NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

Sample Answer for NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs Included After Question

NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is a critical federal law and regulation passed in 1996 with the aim of protecting patient information used through health technology platforms like the electronic health records (EHRs). The HIPAA privacy regulations mandate health care providers and organizations as well as their associated third parties to develop and follow certain provisions aimed at enhancing the security, integrity, confidentiality and privacy of the information, especially under its privacy rule on protected health information (PHI) (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2021). One ethical issue that can arise based on HIPAA rules is the disclosure of PHI on social media. While nurses have the freedom to use social media to share experiences and even trends on nursing practice, they cannot share and disclose patient information on these platforms, even if they constitute part of the experience. The disclosure of such information can lead to legal suits because of violation of the privacy rule. Further, the disclosure leads to reduced levels of trust and compromises the integrity of such data. Therefore, such violations and breaches have a direct impact on advanced registered nursing practice.  

The possible consequences include reduced levels of trust in nurses by patient, reputational damage to the registered nurse and their organization, including a possible termination of their employment contract. Nurses become liable to legal suits as the patients may sue them for compensation because of disclosing private and personal information (Bergren & Maughan, 2020). Nurses may also have their licenses revoked and even barred from practicing forever.  

The protection of patient data improves and adheres to the privacy and confidentiality requirements. Therefore, having policies on usage of social media and adherence to HIPAA provisions are critical measures that can enhance privacy and confidentiality (Keshta & Odeh, 2021). These measures will ensure that nurses do not violate the privacy rule and use social media in the best way to protect the nursing practice and profession.  

References 

Bergren, M. D., & Maughan, E. D. (2020). Data and information literacy: A fundamental nursing  

competency. NASN School Nurse, 35(3), 140-142. DOI: 10.1177/1942602X20913249. 

Keshta, I., & Odeh, A. (2021). Security and privacy of electronic health records: Concerns and  

challenges. Egyptian Informatics Journal, 22(2), 177-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eij.2020.07.003 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2021). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge.  

Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 

 

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Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs. Discuss one ethical and one legal issue related to the use of EHRs that directly impact advanced registered nursing practice. Discuss possible consequences for compromising patient data and measures you can implement in your own practice to protect patient privacy and confidentiality.

 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

Title: NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

Re: Topic 7 DQ 2

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and protected health information are applicable to electronic health records (EHR). The patient has a right to privacy in regard to all their health care information (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office for Civil Rights, n.d.). This information must only be shared with authorized personnel who provide direct care to the patient. EHRs use data encryption and security measures to protect this data. The user has a password to access the system. If patient portals are in use, the patient can access using PINs or passwords. All information contained in an EHR is to be used for the purposes of patient care or data aggregation to improve patient outcomes (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office for Civil Rights, n.d.). It is the legal obligation of a facility or provider to notify patients of any data breaches and the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

EHR documentation as an advanced practice nurse can be time-consuming. This can impact the partnership between nursing and patient. The patient must be able to develop a rapport with the nurse in order for cooperation and collaboration towards the patient achieving healthful outcomes(McBride et al., 2018). The advanced practice nurse who follows a clinical decision support system because it is required when contraindicated in a specific patient population creates a legal situation where they cause harm to the patient. An example is a patient with a history of heart failure who presents to the emergency room with a diagnosis of possible sepsis through a CDSS symptom recognition pattern. The patient in fact had an exacerbation of CHF based on history and further assessment (McBride et al., 2018). The EHR will continue to identify sepsis and gear orders towards sepsis management. Following these order sets would be detrimental to the patient’s health. It is important for nurse educators to understand and teach these concepts to students.

HIPAA violations result in fines or time in prison or both. I would maintain patient privacy by not speaking in public areas about PHI. This means creating a private area to speak to patients and families without others having the ability to overhear. The EHR must be locked when I am not in attendance. Family members must provide the PIN or code necessary to get any information in person or via phone. The patient must clearly state who he/she wants to have his/her information shared with unless there is a legal document giving an individual power of attorney for health care.

References NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

McBride, S., Tietze, M., Robichaux, C., Stokes, L., & Weber, E. (2018). Identifying and addressing ethical issues with use of electronic health records. Online Journal of Issue in Nursing23(1). https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-23-2018/No1-Jan-2018/Identifying-and-Addressing-Ethical-Issues-EHR.html#McBride7

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office for Civil Rights. (n.d.). Privacy, security, and electronic health records. https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/consumers/privacy-security-electronic-records.pdf.

 

RESPOND HERE (150 WORDS, 2 REFERENCES)

 

This is insightful, Camille; the application or electronic health record system is associated with different legal and ethical practices that ought to be observed. As a result, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and protected health information are applicable to the EHR. The main objective of the EHR system is to enhance the management of patient’s data. As a result, there is always the need for healthcare professionals or users to adhere to the privacy policies or confidentiality of information (McBride et al., 2018). Enhancing the confidentiality of information is one of the ethical concerns often observed by healthcare professionals when using an EHR system. The confidentiality of information can be achieved through integrating effective mechanisms to enhance the security of data (Iyengar et al., 2018). Putting security measures such as passwords is one of the main methods that can be used to enhance the confidentiality of information. Also, encryption processes can be undertaken to prevent unauthorized access of patient’s data by third parties or strangers. Additionally, adherence to the HIPAA policies is critical in ensuring the maintenance of data security.

References NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

McBride, S., Tietze, M., Robichaux, C., Stokes, L., & Weber, E. (2018). Identifying and addressing ethical issues with use of electronic health records. Online Journal of Issue in Nursing23(1). https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-23-2018/No1-Jan-2018/Identifying-and-Addressing-Ethical-Issues-EHR.html#McBride7

Iyengar, A., Kundu, A., & Pallis, G. (2018). Healthcare informatics and privacy. IEEE Internet Computing22(2), 29-31. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8345561

Re: Topic 7 DQ 2

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that patient health information is protected and secure at all times. The regulations that are in place by HIPAA have an effect on healthcare institutions willingness to share data with other institutions (DeNisco & Baker, 2016). The Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is different from an Electronic Health Record (HER) because the information it contains is intended to be shared. While both the EMR and her contain protected health information (PHI), an EHRs purpose is to be shared among physicians and hospitals when needed. Unfortunately, sharing this PHI becomes a challenge. Hospitals in particular, “face a “catch-22” situation in responding to the conflicting mandates of developing electronic health records that information sharing across institutions versus ensuring absolute protection and security of patients’ individual health information” (Sarrico & Hauenstein, 2011).

An ethical issue related to HIPAA and the sharing of information through EHRs is sharing information in emergency situations. There are times in the ER when information is crucial for the care of critically ill patients. Is it ethically right to access and share information about patients during emergency situations if it means saving a life?

A legal issue related to the use of EHRs is when the breach of PHI occurs. Keeping PHI secure is imperative for patients, but unfortunately breaches do occur. Healthcare professionals must be held accountable for their access into EHRs at all times. One restriction which some healthcare systems use is “placing restritctions on which application and module within that application a user can access, despite the user’s having established his or her ID at login” (Sarrico & Hauenstein, 2011). It is also important for internal audits to take place as well to monitor the security of PHI. Of course there are always steps that the healthcare industry can enforce to maintain security of PHI. Regulators in the industry should specify standards and definitions regarding what constitutes a violation, create evels of severity, and devise a hierarchy of warnings and fines that are based on standards (Sarrico & Hauenstein, 2011). As far as healthcare providers, they should tighten internal compliance procedures, conduct extensive and regular training of all employees, train the employees of provider-partners, obtain signed privacy agreements with all employees and conduct regular audits to ensure compliance (Sarrico & Hauenstein, 2011). All of these are suggested and can be implemented in daily practice to maintain proper security of information.

NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs
NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

References NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

DeNisco, S.M., & Barker, A.M. (2016). Advanced practice nursing: essential knowledge for the profession. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sarrico, C., & Hauenstein, J. (2011). Can EHRs get along with HIPAA security requirements? Hfm (Healthcare Financial Management), 65(2), 86-90. 

RESPOND HERE (150 WORDS, 2 REFERENCES)

This is insightful; La Shiona, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that patient health information is protected and secure at all times. HIPAA regulations should be observed by all healthcare systems to ensure that patient data and information are protected (Mailewa et al., 2017). With the increased use of technology in the management of patient data, there are many security issues that must be addressed to ensure quality health outcomes. The application of an electronic health record system is necessary for the healthcare system; however, there is always the need for healthcare professionals to adhere to the legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of the EHR system (McBride et al., 2018). The legal issue surrounding the use of EHR systems can be observed when PHI rules are violated. On the other hand, some ethical issues surrounding the use of the EHR system include confidentiality of information or the security of data. There is always the need for healthcare professionals to adhere to the ethical and legal issues when using the EHR system.

References NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

Mailewa Dissanayaka, A., Shetty, R. R., Kothari, S., Mengel, S., Gittner, L., & Vadapalli, R. (2017, December). A review of MongoDB and singularity container security in regards to hipaa regulations. In Companion Proceedings of the10th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (pp. 91-97). https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3147234.3148133

McBride, S., Tietze, M., Robichaux, C., Stokes, L., & Weber, E. (2018). Identifying and addressing ethical issues with use of electronic health records. Online J Issues Nurs23(1). http://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-23-2018/No1-Jan-2018/Identifying-and-Addressing-Ethical-Issues-EHR.html

Re: Topic 7 DQ 2

Electronic health records (EHRs) and electronic medical records (EMRs) have become an essential part of healthcare. Patients expect the information they share with clinicians is protected; with the increased use of EHRs and EMRs, the advanced registered nurse must take caution to protect the privacy and confidentiality of their patients.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) was set in place in 1996, to protect individually identifiable health information. There are five rules that determine what types of information are subject to HIPPA, who may access protected information, and enforcement measures; these include, security rule, transactions rule, identifiers rule, privacy rule, and enforcement rule (McMullen, 2014). Patients have the right to access and obtain a copy of their healthcare information either through a patient portal or in writing.

HIPPA requires safeguards be put in place by healthcare providers and organizations to guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and availability of protected health information (PHI). PHI includes individually identifiable health information such as demographic data, medical history, lab results, and other data used to identify a patient or provide health care services (Alder, 2021).

Ethical and legal concerns can become an issue when using EHRs. Ethical and legal issues can include protecting patient privacy and confidentiality, copy and pasting notes, ignoring clinical decision support alerts, and documenting (late entries, changes, incomplete or omitting data). These issues can result in the advanced registered nurse facing malpractice litigation and/or licensing issues from the Board of Nursing (Balestra, 2017).

PHI should only be accessed by authorized individuals. The authorized individual needs to be aware that they will be liable for the use and misuse of information they view. Not protecting patient data, even if unintentional, when using EHRs can result in HIPPA violations. Consequences of compromising patient information can include, fines, employee termination, loss of Medicare payments, sanctions, and criminal charges. Criminal charges can range from up to 12 months of imprisonment for “no knowledge of violation”, up to five years for intentional deception to access PHI and up to ten years for “malicious intent” (RSI Security, 2020).

Therefore, it is important for the advanced registered nurse to take measures to protect patient privacy and confidentiality. Some of these measures include the following:

  1. Never share our password with anyone else and change it frequently.
  2. Review your organizations confidentiality and EHR use policy.
  3. Avoid sending sensitive patient information via email or text unless you are certain the intended receiver will be the only one to access information.
  4. Avoid communicating any information that can identify individual patients, including any of the 18 personal identifiers in HIPPA’s Privacy rules, unless it is required.
  5. When disclosing patient information to anyone other than the patient, make sure the recipient’s identity is confirmed or use a predetermined password, and obtain the patient’s consent prior to disclosing information.
  6. Get informed consent to use patient information for audit and management purposes (McMullen et al., 2014).

References NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

Alder, S. (2021). What is protected health information? HIPPA Journal https://www.hipaajournal.com/what-is-protected-health-information/

Balestra, M. (2017). Electronic health records: Patient care and ethical and legal implications for nurse practitioners. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(2), 105-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.09.010

McMullen, P.C., Howie, W.O., Philipsen, N., Bryant, V.C., Setlow, P.D., Calhoun, M., & Green, Z.D. (2014). Electronic medical records and electronic health records: Overview for nurse practitioners. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 10(9), 660-665.:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2014.07.013

RSI Security. (2020, Nov. 12). Top five consequences of HIPPA violations. https://blog.rsisecurity.com/top-five-consequences-of-hipaa-violations/

 

RESPOND HERE (150 WORDS, 2 REFERENCES)

 

This is insightful Elizabeth, HIPPA regulations are important in ensuring effective management of patient data. While applying EHR systems, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to adhere to the HIPPA regulations to ensure efficiency in the management of information (Diamantopoulou et al., 2017). HIPPA requires safeguards to be put in place by healthcare providers and organizations to guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and availability of protected health information (PHI). The legal issues surrounding the use of the EHR system involve adherence to the PHI regulations. Going against these regulations can lead to the breach of the legal problems/practices required in the data management processes (McBride et al., 2018). Some of the ethical issues surrounding the use of EHR systems include confidentiality of information and adherence to the appropriate security issues. While using an EHR system, the database managers must ensure effective policy mechanisms to avoid the loss of patient information. Also, encryption processes can be undertaken to prevent unauthorized access of patient’s data by third parties or strangers.

References NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs

Diamantopoulou, V., Angelopoulos, K., Flake, J., Praitano, A., Ruiz, J. F., Jürjens, J., … & Tozzi, A. E. (2017, June). Privacy data management and awareness for public administrations: a case study from the healthcare domain. In Annual Privacy Forum (pp. 192-209). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67280-9_11

McBride, S., Tietze, M., Robichaux, C., Stokes, L., & Weber, E. (2018). Identifying and addressing ethical issues with use of electronic health records. Online J Issues Nurs23(1). http://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-23-2018/No1-Jan-2018/Identifying-and-Addressing-Ethical-Issues-EHR.html

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NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 2 Review HIPAA, protected health information (PHI), and requirements for privacy and confidentiality in EHRs Grading Rubric Guidelines

Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Scholarliness

Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic decisions.

  • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry clearly stating how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions
  • Evaluates literature resources to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.
  • Uses valid, relevant, and reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion
  • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry but does not clearly state how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Evaluates information from source(s) to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
  • Uses some valid, relevant, reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion.
  • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is taken from source(s) with some interpretation/evaluation, but not enough to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
  • Little valid, relevant, or reliable outside sources are used to contribute to the threaded discussion.
  • Demonstrates little or no understanding of the topic.
  • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation/evaluation.
  • The posting uses information that is not valid, relevant, or reliable
  • No evidence of the use of scholarly inquiry to inform or change professional or academic decisions.
  • Information is not valid, relevant, or reliable
Performance Category  10 9 8 4 0
Application of Course Knowledge –

Demonstrate the ability to analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles and concepts learned in the course lesson and outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations

  • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources;
  • Applies concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life.
  • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources.
  • Applies concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Interactions with classmates are relevant to the discussion topic but do not make direct reference to lesson content
  • Posts are generally on topic but do not build knowledge by incorporating concepts and principles from the lesson.
  • Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Does not demonstrate a solid understanding of the principles and concepts presented in the lesson
  • Posts do not adequately address the question posed either by the discussion prompt or the instructor’s launch post.
  • Posts are superficial and do not reflect an understanding of the lesson content
  • Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
  • Posts are not related to the topics provided by the discussion prompt or by the instructor; attempts by the instructor to redirect the student are ignored
  • No discussion of lesson concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life
Performance Category  5 4 3 2 0
Interactive Dialogue

Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days.

(5 points possible per graded thread)

  • Exceeds minimum post requirements
  • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts three or more times in each graded thread, over three separate days.
  • Replies to a post posed by faculty and to a peer
  • Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week.
  • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days
  • Replies to a question posed by a peer

Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week.

  • Meets expectations of 2 posts on 2 different days.
  • The main post is not made by the Wednesday deadline
  • Does not reply to a question posed by a peer or faculty
  • Has only one post for the week
  • Discussion posts contain few, if any, new ideas or applications; often are a rehashing or summary of other students’ comments
  • Does not post to the thread
  • No connections are made to the topic
  Minus 1 Point Minus 2 Point Minus 3 Point Minus 4 Point Minus 5 Point
Grammar, Syntax, APA

Note: if there are only a few errors in these criteria, please note this for the student in as an area for improvement. If the student does not make the needed corrections in upcoming weeks, then points should be deducted.

Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing.

The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition

  • 2-3 errors in APA format.
  • Written responses have 2-3 grammatical, spelling, and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is generally clear, focused, and facilitates communication.
  • 4-5 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is somewhat focused.
  • 6-7 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is slightly focused making discussion difficult to understand.
  • 8-10 errors in APA format.
  • Writing responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style is not focused, making discussion difficult to understand.
  • Post contains greater than 10 errors in APA format.
  • Written responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
  • Writing style does not facilitate communication.
  • The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor
0 points lost       -5 points lost
Total Participation Requirements

per discussion thread

The student answers the threaded discussion question or topic on one day and posts a second response on another day. The student does not meet the minimum requirement of two postings on two different days
Early Participation Requirement

per discussion thread

The student must provide a substantive answer to the graded discussion question(s) or topic(s), posted by the course instructor (not a response to a peer), by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT of each week. The student does not meet the requirement of a substantive response to the stated question or topic by Wednesday at 11:59 pm MT.

Also Check Out: NUR 514 Topic 7 DQ 1 What quality standards or performance measures guide your role or specialty as an advanced registered nurse?