence-Based Project. 

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A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW

Title: NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW

An Introduction to Clinical Inquiry and Research Methodologies 

Clinical issues have profound impacts on health care providers and patients, given that they pose a significant risk to the quality of care, patient safety, and nursing staff’s wellbeing. Workplace incivility, characterized by discourteous and disrespectful actions, is typical in the nursing practice. It is among the issues that adversely affect nurses’ confidence and interprofessional collaboration. Anxiety is also high in workplaces where nursing incivility is not effectively controlled, fueling burnout and turnover (Shi et al., 2018). Effective control of nursing incivility is vital to optimizing care quality and patient safety. Since interventions should be evidence-based, it is crucial to search for evidence from credible research as summarized in the matrix worksheet. 

 

Full citation of selected article  Article #1  Article #2  Article #3  Article #4 
Kile, D., Eaton, M., deValpine, M., & Gilbert, R. (2019). The effectiveness of education and cognitive rehearsal in managing nursetonurse incivility: A pilot study. Journal of Nursing Management, 27(3), 543-552. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12709 

 

 

Abdollahzadeh, F., Asghari, E., Ebrahimi, H., Rahmani, A., & Vahidi, M. (2017). How to prevent workplace incivility?: Nurses’ perspective. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 22(2), 157-163. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-9066.205966  Armstrong, N. (2018). Management of nursing workplace incivility in the health care settings: A systematic review. Workplace Health & Safety, 66(8), 403-410. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2165079918771106  Shi, Y., Guo, H., Zhang, S., Xie, F., Wang, J., Sun, Z., … & Fan, L. (2018). Impact of workplace incivility against new nurses on job burn-out: A cross-sectional study in China. BMJ Open, 8(4), e020461. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2017-020461 
Why you chose this article and/or how it relates to the clinical issue of interest (include a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest)  It is a comprehensive article exploring the importance of enhanced awareness through educational programs in reducing nurse-to-nurse incivility. The article explains how cognitive rehearsal techniques can help nurses to cope with incivility. Al-Ghabeesh and Qattom (2018) also supported the role of cognitive rehearsal in helping nurses to cope with workplace problems since it prepares them mentally to cope with stressing situations. Regarding ethics, participation was voluntary and participants’ information treated anonymously. 

 

 

 

The article depicts workplace incivility as a disturbing phenomenon, detrimental to clinicians’ health and care delivered. Due to incivility’s psychological and somatic effects, the article investigates how it can be managed from a nurse’s perspective. Concerning research ethics, informed consent was observed to ensure that nurses participated willingly. Nurses were also allowed to withdraw willingly without getting penalized in any way.  The article was chosen since it shows the severity of workplace incivility among nurses and proposes evidence-based interventions. According to Armstrong (2018), incivility has a destructive effect as a cause of emotional upset among nurses, to the extent of risking patient care. This observation coincides with Alshehry et al. (2021) finding that workplace incivility increases the occurrence of unsafe medication administration practices. On ethics, Armstrong (2018) avoided search biases by summarizing data from different databases.   The article is an in-depth exploration of the implications of workplace incivility in health practice. It describes how workplace incivility is correlated with anxiety and job burn-out among nurses, necessitating evidence-based interventions. Regarding ethics of research, consent and anonymity are critical. Participants consented to participate in the survey and information provided was treated anonymously. 
Brief description of the aims of the research of each peer-reviewed article  The aim of the research was to help nurses to recognize incivility and reduce its impacts by confronting it through cognitive rehearsal techniques. The ability to confront incivility would improve job satisfaction.  Abdollahzadeh et al. (2017) suggested that many articles have investigated the effects of workplace incivility without proposing practical interventions. In response, the article’s primary aim is to determine how workplace incivility can be prevented in health care settings from a nurses’ perspective.  Guided by the premise that workplace incivility should be effectively controlled, the study critiques and summarized evidence that can help nursing staff to manage workplace incivility. It focused on the practical interventions that can be applied universally as nurses overcome this chronic problem.  The article’s primary aim was to investigate the impacts of workplace incivility on new nursing staff. It further examined the role that resilience plays in moderating incivility-job burn-out connection.  
Brief description of the research methodology used Be sure to identify if the methodology used was qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed-methods approach. Be specific.  Kile et al. (2019) conducted a mixed method, pilot study. Data before and after nurses received cognitive rehearsal training were obtained via surveys for comparative analysis. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data was collected via interviews. Researchers used the qualitative descriptive study design. Thus, the article is qualitative research.   The study is a systematic review of current and relevant evidence on workplace incivility. Ten studies were reviewed, implying that it is a quantitative study.   The study was a cross-sectional online survey. Participants (903 registered nurses) completed online questionnaires in May of 2016 in China. Hence, it was a quantitative research. 
A brief description of the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected.  The key strength of a mixed method approach to research is enhancing the understanding of quantitative and qualitative results’ contradictions. Regarding validity and reliability, researchers use various methods to gather information in mixed methods studies (Schoonenboom & Johnson, 2017). These methods supplement each other making the data more valid and reliable.  Generally, qualitative research allows issues to be examined in-depth. Interviews also allow researchers to ask specific questions that can be redirected as situations oblige (Thorsteinson, 2018). Regarding reliability and validity, interviews allowed one-on-one correspondence and the interview questions were designed in a way that all the participants answered the same questions despite difference locations.  A key strength of systematic reviews is getting a quick answer about a particular clinical issue from previous studies. In this case, information is readily available. Systematic reviews are highly reliable and valid too. Their conclusion about a clinical issue is derived from multiple studies that the researcher(s) assess for relevance and quality.  As a common data collection method, questionnaires have various strengths. It is possible to test many people quickly. Data (quantitative) can be generated and analyzed easily. On reliability, questionnaires facilitate the collection of large volume of data (Oden, 2019). It was the same case in the article. The results were also consistent by showing a positive correlation between workplace incivility, anxiety, and burnout.  
General Notes/Comments  The article expands the PICOT by explaining how an educational intervention (cognitive rehearsal) can advance workplace civility. It illustrates how a positive workplace can be promoted to ensure that patients receive safe and efficient care. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The article is a reliable resource that expands knowledge on workplace incivility prevention from a nurses’ perspective. It explains how improving nurses’ skills and communication ability and supporting nurses can be integral in reducing workplace incivility in health care organizations.   The article is highly informative on the implications of workplace incivility in health care settings. It further proposes interventions necessary to manage incivility including educational training on incivility to enhance awareness and communication skills. Overall, it is a useful resource to develop the PICOT.  As nurses continue solving clinical issues, application of evidence-based research is vital. The article expands research on the effects of workplace incivility, which shows the need for policy interventions and other practical solutions.  

 

Conclusion  

The research articles in the worksheet evaluate workplace incivility among nurses from multiple dimensions. Causes of nursing incivility have been studied besides impacts of the clinical problem and possible prevention measures. Interventions such as resilience training and cognitive rehearsal techniques have been proposed. The articles will be further critiqued to get the best evidence to be used as the basis for change implementation in nursing practice to reduce incivility. 

References 

Abdollahzadeh, F., Asghari, E., Ebrahimi, H., Rahmani, A., & Vahidi, M. (2017). How to prevent workplace incivility?: Nurses’ perspective. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 22(2), 157-163. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-9066.205966 

Al-Ghabeesh, S. H., & Qattom, H. (2019). Workplace bullying and its preventive measures and productivity among emergency department nurses. Israel Journal of Health Policy research, 8(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4268-x 

Alshehry, A. S., Alquwez, N., Almazan, J., Namis, I. M., & Cruz, J. P. (2019). Influence of workplace incivility on the quality of nursing care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 28(23-24), 4582-4594. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.15051 

Armstrong, N. (2018). Management of nursing workplace incivility in the health care settings: A systematic review. Workplace Health & Safety, 66(8), 403-410. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2165079918771106 

Kile, D., Eaton, M., deValpine, M., & Gilbert, R. (2019). The effectiveness of education and cognitive rehearsal in managing nursetonurse incivility: A pilot study. Journal of Nursing Management, 27(3), 543-552. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12709 

Oden, C. (2019). Validity and reliability of questionnaires: how to check. ProjectTopics. https://www.projecttopics.org/validity-and-reliability-of-questionnaires-how-to-check.html 

Shi, Y., Guo, H., Zhang, S., Xie, F., Wang, J., Sun, Z., … & Fan, L. (2018). Impact of workplace incivility against new nurses on job burn-out: A cross-sectional study in China. BMJ Open, 8(4), e020461. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2017-020461 

Schoonenboom, J., & Johnson, R. B. (2017). How to construct a mixed methods research design. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 69(2), 107-131. doi: 10.1007/s11577-017-0454-1 

Thorsteinson, T. J. (2018). A metaanalysis of interview length on reliability and validity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12186 

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW

Title: NURS 6052 EVIDENCE-BASED PROJECT, PART 1 IDENTIFYING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES NEW

Mental health disorders such as depression have immense impact on the affected populations and their significant others. Depression lowers the patient’s quality of life, as evidenced by the increased care needs, loss of productivity, and premature mortality. Nurses and other healthcare providers are increasingly involved in the implementation of evidence-based interventions to minimize burden due to depression in their populations. An example is exploring the effectiveness of technology incorporation into the treatments adopted for patients with major depression. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of telehealth interventions in improving the treatment outcomes in depression.

Full citation of selected article Article #1 Article #2 Article #3 Article #4
References

Bellanti, D. M., Kelber, M. S., Workman, D. E., Beech, E. H., & Belsher, B. E. (2022). Rapid Review on the Effectiveness of Telehealth Interventions for the Treatment of Behavioral Health Disorders. Military Medicine, 187(5–6), e577–e588. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab318

 

 

Egede, L. E., Dismuke, C. E., Walker, R. J., Acierno, R., & Frueh, B. C. (2018). Cost-Effectiveness of Behavioral Activation for Depression in Older Adult Veterans: In-Person Care Versus Telehealth. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79(5), 3853. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17m11888 Scott, A. M., Clark, J., Greenwood, H., Krzyzaniak, N., Cardona, M., Peiris, R., Sims, R., & Glasziou, P. (2022). Telehealth v. face-to-face provision of care to patients with depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 52(14), 2852–2860. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291722002331 Zhao, L., Chen, J., Lan, L., Deng, N., Liao, Y., Yue, L., Chen, I., Wen, S. W., & Xie, R. (2021). Effectiveness of Telehealth Interventions for Women With Postpartum Depression: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 9(10), e32544. https://doi.org/10.2196/32544
Why you chose this article and/or how it relates to the clinical issue of interest (include a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest) I chose this article because it examines the effectiveness of telehealth interventions for treating behavioral health disorders. The research shows that the use of telehealth in behavioral problems such as depression is comparable to face-to-face provision of psychiatry and psychotherapy services. The ethics of research related to my clinical issue of interest includes ensuring informed consent, privacy, and confidentiality when using telehealth interventions.

 

 

I chose this study because it supports the use of telehealth in mental health problems that include depression. The research shows that telehealth interventions are cost-effective as compared to face-to-face delivery of treatment interventions. The ethics of research that relate to my clinical issue of interest include safety, quality, efficiency, and patient empowerment. I chose this article because it demonstrates the effectiveness of telehealth among patients with depression as compared to face-to-face. The article demonstrates the feasibility of telehealth interventions alongside their applicability to addressing the needs of patients suffering from depression. The research ethics that will inform my clinical issue of interest include beneficence, informed consent, and patient autonomy. I chose this study because it explores the effectiveness of telehealth in improving depressive and anxiety symptoms among patients with post-partum depression. The study informs the relevance of telehealth use in the delivery of virtual care for patients suffering from mental health disorders. The issue of ethics that relates to my clinical issue is informed consent and data privacy and confidentiality.
Brief description of the aims of the research of each peer-reviewed article The aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral health treatments delivered in person as compared to telehealth through telephone and teleconference. The aim of this study was to examine whether the delivery of behavioral activation for depression through telehealth was cost-effective as compared to in-person care. The aim of this study was to compare the real-time to face-to-face therapy for patients suffering from depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of telehealth interventions in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in women with post-partum depression.
Brief description of the research methodology used Be sure to identify if the methodology used was qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed-methods approach. Be specific. This study was quantitative research. The researchers searched relevant articles on PubMed database where hand-searching of relevant systematic review, dual screening, dual of risk bias assessment, and data abstraction were done.

 

 

 

 

The research was quantitative. It was a randomized, non-inferior trial that involved assigning participants to 1 of 2 arms of 8-week behavioral activation therapy either through telehealth or in-person. The study was quantitative. It was a systematic review that utilized evidence from articles that were obtained from databases that included Cochrane Central, Embase, and Medline. The included studies were mainly randomized controlled trials that compared the use of telehealth vs face-to-face for patients with major depression. The study was quantitative. It was a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from articles that were obtained from databases that included CINAHL, Cochrane library, PsycINFO, CNKI, and Wanfang.
A brief description of the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected. One of the strengths of this study is that it compares the effectiveness of telehealth interventions with the traditional face-to-face interaction in the delivery of behavioral interventions. It also reviewed best-available evidence on the topic to come up with conclusive evidence. The reliability and validity of findings were maintained by having a third researcher independently assessing the relevance, appropriateness, and need for the selected articles and data abstraction.

 

The strength of this research is that it randomized participants into either control or intervention groups to determine the true effect of the interventions. The randomization also enhanced the validity and reliability of the research. The other strength is the use of a large sample size, which strengthened the generalizability of findings. One of the strengths of this study is that it reviewed evidence obtained from randomized controlled trials to come up with conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of telehealth as compared to face-to-face interventions in depression. The other strength is the inclusion of studies that used a high number of participants, which enhanced the generalizability of outcomes. The authors achieved reliability by using a large sample size. They ensured validity by selecting studies that related to the topic and using independent researchers in searching and extracting data from the selected articles. The study is associated with the strength of utilizing randomized controlled trials for the systematic review and meta-analysis. It also used a large sample size to ensure reliability and validity of findings. The selected studies were reviewed for potential bias, to ensure the obtained results had a high reliability rate.
General Notes/Comments This article informs the need for telehealth in the delivery of behavioral interventions for patients with mental health problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This research demonstrates that the use of telehealth is cost-effective as compared to the use of in-person interventions. This article shows the effectiveness of telehealth interventions in improving treatment outcomes among patients with depression. This study supports the use of telehealth interventions to improve outcomes among patients suffering from depression.

Conclusion

In summary, the reviewed data shows that telehealth interventions are effective in improving outcomes among patients suffering from depression. The studies show that telehealth interventions may be used to complement the use of face-to-face interventions. The results also show that telehealth reduce the costs associated with depression treatment. Therefore, its use should be explored in my practice site.

 

References

Bellanti, D. M., Kelber, M. S., Workman, D. E., Beech, E. H., & Belsher, B. E. (2022). Rapid Review on the Effectiveness of Telehealth Interventions for the Treatment of Behavioral Health Disorders. Military Medicine, 187(5–6), e577–e588. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usab318

Egede, L. E., Dismuke, C. E., Walker, R. J., Acierno, R., & Frueh, B. C. (2018). Cost-Effectiveness of Behavioral Activation for Depression in Older Adult Veterans: In-Person Care Versus Telehealth. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 79(5), 3853. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17m11888

Scott, A. M., Clark, J., Greenwood, H., Krzyzaniak, N., Cardona, M., Peiris, R., Sims, R., & Glasziou, P. (2022). Telehealth v. face-to-face provision of care to patients with depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 52(14), 2852–2860. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291722002331

Zhao, L., Chen, J., Lan, L., Deng, N., Liao, Y., Yue, L., Chen, I., Wen, S. W., & Xie, R. (2021). Effectiveness of Telehealth Interventions for Women With Postpartum Depression: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 9(10), e32544. https://doi.org/10.2196/32544

Rubric 

NURS_6052_Module02_Week03_Assignment_Rubric 
Criteria  Ratings  Pts 
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePart 1: Identifying Research Methodologies After reading each of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected, use the Matrix Worksheet template to analyze the methodologies applied in each article. Your analysis should include the following: *The full citation of each peer-reviewed article in APA format *A brief statement explaining why you chose this peer-reviewed article and/or how it relates to your clinical issue of interest, including a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest. *A brief description of the aims of the research of each article *A brief description of the research methodology used. Be sure to identify if the methodology used was qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed methods approach. 
90 to >80.0 pts 

Excellent 

The response accurately and clearly provides a full citation of each article in APA format. …The responses accurately and thoroughly explain the selection of these articles and/or how they relate to a clinical issue of interest, including a detailed explanation of the ethics of research. …The responses accurately and clearly describe the aims of the research. …The responses accurately and clearly describe the research methodology used, and clearly identify the type of methodology used with specific and relevant examples. …The responses accurately and clearly describe the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including a detailed explanation of the reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the articles selected. 

80 to >71.0 pts 

Good 

The response accurately provides a full citation of each article in APA format. …The responses accurately explain the selection of these articles and/or how they relate to a clinical issue of interest, including a detailed explanation of the ethics of research. …The responses accurately describe the aims of the research. …The responses accurately describe the research methodology used, and clearly identify the type of methodology used with specific and relevant examples. …The responses accurately describe the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including a detailed explanation of the reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the articles selected. 

71 to >62.0 pts 

Fair 

The response provides incomplete or inaccurate citations of each peer-reviewed article in APA format. …The responses inaccurately or vaguely explain the selection of these articles and/or how they relate to a clinical issue of interest, including the explanation of the ethics. …The responses inaccurately or vaguely describe the aims of the research of each article. …The responses inaccurately or vaguely describe the research methodology used and the type of methodology used, with only some examples. …The responses inaccurately or vaguely describe the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including the explanation of the reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the articles selected. 

62 to >0 pts 

Poor 

The response inaccurately and vaguely provides a citation of each peer-reviewed article in APA format or is missing. …The responses inaccurately & vaguely explain the selection of these articles and/or how they relate to a clinical issue, including the explanation of ethics of research, or they are missing. …The responses inaccurately and vaguely describe the aims of the research, or they are missing. …The responses inaccurately and vaguely describe the research methodology used, the type of methodology used with no examples present, or they are missing. …The responses inaccurately and vaguely describe the strengths of each of the methodologies used, including the explanation of the reliability and validity of the methodology, or they are missing. 

 

90 pts 
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResource Synthesis 
5 to >4.0 pts 

Excellent 

The responses provide a complete, detailed, and specific synthesis of two outside resources related to the selection of articles and two or three course-specific resources in addition to the four articles reviewed in the matrix. 

4 to >3.0 pts 

Good 

The responses provide an accurate synthesis of at least one outside resource related to the selection of articles. The response integrates at least one outside resource and two or three course-specific resources in addition to the four articles reviewed in the matrix. 

3 to >2.0 pts 

Fair 

The responses provided vaguely or inaccurately synthesize outside resources related to the selection of the articles. The response minimally integrates resources that may support the responses provided in addition to the four articles reviewed in the matrix. 

2 to >0 pts 

Poor 

The responses provide a vague and inaccurate synthesis of outside resources related to the selection of the articles and fail to integrate any resources to support the responses provided, or synthesis is missing. 

 

5 pts 
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting—English Writing Standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation. 
5 to >4.0 pts 

Excellent 

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. 

4 to >3.0 pts 

Good 

Contains a few (one or two) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 

3 pts 

Fair 

Contains several (three or four) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 

3 to >0 pts 

Poor 

Contains many (five or more) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. 

 

5 pts 
Total Points: 100