NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet

Sample Answer for NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet Included After Question

It may seem to you that healthcare has been a national topic of debate among political leaders for as long as you can remember. 

Healthcare has been a policy item and a topic of debate not only in recent times but as far back as the administration of the second U.S. president, John Adams. In 1798, Adams signed legislation requiring that 20 cents per month of a sailor’s paycheck be set aside for covering their medical bills. This represented the first major piece of U.S. healthcare legislation, and the topic of healthcare has been woven into presidential agendas and political debate ever since. 

As a healthcare professional, you may be called upon to provide expertise, guidance and/or opinions on healthcare matters as they are debated for inclusion into new policy. You may also be involved in planning new organizational policy and responses to changes in legislation. For all of these reasons you should be prepared to speak to national healthcare issues making the news. 

In this Assignment, you will analyze recent presidential healthcare agendas. You also will prepare a fact sheet to communicate the importance of a healthcare issue and the impact on this issue of recent or proposed policy. 

To Prepare: 

  • Review the agenda priorities of the current/sitting U.S. president and at least one previous presidential administration. 
  • Select an issue related to healthcare that was addressed by two U.S. presidential administrations (current and previous). 
  • Consider how you would communicate the importance of a healthcare issue to a legislator/policymaker or a member of their staff for inclusion on an agenda. 
  • Use your Week 1 Discussion post to help with this assignment. 

The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Comparison Grid, 1-Page Analysis, and 1-page narrative) with a title page. This is an APA paper. Use 2-3 course resources and at least 2 outside resources. 

Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid 

Use the Agenda Comparison Grid Template found in the Learning Resources and complete the Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid based on the current/sitting U.S. president and the previous president, and their agendas related to the population health concern you selected. Be sure to address the following: 

  • Identify and provide a brief description of the population health concern you selected. 
  • Explain how each of the presidential administrations approached the issue. 
  • Identify the allocation of resources that the presidents dedicated to this issue. 

Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis 

Using the information you recorded in Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid on the template, complete the Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis portion of the template, by addressing the following: 

  • Which administrative agency (like HHS, CDC, FDA, OHSA) would most likely be responsible for helping you address the healthcare issue you selected and why is this agency the most helpful for the issue? 
  • How do you think your selected healthcare issue might get on the presidential agenda? How does it stay there? 
  • An entrepreneur/champion/sponsor helps to move the issue forward. Who would you choose to be the entrepreneur/champion/sponsor (this can be a celebrity, a legislator, an agency director, or others) of the healthcare issue you selected and why would this person be a good entrepreneur/ champion/sponsor? An example is Michael J. Fox is champion for Parkinson’s disease. 

Part 3: Fact Sheet 

Using the information recorded on the template in Parts 1 and 2, develop a 1-page fact sheet that you could use to communicate with a policymaker/legislator or a member of their staff for this healthcare issue. Be sure to address the following: 

  • Summarize why this healthcare issue is important and should be included in the agenda for legislation. 
  • Justify the role of the nurse in agenda setting for healthcare issues. 

By Day 7 of Week 2 

Submit your final version of Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid, Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis, and Part 3: Narrative. 

Submission and Grading Information 

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A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet

Title:  NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet

Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid

Use this Agenda Comparison Grid to document information about the population health/healthcare issue your selected and the presidential agendas. By completing this grid, you will develop a more in depth understanding of your selected issue and how you might position it politically based on the presidential agendas.

You will use the information in the Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid to complete the remaining Part 2 and Part 3 of your Assignment.

Identify the Population Health concern you selected.  

Mental Health Issue (Depression)

 

Describe the Population Health concern you selected and the factors that contribute to it. Depression is a common mental disorder that may lead to adverse health effects. It impacts how one feels, thinks, and acts. Depression can be defined as a mood disorder leading to a persistent feeling of sadness or loss of interest on things once enjoyed (Chisholm et al., 2016). Major life events that can lead to depression include bereavement, loss of a job, and others. A feeling of grief may be considered depression if it persists. It leads to both emotional and physical problems and even impacts once operations at home and work. Depression affects more than 9 million of the united states population, hence, considered a public health problem. Risk factors associated with depression include genetic features, changes in brain chemicals, environmental factors, and physiological and social factors (Chisholm et al., 2016). Symptoms include depressed mood, reduced interest, changes in appetite, fatigue, and a feeling of worthless among other things.

 

Administration (President Name) Donald Trump 

(Current President)

Barack Obama

(Previous President)

George W. Bush

(Previous President)

Describe the administrative agenda focus related to this issue for the current and two previous presidents. Donald Trump’s regime has caused major changes to the American healthcare system, for instance, attempts to weaken Obamacare. However, president Trumps agenda related to mental care are often heard from his speeches (Trump, 2019). On May first, 2019, the president made a statement that his administration is focus to address mental and behavioral health. The administration is also working to supply mentally ill individuals with resources they need such as food, housing, psychotherapy, and medications (Trump, 2019).
  • Obama improved mental health quality by signing into law the affordable care Act. The program enabled many patients experiencing depression to efficiently access to medications as well as psychotherapy services. (O’Rourke, Crawford, Morris, & Pulcini, 2017).
  • The regime supported mentally ill patients by signing the Frank Melville Supportive Housing Investment Act 2010. He provided housing resources to mentally ill patients (O’Rourke at al., 2017).
  • George Bush signed the Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act (MIOTCRA) to provide an alternative solution to imprisonment among youths experiencing substance abuse (Milstead & Short, 2019).
  • The administration appointed the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. The committee provided recommendations for improving services for adults, youths, and children with mental illness (Milstead & Short, 2019).
Identify the allocations of financial and other resources that the current and two previous presidents dedicated to this issue. The following happened in the fiscal year 2019 budget.

Trump’s administration included $15 million for a new Assertive Community Treatment for patients with serious mental illness (Milstead & Short, 2019).

 

 

 

 

 

President Barack Obama proposed the allocation of $500 million in 2016 to improve access to mental care (Milstead & Short, 2019)

 

 

In 2003, president bush proposed an increase of $212,000 increase for the Center for Mental Health Services (O’Rourke at al., 2017).
Explain how each of the presidential administrations approached the issue. Although the administration has not done much for the American healthcare, Trump has stood out to improve mental care (Trump, 2019). He is the first president to host a mental health summit at Whitehouse chat on how to combat mental problems. The administration introduced a system called integrated care for kids (InCK) model to help children with mental illness (Trump, 2019). President Obama made the greatest positive change in American healthcare. The Affordable Care Act entails good policies that have benefited individuals with mental illness. The plan enabled everyone even people with low income to easily access healthcare services. President Obama gave mental issues the best approach ever (Lamb et al., 2015). George’s administration paved the way for Obamacare. The President set a grounded platform that enabled president Obama to improve healthcare insurance policies. For instance, the American with Disability Act prohibited discrimination against mentally ill individuals (Lamb et al., 2015).

 

Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis

Using the information you recorded in Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid, complete the following to document information about the population health/healthcare issue your selected

Administration (President Name) (Current President) (Previous President) (Previous President)
Which administrative agency would most likely be responsible for helping you address the healthcare issue you selected?

 

The national institute of mental health can be useful in addressing depression in the united states of America. This agency strives to achieve a world in which mental illness is prevented and cured. Its mission is to promote the understanding and treatment of mental illness (Milstead & Short, 2019)

 

 

 

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services. It oversees care for mentally ill individuals. It included programs such as Medicaid, Medicare, and CHIP (Lamb et al., 2015). The New Freedom Commission on Mental Health was created by the George Bush administration to conduct sturdy on the U.S.A. mental health system. This administrative agency issued its recommendation in 2003. It would be very useful to address depression
How do you think your selected healthcare issue might get on the agenda for the current and two previous presidents? How does it stay there? Trump is slashing allocation set aside for healthcare services. He has also made changes to Medicare as well as Obamacare. The mentally ill individuals are influenced negatively by the new insurance policies as most of them risk losing their insurance coverage (O’Rourke at al., 2017).

The back-to-back shootings in El Paso, Texas and Dayton, Ohio that resulted in 31 deaths made trump to call for changes to the national health laws (O’Rourke at al., 2017). President trump made mental health agenda a priority after the incident.

Obama was dedicated to promoting equity in the healthcare system where everyone would have equal chances of accessing healthcare. Obamacare provided cheap health insurance to mentally ill patients (Lamb et al., 2015). George Bush was concerned about the American mental health system. Bush was a president who valued healthcare and encouraged the fight against mental health disorders and substance abuse (Kingdon, 2001).
Who would you choose to be the entrepreneur/ champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue you selected for the current and two previous presidents? Although his effort does not compare with Bush and Obama, Donald Trump has expressed adequate interest in fighting mental health problems. He has called a mental health summit at the Whitehouse and also implemented the InCK model (Trump, 2019).  Like Obama and Bush, Donald Trump does not champion depression. It is a population health problem which the three administrations have tried to address. Obama cannot be the sponsor of depression and other mental disorders because he promoted access to healthcare to ensure mentally ill patients receive adequate care (DeMarco & Tufts, 2014). George W. Bush also showed interest in helping patients with mental health. He even created a committee to study the mental care system and give recommendations. He cannot be the entrepreneur of the problem (Kingdon, 2001).

 

Note: Part 3: of the Module 1: Assignment: Agenda Comparison Grid and Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief is a 1-page Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief the you will create in a separate document.

 

Depression should be included in the agenda for the legislation because it is one of the most common and dangerous mental health problems in the United States of America. Depression is a population health problem because it impacts almost a third of the entire United States population (Chisholm et al., 2016). Many cases of depression go undiagnosed and even many cases that are diagnosed go untreated. there is a need to improve mental health services to ensure these incidences and properly diagnosed and treated, which is why it is important to include it in the agendas of legislation. According to Chisholm et al. (2016)more than 9 million Americans suffer from depression and most of them have failed to receive care and other basic needs. Despite the efforts made by the previous governments as well as the current government, the gap in treatment is still a major challenge. More research is required to invent better medications than the ones currently in use. Depression if untreated may lead to adverse health effects including suicide and death, hence, it should be made a priority in legislative agendas.

Nurses have the right and ability to influence health policy to protect the quality of care they offer to patients. The role of a nurse in agenda-setting for healthcare issues is justifiable. For example, nurses have adequate knowledge that the current healthcare system is troubled and needs change (Ellenbecker et al., 2017). The experience many nurses have while practicing in the real world of healthcare drives them to engage in agenda-setting and take advocacy role to influence laws and regulations in the larger healthcare system. Furthermore, nurses have direct contact with patients, families, and the healthcare system (Ellenbecker et al., 2017). They understand the conflicts that exist between patients/families and the healthcare system, hence, they might propose efficient agendas that cab improve patient outcomes.

Conclusion

Depression is a serious mental health problem that may have adverse health effects on the patient is not treated as early as possible. The government is obliged with the task of making access to mental healthcare available to every citizen of America. Previous administrations such as Obama and Bush have done great work to improve mental care. The Trump regime is not over; he still has time to do even better work than the previous presidents. Nurses as well have the right to participate in agenda-setting for the legislation because they have experience of working directly with patients and families. Nurses can make better policies that will result in quality patient outcomes.

References

Chisholm, D., Sweeny, K., Sheehan, P., Rasmussen, B., Smit, F., Cuijpers, P., & Saxena, S. (2016). Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry3(5), 415-424. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30024-4.

DeMarco, R., & Tufts, K. A. (2014). The mechanics of writing a policy brief. Nursing Outlook, 62(3), 219–224. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2014.04.002

Ellenbecker, C. H., Fawcett, J., Jones, E. J., Mahoney, D., Rowlands, B., & Waddell, A. (2017). A staged approach to educating nurses in health policy. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice18(1), 44-56. doi: 10.1177/1527154417709254.

Kingdon, J. W. (2001). A model of agenda-setting, with applications. Law Review, M.S.U.-D.C.L., 2(331).

Lamb, G., Newhouse, R., Beverly, C., Toney, D. A., Cropley, S., Weaver, C. A., Kurtzman, E., … Peterson, C. (2015). Policy agenda for nurse-led care coordination. Nursing Outlook, 63(4), 521–530. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2015.06.003

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

O’Rourke, N. C., Crawford, S. L., Morris, N. S., & Pulcini, J. (2017). Political efficacy and participation of nurse practitioners. Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice, 18(3), 135–148. doi:10.1177/1527154417728514

Trump. (2019). Presidential Proclamation on National Mental Health Awareness Month, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-proclamation-national-mental-health-awareness-month-2019/

 

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout. 

Assignment_Rubric 

[Control] 

  Excellent  Good  Fair  Poor 
Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid

Explain how each of the presidential administrations approached the issue.

Identify the allocations of resources that the two presidents dedicated to this issue. 

18 (18%) - 20 (20%) 

The response clearly and accurately explains how the presidential administrations approached the issue and identifies the resource allocations dedicated to the issue. 

16 (16%) - 17 (17%) 

The response accurately explains how the presidential administrations approached the issue and identifies the resource allocations dedicated to the issue. 

14 (14%) - 15 (15%) 

The response is vague or partially inaccurate in its explanation of how the presidential administrations approached the issue, and/or in the identification of the resources allocated to the issue. 

0 (0%) - 13 (13%) 

The response is missing or inaccurate in its explanation of how the presidential administrations approached the issue, and/or in the identification of the resources allocated to the issue. 

Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis- Address the following:

Which administrative agency would most likely be responsible for helping you address the healthcare issue you selected? Why is this agency most helpful?

How do you think your selected healthcare issue might get on the agenda? How does it stay there?

Who would you choose to be the entrepreneur/ champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue you selected and justify your selection. 

23 (23%) - 25 (25%) 

The response clearly and accurately identifies an administrative agency most likely to be responsible for addressing the selected healthcare issue and why that agency is most helpful.

Response clearly and accurately explains how the healthcare issue gets on the agenda and remains there.

The response clearly and accurately identifies and justifies the entrepreneur/champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue selected. 

20 (20%) - 22 (22%) 

The response identifies an administrative agency most likely to be responsible for addressing the selected healthcare issue and why that agency is most helpful.

Response clearly and accurately explains how the healthcare issue gets on the agenda and remains there.

Identification and justification of the entrepreneur/champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue is included. 

18 (18%) - 19 (19%) 

The identification of an administrative agency responsible for addressing the selected healthcare issue is vague or inaccurate and justification is inaccurate or misaligned for why that agency is most helpful.

Explanation of how the healthcare issue gets on the agenda and remains there is vague or inaccurate.

Identification and/or justification of the entrepreneur/champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue selected is inaccurate or does not align with the healthcare issue. 

0 (0%) - 17 (17%) 

Identification of an administrative agency responsible for addressing the selected healthcare issue is missing.

Explanation of how the healthcare issue gets on the agenda and remains there is inaccurate or missing.

Identification and/or justification of the entrepreneur/champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue selected is inaccurate or missing. 

Part 3: Fact Sheet

Based on your Agenda Comparison Grid for the healthcare issue you selected, develop a 1-2-page narrative that you could use to communicate with a policy- maker/legislator or a member of their staff for this healthcare issue.

Summarize why this healthcare issue is important and should be included in the agenda for legislation.

Justify the role of the nurse in agenda setting for healthcare issues 

27 (27%) - 30 (30%) 

Creates an accurate and thorough fact sheet.

Using sufficient evidence, the response provides an accurate synthesis of evidence on why this healthcare issue is important and should be included in the agenda for legislation.

Response accurately justifies the role of the nurse in agenda setting for healthcare issues. 

24 (24%) - 26 (26%) 

Creates an accurate fact sheet.

Using sufficient evidence, the response provides an accurate summary evidence on why this healthcare issue is important and should be included in the agenda for legislation.

Response accurately justifies the role of the nurse in agenda setting for healthcare issues. 

21 (21%) - 23 (23%) 

Creates a fact sheet that is partially accurate or incomplete.

Response provides an incomplete or inaccurate summary of evidence on why this healthcare issue is important and should be included in the agenda for legislation.

Response partially or inaccurately justifies the role of the nurse in agenda setting for healthcare issues. 

0 (0%) - 20 (20%) 

Creates a fact sheet that is inaccurate or incomplete.

Response provides an inaccurate summary of evidence or evidence is missing on why this healthcare issue is important and should be included in the agenda for legislation.

Response justifying the role of the nurse in agenda setting for healthcare issues is inaccurate and incomplete or missing. 

Resources  10 (10%) - 10 (10%) 

Response includes 3 or more course resources and 2 or more outside sources. 

8 (8%) - 8 (8%) 

Response includes 2-3 course resources and 2 outside sources. 

7 (7%) - 7 (7%) 

Response includes fewer than 2 course resources and/or fewer than 2 outside resources. 

0 (0%) - 6 (6%) 

Response includes 2 or fewer resources. 

Written Expression and Formatting: Paragraph

Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, low logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. 

5 (5%) - 5 (5%) 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. 

4 (4%) - 4 (4%) 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. 

3 (3%) - 3 (3%) 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%-79% of the time. 

0 (0%) - 2 (2%) 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. 

Written Expression and Formatting: English Writing Standards

Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation. 

5 (5%) - 5 (5%) 

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. 

4 (4%) - 4 (4%) 

Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 

3 (3%) - 3 (3%) 

Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 

0 (0%) - 2 (2%) 

Contains many (≥5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. 

Written Expression and Formatting:

The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, indentations, parenthetical/in- text citations, and reference list. 

5 (5%) - 5 (5%) 

Uses correct APA format with no errors. 

4 (4%) - 4 (4%) 

Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors. 

3 (3%) - 3 (3%) 

Contains several (3-4) APA format errors. 

0 (0%) - 2 (2%) 

Contains many (≥5) APA format errors. 

Total Points: 100 

Name: NURS_6050_Module01_Week02_Assignment_Rubric 

 

 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet

Title: NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet

 

NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet
NURS 6051 Agenda Comparison Grid and Factsheet

For people to receive the required health services, the government must remain committed to solve health problems. Irrespective of the political stance, the government should examine people’s health problems in detail and commit the necessary resources to solve them. The issue of health care access has been there for a long time. Lack of access or the failure to afford insurance coverage has been a leading cause, and governments have responded to the issue differently. This comparison grid compares the Bush, Obama, and Trump administrations’ efforts to enhance access by promoting insurance coverage through Medicare and other people-centered programs.

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Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid

Identify the Population Health concern you selected. Access problems to comprehensive, quality health care services

 

Describe the Population Health concern you selected and the factors that contribute to it. Always, people should have access to quality health care services. Access is crucial for promoting and maintaining health. Unfortunately, the high cost of care has been an issue for many people. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of or inadequacy of insurance coverage (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2020). Lack of access leads to unmet health needs and delays in receiving appropriate care. Various presidents of the United States focused differently on enhancing access, and their influence on insurance coverage differed profoundly.
Administration (President Name) President Trump President Obama President Bush
Describe the administrative agenda focus related to this issue for the current and two previous presidents. Committed to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act with tax deductions and health savings accounts.

No preexisting condition denials for people with continuous coverage.

Implemented the Affordable Care Act and expanded capacity.

Committed to cover all Americans through private insurance, tax credits, and subsidies.

 

Expanded private plans in Medicare

Provided tax credits and premium tax deduction for plans linked with health savings.

Identify the allocations of financial and other resources that the current and two previous presidents dedicated to this issue. Trump committed more financial resources to his administration’s health agenda. Lambrew (2018) noted that the federal health spending in 2018 comprised a larger share of the economy at 5.3% compared to Security payments (4.9%) or the defense budget (3.1%).

 

 

President Obama strengthened medical insurance programs and committed huge financial resources to health care. As early as 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services received $81.3 billion to expand access to care. Medicaid expansion followed with the federal government covering totally covering expansion costs between 2014 and 2016 and 90% after that (Park, 2016). The Bush record factsheet indicates that President Bush reformed Medicare and supported programs that enhanced health care access to specific populations, including veterans. The administration increased funding at the National Institute of Health by more than 44% and committed more than $6 billion to modernize VA medical facilities (The White House, 2021). Affordable health care to all Americans was the guiding principle.
Explain how each of the presidential administrations approached the issue. Supported health access by financial interventions and programs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The focus was on promoting insurance as a barrier to health access.
  • Financial support
  • Reforming Medicare
  • Supporting special populations

 

 

Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis

 

Administration (President Name) President Trump President Obama President Bush
Which administrative agency would most likely be responsible for helping you address the healthcare issue you selected?

 

 

Somewhat likely

 

 

 

 

Most likely

President Obama’s administration focused on various areas concerned with reforms, funding, and community support. A suitable example is three years of full funding for Medicaid expansion rates. Park (2016) further noted that Obama extended CHIP funding, a critical source of affordable coverage for children from low-income families.

 

Less likely

How do you think your selected healthcare issue might get on the agenda for the current and two previous presidents? How does it stay there? It would be a high priority issue and the government would commit huge financial resources but put stiff measures to prevent wastage and fraud.

It stays there by policy support.

It would be a part of government’s central agenda looking for measures to cover all American through private insurance and public plan.

It stays there by policy support.

Policy frameworks are would be essential to ensure that health access gets on the Bush’s agenda. The focus would be expanding private plans in Medicare and similar support services.
Who would you choose to be the entrepreneur/ champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue you selected for the current and two previous presidents? State legislature/senator. It should be sponsored as a bill. Senator Senator

 

 

Narrative with the Facts

For populations to grow and live healthily, access to health care services should be guaranteed. People should have health care facilities close to their residences, and health services should be affordable. Approaches that enhance access, such as telehealth, should be adopted as much as possible. Various administrations in the United States have approached this issue differently. Their focus differs depending on political backgrounds and agendas, resources, and philosophies. The main issues that different governments explore include insurance coverage as one of the key components of access besides timeliness of care and health services availability (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2020). Governments’ agenda also depends on sponsors and the problems facing the populace.

The three governments have prioritized affordable health as an area of priority, and successors should make it a priority too. Donald Trump’s focus can be lauded because of tax deductions and policies promoting health savings. Considering that access limitations should be minimal as possible, doing away with denials for people with preexisting conditions as long as they have continuous coverage helped expand access. Barack Obama’s implementation of the Affordable Care Act needs recognition too. George Bush expanded private plans in Medicare. In each case, the administration focuses on improving access by ensuring that people can afford health services.

Conclusion

Problems such as high cost of care and inadequate or absence of insurance coverage have limited health care access to many populations. The low availability of health services and lack of culturally competent care amplify the problem further. Due to financial burdens, among other access problems, different administrations devise different interventions to ensure that Americans can access health. Focus on insurance coverage has been prioritized by Trump, Obama, and Bush administrations. The idea is to make people more insured to ensure that they are not denied health services due to lack of coverage. Insurance coverage and expansion programs ensure that people can receive health services at their usual places of care. It is a method of preventing delays that governments should support as much as possible.

 

 

References

Lambrew, J. M. (2018). Getting ready for health reform 2020: What past presidential campaigns can teach us. The Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/sites/default/files/2018-06/Lambrew_getting_ready_hlt_reform_2020_presidential_0.pdf

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020, Oct 8). Access to health services. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/Access-to-Health-Services

Park, E. (2016, Feb 9). Obama Budget Strengthens Medicaid and CHIP. Center for Budget and Health Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/blog/obama-budget-strengthens-medicaid-and-chip

The White House. (2021). The Bush Record. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/infocus/bushrecord/factsheets/healthcare.html

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  • Please review the Course Syllabus for a comprehensive overview of course deliverables and the value associated with each.
  • It is my expectation that each of you will substantially contribute to the course discussion forums and respond to the posts of at least three other learners.
  • substantive post should be at least 200 words. Responses such as “great posts” or “I agree” do not meet the active engagement expectation.
  • Please feel free to draw on personal examples as you develop your responses to the Discussion Questions but you do need to demonstrate your understanding of the materials.
  • I do expect outside sources as well as class materials to formulate your post.
  • APA format is not necessary for DQ responses, but I do expect a proper citation for references.
  • Please use peer-related journals found through the GCU library and/or class materials to formulate your answers. Do not try to “Google” DQ’s as I am looking for class materials and examples from the weekly materials.
  • will not accept responses that are from Wikipedia, Business dictionary.com, or other popular business websites. You will not receive credit for generic web searches – this does not demonstrate graduate-level research.
  • Stay away from the use of personal pronouns when writing. As a graduate student, you are expected to write based on research and gathering of facts. Demonstrating your understanding of the materials is what you will be graded on. You will be marked down for lack of evidence to support your ideas.

Plagiarism

  • Plagiarism is the act of claiming credit for another’s work, accomplishments, or ideas without appropriate acknowledgment of the source of the information by including in-text citations and references.
  • This course requires the utilization of APA format for all course deliverables as noted in the course syllabus.
  • Whether this happens deliberately or inadvertently, whenever plagiarism has occurred, you have committed a Code of Conduct violation.
  • Please review your LopesWrite report prior to final submission.
  • Every act of plagiarism, no matter the severity, must be reported to the GCU administration (this includes your DQ’s, posts to your peers, and your papers).

Plagiarism includes:

  • Representing the ideas, expressions, or materials of another without due credit.
  • Paraphrasing or condensing ideas from another person’s work without proper citation and referencing.
  • Failing to document direct quotations without proper citation and referencing.
  • Depending upon the amount, severity, and frequency of the plagiarism that is committed, students may receive in-class penalties that range from coaching (for a minor omission), -20% grade penalties for resubmission, or zero credit for a specific assignment. University-level penalties may also occur, including suspension or even expulsion from the University.
  • If you are at all uncertain about what constitutes plagiarism, you should review the resources available in the Student Success Center. Also, please review the University’s policies about plagiarism which are covered in more detail in the GCU Catalog and the Student Handbook.
  • We will be utilizing the GCU APA Style Guide 7th edition located in the Student Success Center > The Writing Center for all course deliverables.

LopesWrite

  • All course assignments must be uploaded to the specific Module Assignment Drop Box, and also submitted to LopesWrite every week.
  • Please ensure that your assignment is uploaded to both locations under the Assignments DropBox. Detailed instructions for using LopesWrite are located in the Student Success Center.

Assignment Submissions

  • Please note that Microsoft Office is the software requirement at GCU.
  • I can open Word files or any file that is saved with a .rtf (Rich Text Format) extension. I am unable to open .wps files.
  • If you are using a “.wps” word processor, please save your files using the .rtf extension that is available from the drop-down box before uploading your files to the Assignment Drop Box.

Grade of Incomplete

  • The final grade of Incomplete is granted at the discretion of the instructor; however, students must meet certain specific criteria before this grade accommodation is even possible to consider.
  • The grade of Incomplete is reserved for times when students experience a serious extenuating circumstance or a crisis during the last week of class which prevents the completion of course requirements before the close of the grading period. Students also must pass the course at the time the request is made.
  • Please contact me personally if you are having difficulties in meeting course requirements or class deadlines during our time together. In addition, if you are experiencing personal challenges or difficulties, it is best to contact the Academic Counselor so that you can discuss the options that might be available to you, as well as each option’s academic and financial repercussions.

Grade Disputes

  • If you have any questions about a grade you have earned on an individual assignment or activity, please get in touch with me personally for further clarification.
  • While I have made every attempt to grade you fairly, on occasion a misunderstanding may occur, so please allow me the opportunity to learn your perspective if you believe this has occurred. Together, we should be able to resolve grading issues on individual assignments.
  • However, after we have discussed individual assignments’ point scores, if you still believe that the final grade you have earned at the end of the course is not commensurate with the quality of work you produced for this class, there is a formal Grade Grievance procedure which is outlined in the GCU Catalog and Student Handbook.

The route I have chosen as my nursing specialty in the MSN program is with a focus in Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner. I had debated between PMHNP, FNP, and AGNPCNP. As I have mentioned I have worked in a rural emergency department that cares for quite a bit of mental health patients. The focus of my capstone project for my BSN was mental health patients in the ED and what we can do to improve staff education, patient education, and follow-up resources. Almost every project, research paper, and electives I had to do for my BSN revolved around mental healthcare. I did not have too much difficulty deciding my specialty. I followed what I am passionate about because I believe that passion is what drives us to do the best we can.

While I was debating the route I wanted to take, I spoke about my choices with my husband and my boss from the ED, both extremely encouraging and supportive of my choice. My boss was not surprised when I decided to apply for PMHNP programs, and he thought that would be a great fit for me given my passion to help fill the gap in access and advocate for mental health patients’ rights. As a PMHNP not only will I be able to treat my patients, but I can also join professional organizations that support what I believe in, equal access to mental healthcare. While attending Walden I realized there are many options for joining professional organizations and I have recently joined the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. According to Echavarria (2018) there are many professional nursing associations to choose from, and the cost is one reason that deters nurses from joining. But joining an organization that shares values and aligns best with your practice goals should be a deciding factor (Echavarria, 2018). It was not hard for me to decide to join this professional organization, I had researched this group and one of their goals is to advance care and treatment for psychiatric mental health patients and as a student I can join at an extremely discounted rate (APNA, 2022). One of the videos from our resources, The Walden Journey to a master’s in nursing: Final Thoughts (2018) talks about remembering our desire to for wanting to enroll in a master’s program and remembering that desire to make a difference in the specialty of our chosen field. That comment made me realize I know I am in the right specialty program. I know I want to focus on making a difference for psychiatric mental healthcare.