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NUR 590 Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Proposal Project Framework or Model for Change Essay

NUR 590 Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Proposal Project Framework or Model for Change Essay

Patient care problems require practical and sustainable solutions. Such solutions are evidence-based, and their implementation should be supported by leaders, staff, and the target patient groups. Models of change provide change proponents with a systematic approach to change implementation. Most recommend a stepwise approach to change implementation involving problem identification, searching for solutions, and implementing the findings (Duff et al., 2020). They ensure that nurses and other change leaders work towards tangible results. The purpose of this assignment is to describe the selected model for change and its application in the proposed project.

The Selected Model and Relevance

The Iowa model will guide the project implementation process. It promotes evidence-based practice (EBP) in health practice and ensures that organizational change addresses priority patient care concerns (Duff et al., 2020). Its central components include: improving patient outcomes based on scientific evidence, enhancing nursing practice, and helping to monitor healthcare costs. Hanrahan et al. (2019) asserted that utilizing the Iowa model improves nurses’ capacity to utilize EBP in healthcare delivery and work in teams to achieve better outcomes. The proposed project involves utilizing case management in chronic disease management for patients visiting the emergency department. The Iowa model is relevant to the project since it will ensure that the solutions are evidence-based and can achieve the targeted outcomes.

Stages of the Iowa Model

The Iowa Model for EBP integration into practice has eight steps. As Green (2020) explained, the first step involves identifying the trigger necessitating practice change. The second step is determining whether the problem is a priority based on its effects on patient care, health processes, practitioners’ health, and other elements. Next, the change leader identifies a team to help in evaluating and implementing the EBP change. Such a team allows interdisciplinary stakeholders to solve a problem together hence better results. The fourth step is gathering and analyzing appropriate research to guide practice change.

After gathering research (step 4), the next step is to critique and synthesize the research from the highest level of evidence possible. The primary purpose of this step is to evaluate whether the change is scientifically possible (Cullen et al., 2022). The sixth step involved deciding whether there is adequate research to implement a practice change. Next, a pilot program is conducted (step 7), and the results are evaluated (step 8). The changes are then introduced into practice based on the evaluation results. The revised model advises change proponents to disseminate results (Cullen et al., 2022). Dissemination helps health professionals to adopt similar interventions in other settings to improve patient care.

Applying Each Stage of the Iowa Model

Applying the Iowa model in the proposed implementation would first involve identifying the trigger. Currently, a problem-focused

NUR 590 Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Proposal Project Framework or Model for Change Essay

NUR 590 Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Proposal Project Framework or Model for Change Essay

trigger has been identified- chronic illnesses for patients visiting the emergency department. The second step would involve determining its priority level. It is a priority requiring immediate intervention since chronic diseases increase the spending of hospital resources by increasing unplanned admissions and emergency department visits (Chiaranai et al., 2018). The interprofessional team for developing, evaluating, and implementing the change would involve the management, departmental leaders, the change proponent, and nurses. Evidence should be sourced from current and scholarly literature supporting the application of case management in chronic diseases management. The research would be further critiqued and synthesized to determine whether there is adequate research to implement case management. A pilot program would then follow to evaluate the effectiveness of case management before full adoption. The concept map (Appendix A) illustrates the application of the Iowa model in the project.


Change models guide nurses in implementing EBP in health practice. They emphasize implementing evidence-based change to improve patient care and other critical health outcomes. The Iowa model is appropriate for the proposed project. It will ensure that an interdisciplinary team works together to implement the proposed change.




Chiaranai, C., Chularee, S., & Srithongluang, S. (2018). Older people living with chronic illness. Geriatric Nursing39(5), 513-520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2018.02.004

Cullen, L., Hanrahan, K., Edmonds, S. W., Reisinger, H. S., & Wagner, M. (2022). Iowa Implementation for Sustainability Framework. Implementation Science17(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-021-01157-5

Duff, J., Cullen, L., Hanrahan, K., & Steelman, V. (2020). Determinants of an evidence-based practice environment: An interpretive description. Implementation Science Communications1(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43058-020-00070-0

Green, C. (2020). Application of the Iowa Model, an evidence-based practice model, when initiating clinical project pilots to evaluate how self-care techniques affect simulated nursing performance. SAGE Publications Ltd. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781529743616

Hanrahan, K., Fowler, C., & McCarthy, A. M. (2019). Iowa model revised: Research and evidence-based practice application. Journal of Pediatric Nursing48, 121-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2019.04.023

Assessment Description
Applying a model or framework for change ensures that a process is in place to guide the efforts for
change. In 500-750 words, discuss the model or framework you will use to implement your evidence-
based practice proposal project. You will use the model or framework you select in the Topic 8
assignment, during which you will synthesize the various aspects of your project into a final paper
detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.

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NUR 590 Topic 3 DQ 2

Review the different models and frameworks that can be used to facilitate change. Compare two and explain which is best for your evidence-based practice proposal and why. Provide rationale.

The Star Model explains how specific forms of knowledge, such as the systematic review and the clinical practice guideline, are solutions for moving research into practice. It is a model for understanding the cycles, nature, and characteristics of knowledge that are utilized in various phases of EBP in moving evidence into clinical decision making. The clinical scholar model was developed and implemented to promote the spirit of inquiry, educate direct care providers, and guide a mentorship program for EBP and the conduct of research at the point of care. It began as an interactive, outcomes-oriented educational program for nurses but has evolved into an interdisciplinary educational program for direct care providers (Melnyk, 2019). In my evidence-based practice proposal, the Star Model would be most beneficial. This model reviews current practice and applies knowledge for change. For my proposal, there is a lot of research on both patient and nurse dissatisfaction with the current bereavement process when a patient experiences a miscarriage in the ED. There is not a lot of research on implementation of better practice and protocols. Therefore, the Star Model will allow for me to take the knowledge of the subject and develop a change.



Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health.

Change facilitation requires forethought and intentional planning and execution if a well-supported, sustainable change is going to be made on a larger scale – especially in healthcare. Evidence-base practice models may include theoretical models grouped into evidence-based practice/research utilization and knowledge transformation processes, strategic organizational change theory or knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). However, it is becoming more widely acknowledged that a formalized approach must be considered to successfully implement these evidence-based models.


Eight different models have been identified as key drivers for evidence-based integration and change management. These include: 1. The Stetler Model of Evidence-Based Practice, 2. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice, 3. The Model for Evidence-Based Practice Change, 4. The Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC) model for implementation and sustainability of EBP, 6. The Clinical Scholar Model, 7. The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model, and 8. The Stevens Star Model of Knowledge Transformation (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019).


Upon comparing the Stetler Model and Johns Hopkins Model, the Stetler Model has been regularly revised, and involves integrating evidence-base practice information into practical, sustainable day to day standards for patient care. With critical thinking and utilization of both internal and external evidence to support practice change, the Stetler Model hinges on five phases, and multiple steps to identify and support use of evidence, determined by critical thinking (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). A “toolkit” of sorts has been developed to implement consensus guidelines and evidence-base practice change. Upon comparison, the Johns Hopkins Model supports its use by bedside registered nurses with aim to implement research results in an evidence-based practice format. The key objective is to make it easy for direct caregivers to make change at a grass-roots level, while positively impacting patient outcomes in a meaningful way. A problem-solving approach to address clinical questions, the 18-step process allows for non-randomized control trial designed evaluations and quality improvement initiatives to take place(Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019).. With mindfulness that registered nurses encounter challenges that require a fix “tomorrow”, with potential use of nonresearch evidence by use of four pathways.


For my PICOT with aim to reduce occurrence of CLABSIs in patients with a central line, I believe either model could be used to implement meaningful change. However, the Stetler model is better suited for a randomized control trial approach, which is the method I believe to be best suited to gain the most sound, valid and reliable results. By way of using critical thinking and various types of evidence (internal AND external), the Stetler model allows for easy implementation of evidence gathered by way of a toolkit and use of consensus guidelines and policy change.




Melnyk, B.M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ISBN-13:9781496384539

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