Want create site? With Free visual composer you can do it easy.

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

 

Photo Credit: Getty Images

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

The boy in the scenario was being treated with amoxicillin due to his positive rapid strep test and symptoms.  Common symptoms include fever, red swollen tonsils, purulent tonsils, pain when swallowing, petechiae, odynophagia, and swollen lymph nodes (CDC, 2021). His local symptoms of inflammation involve vascular changes and leakage into the tissues (McNance & Huether, 2019). The redness and swelling are due to increased blood flow to the area from vasodilation. Capillaries dilate and allow white blood cells to leak into the infected area. His pain is from the increased pressure on the tissues from the accumulation of fluids in the area. The purulent exudate is the end result of phagocytizing cells dying in the area and being eliminated through epithelial tissue in the throat. These cells have already reached maturity and cannot replicate anymore.  They are also sensitive to the acidic environment of the body, so they die after performing their immunological duties (McCance & Huether, 2019). The lymphatic system is the reason for the anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Lymphatic channels transport body fluids from the infection site to nodules. These nodules are swollen due to fluid shifts. The nodes act as a processing center introducing the invaders to B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages that reside in the nodes (NCBI, 2021). The immune system analyses the invaders and is able to fine tune its response.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

The boy in the scenario was being treated with amoxicillin due to his positive rapid strep test and symptoms.  Common symptoms

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

include fever, red swollen tonsils, purulent tonsils, pain when swallowing, petechiae, odynophagia, and swollen lymph nodes (CDC, 2021). His local symptoms of inflammation involve vascular changes and leakage into the tissues (McNance & Huether, 2019). The redness and swelling are due to increased blood flow to the area from vasodilation. Capillaries dilate and allow white blood cells to leak into the infected area. His pain is from the increased pressure on the tissues from the accumulation of fluids in the area. The purulent exudate is the end result of phagocytizing cells dying in the area and being eliminated through epithelial tissue in the throat. These cells have already reached maturity and cannot replicate anymore.  They are also sensitive to the acidic environment of the body, so they die after performing their immunological duties (McCance & Huether, 2019). The lymphatic system is the reason for the anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Lymphatic channels transport body fluids from the infection site to nodules. These nodules are swollen due to fluid shifts. The nodes act as a processing center introducing the invaders to B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages that reside in the nodes (NCBI, 2021). The immune system analyses the invaders and is able to fine tune its response.

The physiologic response to the amoxicillin was a type 1 hypersensitivity response. Cells in the body saw amoxicillin as a threat and started an inflammatory immune response. It all begins with mast cells. Mast cells line skin, blood vessels, and lung tissue. They can be activated by injury, chemicals, adaptive immune responses, or recognizing molecular patterns of viruses and bacteria (McCance & Huether, 2019). Immunoglobulin E (IgE), a chemical floating in blood plasm, binds to mast cells causing the release prostaglandins, interleukins, leukotrienes, and histamine through a process called degranulation. Mast cells also release chemicals that attract neutrophils and eosinophils to sites of injury where they phagocytose foreign invaders to the body. Histamine is the most important chemical in this reaction. When it binds to the H1 receptor it causes hives, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and increased mucous production. This allows phagocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and dendritic cells to enter the injured area. Red blood cells (RBCs), other body fluids, along with all white blood cells pass through causing edema to the affected areas. All of this extra fluid responding to the threat caused edema to his tongue, lips, airway and increased secretion of lung tissues. This is an urgent issue as it leads to airway compromise which is life threatening.

Strep throat is seen more in children than adults, especially ages five to 15 (CDC, 2018). Crowded areas such as schools and daycare centers increase risk of transmission (CDC, 2018). As of late, the quarantine has kept children at home so this could be slowing the spread. He is on the high end of the age for those children getting strep throat, but his social situation can also influence it.

Genetic factors play a role too. Approximately ten percent of all U.S. patients report having allergies to a penicillin class antibiotic in their past (CDC, n.d.). Parents can pass down allergies through genetics (NCBI, 2014). This is why it is a good idea to have children tested for allergies when they are younger. That way severe allergic reactions can be anticipated, and life-threatening situations can be avoided.

 

Thanks,

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (n.d.) Is it really a penicillin allergy? https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/pdfs/penicillin-factsheet.pdf

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2021, January 12) Strep throat: all you need to know. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2018, November) Group A streptococcal (gas) disease. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/strep-throat.html

McCance, K., & Huethe, S. (2019) Pathophysiology the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8thed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (2021). Adenopathy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513250/

National Center for Biotechnology. (2014) Genetics of allergic diseases. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415518/

Bottom of Form

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Grading Rubric Guidelines DQ

Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Scholarliness

Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic decisions.

  • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry clearly stating how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions
  • Evaluates literature resources to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.
  • Uses valid, relevant, and reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion
  • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry but does not clearly state how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Evaluates information from source(s) to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
  • Uses some valid, relevant, reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion.
  • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is taken from source(s) with some interpretation/evaluation, but not enough to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
  • Little valid, relevant, or reliable outside sources are used to contribute to the threaded discussion.
  • Demonstrates little or no understanding of the topic.
  • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation/evaluation.
  • The posting uses information that is not valid, relevant, or reliable
  • No evidence of the use of scholarly inquiry to inform or change professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is not valid, relevant, or reliable
Performance Category  10 9 8 4 0
Application of Course Knowledge –

Demonstrate the ability to analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles and concepts learned in the course lesson and outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations

  • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources;
  • Applies concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life.
  • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources.
  • Applies concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Interactions with classmates are relevant to the discussion topic but do not make direct reference to lesson content
  • Posts are generally on topic but do not build knowledge by incorporating concepts and principles from the lesson.
  • Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Does not demonstrate a solid understanding of the principles and concepts presented in the lesson
  • Posts do not adequately address the question posed either by the discussion prompt or the instructor’s launch post.
  • Posts are superficial and do not reflect an understanding of the lesson content
  • Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Posts are not related to the topics provided by the discussion prompt or by the instructor; attempts by the instructor to redirect the student are ignored
  • No discussion of lesson concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life
Performance Category  5 4 3 2 0
Interactive Dialogue

Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days.

(5 points possible per graded thread)

  • Exceeds minimum post requirements
  • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts three or more times in each graded thread, over three separate days.
  • Replies to a post posed by faculty and to a peer
  • Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week.
  • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days
  • Replies to a question posed by a peer

Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week.

  • Meets expectations of 2 posts on 2 different days.
  • The main post is not made by the Wednesday deadline
  • Does not reply to a question posed by a peer or faculty
  • Has only one post for the week
  • Discussion posts contain few, if any, new ideas or applications; often are a rehashing or summary of other students’ comments
  • Does not post to the thread
  • No connections are made to the topic
  Minus 1 Point Minus 2 Point Minus 3 Point Minus 4 Point Minus 5 Point
Grammar, Syntax, APA

Note: if there are only a few errors in these criteria, please note this for the student in as an area for improvement. If the student does not make the needed corrections in upcoming weeks, then points should be deducted.

Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing.

The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition

  • 2-3 errors in APA format.
  • Written responses have 2-3 grammatical, spelling, and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is generally clear, focused, and facilitates communication.
  • 4-5 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is somewhat focused.
  • 6-7 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is slightly focused making discussion difficult to understand.
  • 8-10 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is not focused, making discussion difficult to understand.
  • Post contains greater than 10 errors in APA format.
  • Written responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style does not facilitate communication.
  • The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor
0 points lost       -5 points lost
Total Participation Requirements

per discussion thread

The student answers the threaded discussion question or topic on one day and posts a second response on another day. The student does not meet the minimum requirement of two postings on two different days
Early Participation Requirement

per discussion thread

The student must provide a substantive answer to the graded discussion question(s) or topic(s), posted by the course instructor (not a response to a peer), by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT of each week. The student does not meet the requirement of a substantive response to the stated question or topic by Wednesday at 11:59 pm MT.

 

 

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.