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NRS 434V Week 5 Assignment 2 – Health Assessment Presentation

NRS 434V Week 5 Assignment 2 – Health Assessment Presentation

Assessment of growth and development in children provides healthcare providers, parents, and teachers with vital information regarding the different growth components, including cognitive, motor, language and learning, and socioemotional elements. Assessment of children is essential because it can help identify behavior and learning issues that might require special interventions  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). Children have different needs depending on theirage; thus, it is necessary to use growth and development milestones for appropriate age when conducting the pediatric assessment. The purpose of this paper is to explore assessment techniques used for school-going children of different ages and examine the growth and developmental stage of a five-year-old in respect of Erikson’s stages of development.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

The physical examination approach is the same for all school-going children, 5-12 years old. It startswith taking vital signs, weight, height, and a head-to-toe exam. However, different techniques are used for smaller children and the older ones and interactions also vary  with during the physical examination. For smaller children, 5-7 years, non-medical terms should be used to describe the different exams. Additionally, the nurse should engage the child to talk about school activities as she conduct the physical examination  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). When examining older school-going children, the nurse can use medical terms but explain what they mean. For older children, the nurse can engage them in conversation about school performance and challenges rather than activities. Additionally, the nurse should apply modesty when physically examining older kids as they are sensitive to privacy  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). One common strategy a nurse can use for all the school-going children is, being open to answering any questions they might have.

Older children are more attentive, intelligent, and cooperative than younger ones. According to Piaget’s Stages of Development, a five-year-old falls in the preoperational stage (2-7 years) while a 10-year-old belongs to the concrete operational stage (7-11 years). Hence, at ten years, a child has a better understanding, higher cognitive development and intellectual abilities thana six-year-old (Lally & Valentine, 2021). Similarly, when using games and questions to engage a child as a strategy for developing rapport, a nurse will use different approaches for a younger kid and an older one. Older kids from 8 years understand the difference between reality and fiction; thus, a practitioner can use more developed games/stories/trivia to engage with them.

Assessment of 5-year-old Child

My chosen case is a 5-year-old girl, Ellis. Ellis was 3 kg at birth and has had average growth throughout. She has never been hospitalized save the occasional outpatient visits. She has undergone all the recommended immunizations from birth to now. School performance is average, and she relates well socially with friends. According to CDC developmental milestone, at five years, the language/communication developments expected of Ellis include telling a story composed of at least two events, maintaining a back-and-forth conversation, and answering simple questions after reading a story (CDC, 2022). Similarly, the cognitive milestones that Ellis should achieve at age five include counting 1-10 and naming numbers when pointed. Ellis should also recognize letters and write some letters of her name. she should be able to use the time words including evening, yesterday, morning, tomorrow and so on. The movement milestones expected at this stage is hopping on a single foot and buttoning own clothes. Finally, the social/emotional milestone achievements are following rules, singing/dancing/acting, and helping with simple house chores.

Erickson Stages of Development

According to Erikson’s stages of development, Ellis falls in the locomotor stage (3-6 years), described as initiative vs. guilt. During this stage, the child becomes more assertive as they explore the world and their abilities (Chung, 2018).A child who goes through this stage successfully feels independent and secure in their abilities and making decisions. To achieve engagement and cooperation, I would ask Ellis about her friends, whom she likes, and the classmates she feels are mean to her. Additionally, Ellis is more attached to her dolls and imaginary plays at this stage. I will ask her the names of her dolls and her favorite play. The potential findings from the assessment will include a high level of cognitive development and understanding(Galotti, 2018). Another potential finding is either a girl with high confidence or lacks confidence symbolizing the success of the locomotor stage, or lacks confidence because of feelings of guilt. Additionally, another potential finding will be behavioral issues such as antisocial behavior, if present, signalling a possible mental health concern.

Conclusion

Assessment of school-age children is a highly engaging process that requires applying various strategies to gain cooperation depending on the age. For example, a child who is five years has a developed understanding but will still need guidance on answering questions. To engage a child who is five years old and gain cooperation, talking about her friends and favorite plays will do the trick since play and friendship are central to this stage. Erikson’s stages of development place a 5-year-old child in the locomotor stage. Success through this stage leads to the development of purpose, while failure causes a sense of guilt. Finally, cognitive and social/emotional development will potentially be observed through the assessment.

 

References

CDC. (2022, February 7). Important Milestones: Your Child By Five Years. Retrieved from CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-5yr.html

Chung, D. (2018). The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Protective Development: Developmental Psychology. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 8, 369-398. https://doi.10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024.

Galotti, K. M. (2018). Cognitive psychology: In and out of the laboratory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lally, M., & Valentine, S. (2021). Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. In M. Lally, & S. Valentine, Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective (pp. https://uark.pressbooks.pub/hbse1/chapter/cognitive-development-in-early-childhood_ch_14/). University of Arkansas.

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Describe two external stressors that are unique to adolescents. Discuss what risk-taking behaviors may result from the external stressors and what support or coping mechanism can be introduced.

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Health Assessment

Introduction

Bullying is defined as seeking to harm, intimidate, or coerce someone perceived as vulnerable. Bullying within the adolescent community affects about 20-30 % of students who admit being the perpetrator or victim of such harassment (Faulkner, 2018).

Describe two stressors that are unique to adolescents

Bullying and identity confusion are two stressors affecting adolescent population. Bullying in any form can lead to teen depression or suicide (Falkner, 2018). Educating students, parents, professionals and communities on effects of bullying such as teen suicide and depression is imperative to stop the trend. Signs and symptoms of depression are: loss of interest in activities, sadness or hopelessness, irritability, withdrawal from friends and family, changes in eating and sleeping habits, feeling of guilt, lack of motivation/enthusiasm, fatigue and suicidal ideation..

Risk taking behaviors resulting from the external stressors and the coping mechanism

Low socioeconomic status, being pessimistic, cognitive factors, and gender are contributing factors that can lead to higher risk of adolescent depression (Kislitsyna, 2010). Females may be at a greater risk for developing depression because girls are more socially oriented, more dependent on positive social relations and more vulnerable to loss of such relations. Adolescents living with guardians that are depressed may also become depressed. The coping mechanisms are eating healthily, adequate exercising, sleeping adequately and building adequate relaxation time into busy schedules for teenagers. In addition, parents and caregivers should learn to listen carefully to teenager`s problems and support them in sports and other pro-social activities.

Conclusion

People who force and those who are bullied have been found have suicidal ideation, physical injury, somatic problems, anxiety, loe self esteem, depression and school absenteeism than those not involved with bullying (Klein, Myhre, & Ahrendt, 2013).

References

Falkner, A. (2018). Adolescent Assessment. Health Assessment: Foundations for Effective Practice. Retrieved from: https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/3

Kislitsyna, O. (2010). The social and economic risk factors of mental disorders of adolescents. Russian Education and Society. 52(10). 66-84 DOI:10.2753/RES1060-9393521005

Klein. D.A, Myhre. k.k..& Ahrendt. D.M. (2013). Bullying Among Adolescents: A Challenging in Primary Care. Am Fam Physician. Vol 88(2):87-92.Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/p87.html

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Describe two external stressors that are unique to adolescents. Discuss what risk-taking behaviors may result from the external stressors and what support or coping mechanism can be introduced.

According to Falkner, “Teenagers are often considered part of a vulnerable population group. Vulnerable populations as individuals who require special attention related to well-being and safety” (2018). Many external stressors exist in the world today, but two stressors that are unique to the adolescent population is peer pressure to engage in sexual activity, as well as social acceptance by peers which helps develop positive or negative self-image. Understanding the stages of this developmental period is important to provide further support when teenager and adolescents are asking for help.

 

Bullying is one of the unfortunate truths many admit to experiences in his or her life. This impacts one’s feeling of self-esteem, as well as impacts the value the hold toward themselves. When social acceptance plays such a large part in who you become, it is likely to bring negative opinions as well. Becoming one’s own source of positive reinforcement and positive talk will take the reliance of other’s and caring about other’s opinions will play less and less of a role in the development of self. When adolescents listen to opinions from others it can result in many negative outcomes, such as self-injury, withdrawal, or possible suicide. Jantzer, Haffner, Parzer, Resch, & Kaess states, “Bullying within the adolescent community is a growing concern, affecting nearly 20–30% of students who admit to being the perpetrator or victim of such harassment” (2015).

 

Though separate, bullying and peer influence plays a big factor in sexual partners. Though often sexual partners are by choice, there may be sometimes when “friends” force others to engage in sexual activity with someone who he or she is not intending to. There is a fine line here between consensual and forced, but when peer image plays such a substantial part in how you develop, listening to your “friends” and what they think of you makes a huge impact on the wellbeing. Encouraging individuals to think positive thoughts and have positive self-image will remove many of these external stressors faced by many.

 

References:

Falkner, A. (2018). Grand Canyon University (E.D). Age-Appropriate Approach to Pediatric Health Care

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