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NUR-550 Literature Review – Resubmission Assignment

NUR-550 Literature Review – Resubmission Assignment

Assessment Description

Submit your literature review from NUR-550 for your NUR-590 instructor to review. If your NUR-550 instructor indicated areas for revision be sure to incorporate these improvements prior to submitting your paper for this assignment.

NUR-550 Literature Review – Resubmission Assignment

NUR-550 Literature Review – Resubmission Assignment


Based on the PICOT you developed for NUR-550, summarize the intervention you are proposing. How does this support the population of focus, your setting, and role? Justify how the problem you selected to investigate is amenable to a research-based intervention using the PICOT format. Include your PICOT statement with your response.

Science teaches us to explore and question. In medicine, it the same. There is always something to explore in medicine, whether its to improve upon interventions or to learn complex diseases. Throughout my career as a nurse and nursing student, it was always expressed to me that in order for me to become a successful nurse I would need to engage in continuing education for the life of my career. In life, we should always strive for continuing education for personal development and growth. The future of nursing will require nurses to question, explore and take initiative making decisions on patient care, interventions, in leadership and public health. “Explain the importance of a spirit of inquiry in an evidence-based culture and what you can do as an advanced registered nurse to encourage this within your practice or organization. In response to your peers, compare the role and implementation of EBP in your specialty area with another advanced registered nurse specialty” (National League of Nursing, 2014, para. 1). The COVID-19 pandemic was a wake up call in that we as a nation need to focus on improving our nursing practice. Nurses will need to be encourage and pushed into leadership roles, executive positions and in the areas a research and development. Many nurses took the lead in saving their patients and hospitals as the pandemic ravaged hospitals throughout the country. There was also a spike in people researching how to get into the field of medicine (particularly in nursing and nursing research). There became a fascination into epidemiology, public health and medical research as people and nurses became curious about vaccine development and how outbreaks of disease and virus happen. As a advanced registered I would encourage evidence based culture by being an example of someone who uses EBP and work in collaboration with other staffers to implement EBP research into the real world. During the heigh of the pandemic, EBP research was used to help patients as other interventions and methods failed.

Implementing EBP

In the field of advanced nursing practice, there are various ways advanced nurses implement EBPs. Nurse practitioners implement and EBP “when she/he prescribes a treatment for a patient that is substantiated by scientific research; Often, nurse practitioners look for an experimental study that compares the efficacy of a treatment with an untreated control group” (Nurse Practitioner Schools, 2021).

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Certified mid-wifery

For nursing midwives, EBP is are used to enhance the lives of the mother, child and community. Mothers are the backbone of communities and the health and safety of woman determines the health and safety of their respective communities. Areas of challenges are identified and EBP are used to improve the lives of women in order to safely carry, deliver and raise children.


National League of Nursing. (2014). Practical/Vocational Nursing Program Outcome: Spirit of Inquiry. https://www.nln.org/docs/default-source/default-document-library/spirit-of-inquiry-final.pdf?sfvrsn=0

Nurse Practitioner Schools. (2021). Guide to Evidence-Based Nursing Practice for NPs. Retrieved from https://www.nursepractitionerschools.com/resources/guide-to-evidence-based-nursing-practice/

  • Hi Ketlie. Very informative post. I find an article that may interest you related to midwives and EBP. This was a study conducted in Iran with 98 midwives (Azmoude et al., 2017). The midwives were all given an EBP questionnaire to assess participants knowledge and practice of EBP. The findings demonstrated there was a need for improvement with practice and knowledge of EBP. I was not surprised at these results because I feel overall there is a knowledge gap when it comes to EBP. EBP can lead to appropriate midwifery care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postnatal period (Azmoude et al., 2017). Pregnancy related complications are the second leading global cause of death among women of reproductive age (Azmoude et al., 2017). In 2015, approximately 303,000 maternal deaths occurred worldwide most of which could have been prevented (Azmoude et al., 2017). There are many healthcare decisions still based on traditional practices which may not always be the best practice. EBP can play a vital role by promoting a problem solving approach that encourages implementation of the best available research(Azmoude et al., 2017). I think it would be a it would be a good idea to periodically assessment current knowledge of EBP in order to identify learning needs and provide training. NUR-550 Literature Review – Resubmission Assignment


    Azmoude,E., Farkhondeh, F., Ahour,M., & Kabirian, M.(2017). Knowledge, Practice, and Self – efficacy in Evidence-Based Practice among Midwives in East Iran, Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. doi: 10.18295/squmj.2016.17.01.012




An evidence-based culture in a healthcare organization is an easy thing to aspire to, yet a challenging and rigorous process to truly pursue and achieve. It is essential that a “spirit of inquiry” be fostered in order to truly achieve the ultimate goal of evidence-based practice that comes from a culture that supports clinical care that is validated by substantial research and data.


According to Wyant (2018), it is critical that a culture of evidence-based practice begin with asking the right questions, and pursuing the correct information to support practice change in order to achieve better patient care results and outcomes. But even before the right questions can be asked, a spirit of inquiry must exist in order to stimulate the curiosity and wonder of what could be, and how things could be better. Known as “step 0” of the evidence-base practice process, a spirit of inquiry, or wonder, is often triggered when a registered nurse reads an article with an interesting approach to a patient care issue, an individual comes up with an idea as to better improve a care practice, or the question is simply asked, “what else is out there, and is there a proven way to do this best?”. All of these initial questions support a spirit of inquiry, which triggers the beginning of an amazing journey known as evidence-based practice, translational research, literature review and practice implementation and observation/improvement (Wyant, 2018).

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Under FDA regulations, an Institutional Review Board is group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects. The purpose of IRB review is to assure, both in advance and by periodic review, that appropriate steps are taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in the research. To accomplish this purpose, IRBs use a group process to review research protocols and related materials (e.g., informed consent documents and investigator brochures) to ensure protection of the rights and welfare of human subjects of research (FDA, n.d).

From a public health perspective, it is important to recognize an ethical standard that respects community autonomy. This standard can be achieved by requiring community collaboration (ie, at a minimum, establishing a community advisory board) to protect against exploiting vulnerable populations, to ensure fair terms of cooperation, to ratify that the interventions to be tested are acceptable to community members, and to minimize potential misunderstandings about the research. Such community advisory boards should have responsibility for determining whether the research goals are valuable to local community members and the methods are acceptable before the research is allowed to proceed (Buchanan & Miller, 2006).

In this era of translational research, social injustice is one of the crucial ethical concerns. Resource-rich countries conducting translational medical research in resource-poor countries are common and if the results of the research are not expected to be beneficial/less beneficial to the resource-poor country, then arises the issue of social injustice and disparity. Examples include research undertaken on diseases that are rare or the resulting intervention/product is too expensive to implement, in developing countries (Mandal et al., 2017).


Buchanan, D. R., & Miller, F. G. (2006). A public health perspective on research ethics. Journal of medical ethics32(12), 729–733. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.015891

Mandal, J., Ponnambath, D. K., & Parija, S. C. (2017). Ethics of translational medical research. Tropical parasitology7(2), 62–64. https://doi.org/10.4103/tp.TP_47_17

FDA (n.d). Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Protection of Human Subjects in Clinical Trials. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/center-drug-evaluation-and-research-cder/institutional-review-boards-irbs-and-protection-human-subjects-clinical-trials






Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Unfortunately, many countries including the United States have conducted unethical clinical trials in the past and because of that, we have implemented policies and regulations to keep human participants safe. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) was implemented to keep safeguards in place for these clinical trials. They have three basic ethical principles to stand by; respect for person, beneficence, and justice (Qiao, 2018).

Respect for persons is kept in balance by ensuring patient autonomy. This is where informed consent comes to play. Patients need to be fully informed about the trial they are participating in, including requirements expected of the patient and any adverse effects the patient may experience. They have to voluntary agree to participate in the trial and be informed that they can choose to drop out of the trial at any time (Pietrzykowski & Smilowska, 2021).

The beneficence is focused on protecting the patient or study participant (Qiao, 2018). Ensuring patient safety is at utmost importance during every step of the trial. Justice will be kept in balance by ensuring equity. Health equity has been a hot topic recently where many of the minority population may not have access to clinical trials or the knowledge to be comfortable with becoming a participant.


Pietrzykowski, T., & Smilowska, K. (2021). The reality of informed consent: Empirical studies on patient comprehension—systematic review. Trials22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04969-w

Qiao, H. (2018). A brief introduction to institutional review boards in the united states. Pediatric Investigation2(1), 46–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12023

As a registered nurse, and specifically as a nurse leader, it is one’s duty to promote, celebrate and praise those who ask the hard questions of why and how patient care could be improved. It is essential that these individuals with a deep wonder of the “what if’s” be supported and encouraged to speak up, in order to create a culture of evidence-base practice that begins with the genuine spirit of inquiry and curiosity (Wyant, 2018). As a current nurse leader, and one who coaches others in leadership practices and improvement projects, this is a great reminder to me to speak truth into these individuals that when an engaged caregivers asks how we could do better, it is not necessarily a critique on the current – but instead, a genuine curiosity, and wonder of what could be. NUR-550 Literature Review – Resubmission Assignment




Wyant, T. (2018). A Spirit of Inquiry Leads to Evidence-Based Answers to Practice Questions.

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