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NRS 434V Week 3 Benchmark Assignment – Health Screening and History of an Adolescent or Young Adult Client

NRS 434V Week 3 Benchmark Assignment – Health Screening and History of an Adolescent or Young Adult Client

Assessment of growth and development in children provides healthcare providers, parents, and teachers with vital information regarding the different growth components, including cognitive, motor, language and learning, and socioemotional elements. Assessment of children is essential because it can help identify behavior and learning issues that might require special interventions  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). Children have different needs depending on theirage; thus, it is necessary to use growth and development milestones for appropriate age when conducting the pediatric assessment. The purpose of this paper is to explore assessment techniques used for school-going children of different ages and examine the growth and developmental stage of a five-year-old in respect of Erikson’s stages of development.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

The physical examination approach is the same for all school-going children, 5-12 years old. It startswith taking vital signs, weight, height, and a head-to-toe exam. However, different techniques are used for smaller children and the older ones and interactions also vary  with during the physical examination. For smaller children, 5-7 years, non-medical terms should be used to describe the different exams. Additionallythe nurse should engage the child to talk about school activities as she conduct the physical examination  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). When examining older school-going children, the nurse can use medical terms but explain what they mean. For older children, the nurse can engage them in conversation about school performance and challenges rather than activities.Additionally, the nurse should apply modesty when physically examining older kids as they are sensitive to privacy  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). One common strategy a nurse can use for all the school-going children is, being open to answering any questions they might have.

Older children are more attentive, intelligent, and cooperative than younger ones. According to Piaget’s Stages of Development, a five-year-old falls in the preoperational stage (2-7 years) while a 10-year-old belongs to the concrete operational stage (7-11 years). Hence, at ten years, a child has a better understanding, higher cognitive development and intellectual abilities thana six-year-old (Lally & Valentine, 2021). Similarly, when using games and questions to engage a child as a strategy for developing rapport, a nurse will use different approaches for a younger kid and an older one. Older kids from 8 years understand the difference between reality and fiction; thus, a practitioner can use more developed games/stories/trivia to engage with them.

Assessment of 5-year-old Child

My chosen case is a 5-year-old girl, Ellis. Ellis was 3 kg at birth and has had average growth throughout. She has never been hospitalized save the occasional outpatient visits. She has undergone all the recommended immunizations from birth to now. School performance is average, and she relates well socially with friends. According to CDC developmental milestone, at five years, the language/communication developments expected of Ellis include telling a story composed of at least two events, maintaining a back-and-forth conversation, and answering simple questions after reading a story (CDC, 2022). Similarly, the cognitive milestones that Ellis should achieve at age five include counting 1-10 and naming numbers when pointed. Ellis should also recognize letters and write some letters of her name. she should be able to use the time words including evening, yesterday, morning, tomorrow and so on. The movement milestones expected at this stage is hopping on a single foot and buttoning own clothes. Finally, the social/emotional milestone achievements are following rules, singing/dancing/acting, and helping with simple house chores.

Erickson Stages of Development

According to Erikson’s stages of development, Ellis falls in the locomotor stage (3-6 years), described as initiative vs. guilt. During this stage, the child becomes more assertive as they explore the world and their abilities (Chung, 2018).A child who goes through this stage successfully feels independent and secure in their abilities and making decisions. To achieve engagement and cooperation, I would ask Ellis about her friends, whom she likes, and the classmates she feels are mean to her. Additionally, Ellis is more attached to her dolls and imaginary plays at this stage. I will ask her the names of her dolls and her favorite play. The potential findings from the assessment will include a high level of cognitive development and understanding(Galotti, 2018). Another potential finding is either a girl with high confidence or lacks confidence symbolizing the success of the locomotor stage, or lacks confidence because of feelings of guilt. Additionally, another potential finding will be behavioral issues such as antisocial behavior, if present, signalling a possible mental health concern.

Conclusion

Assessment of school-age children is a highly engaging process that requires applying various strategies to gain cooperation depending on the age. For example, a child who is five years has a developed understanding but will still need guidance on answering questions. To engage a child who is five years old and gain cooperation, talking about her friends and favorite plays will do the trick since play and friendship are central to this stage. Erikson’s stages of development place a 5-year-old child in the locomotor stage. Success through this stage leads to the development of purpose, while failure causes a sense of guilt. Finally, cognitive and social/emotional development will potentially be observed through the assessment.

 

References

CDC. (2022, February 7). Important Milestones: Your Child By Five Years. Retrieved from CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-5yr.html

Chung, D. (2018). The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Protective Development: Developmental Psychology. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 8, 369-398. https://doi.10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024.

Galotti, K. M. (2018). Cognitive psychology: In and out of the laboratory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lally, M., & Valentine, S. (2021). Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. In M. Lally, & S. Valentine, Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective (pp. https://uark.pressbooks.pub/hbse1/chapter/cognitive-development-in-early-childhood_ch_14/). University of Arkansas.

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Adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a high-risk situation because it poses serious health risks for the mother and the baby. Describe various risk factors or precursors to adolescent pregnancy. Research community and state resources devoted in adolescent pregnancy and describe at least two of these resources. Research the teen pregnancy rates for the last 10 years for your state and community. Has this rate increased or decreased? Discuss possible reasons for an increase or decrease.

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Replies to Valencia Classen

Adolescent pregnancy is seen as high-risk, as it causes serious risks for both mother and baby. Some of these risk factors include children being born pre-term, have lower birth weight, and higher neonatal mortality. Mothers tend to have greater rates of post-partum depression and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding [1, 2]. May 25, 2016. According to the CDC all sectors of the population communitywide should all make an effort to address teen pregnancy prevention. From 2010Campa to 2015, nine state-and community-based organizations and five national organizations were funded by cooperative agreement, Teen Pregnancy Prevention. The state- and community-based grantees, in turn, provide training and technical assistance to youth-serving organizations and partners. National resource, National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Its mission is promoted through, Raising awareness through affiliation with the media, policy makers, and influential leaders. Promote discussion about prevention of teed and unplanned pregnancy and Develops and distributes materials including pamphlets and online information. State resource, Human services help people find stability, and can include everything from providing for basic needs like food and shelter with the goal of promoting self-sufficiency. Over the last ten years, California’s females ages 15-19 increased by 15% between 2000 and 2016 the number of births in this population decreased by 61%. Although reasons for the decline are not totally clear, evidence suggests these declines are due to more teens abstaining from sexual activity, and more teens who are sexually active using birth control than in previous years.

References

https://parentology.com

Parenting in the digital age

https://WebMD.com

https://cdc,gov> teen pregnancy

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

www.Urbanchildinstitute.org

WWW.Humanservicesedu.org

  • JL

James Lokko

replied toValencia Classen

Feb 11, 2022, 10:32 PM

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Replies to Valencia Classen

Hello Valencia, its true that adolescent pregnancy is a problem in our societies. Over the years, I have seen young mothers getting depressed especially from families where they have been rejected,. This is an issue that we must find a balance, more so for the rare cases of pregnancies that are unavoidable. At the same time, low birthweight has been a challenge for the new-borns , and this can be attributed to poor feeding programme that the mother might be having or even stress of the mother during the babies development in the womb.

LB

Latasha Brooks

Posted Date

Feb 10, 2022, 3:02 PM

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Replies to Valencia Classen

According to the CDC, Native Americans have the highest rate of teen pregnancies amongst ethnicities. Blacks and Hispanic teens follow right behind Native Americans, who rank just under 30% of U.S. teens, ranking in the 25 percentile range for both groups (CDC, 2021). Considering the percentage of teen pregnancy in America requires a look at risk factors. Adolescent risk factors fall under many categories, some of which include socioeconomic standing, family history, religious considerations, and cultural traditions and concepts. Low income families, one parent households, absence of higher levels of education, reduced access to resources designed to prevent teen pregnancy, and little affiliation with church or religious organizations seem to have higher incidents of adolescent pregnancies (NIH, 2018).

When considering risk factors, the nurse has an opportunity to provide patient education in an effort to prevent incidences of teen pregnancy. There are many community and state resources available that provide education, program information, and contact information to various programs in a patient’s area. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services lists resources in the California area. It is well known that the Native American communities are often underserved. The Tribal Personal Responsibility Education Program (Tribal PREP) and the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies Program (PREIS) provide programs and information that assist indirectly in the reduction of the teen pregnancy rate. For example, access to programs that assist in funding services such as child care, family violence prevention, child welfare prevention, and short term emergency financial assistance in an effort to maintain the family nucleus. According to the CDC, teen pregnancy rates have decreased over the last 10 years nationwide, including California (CDC, 2018). While the exact reasons can not be identified specifically, it is clear that providing education, access to resources, and encouragement of support amongst family and social groups help to reduce isolation, poor examples, and other aspects that lead to teen pregnancy.

 

References

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, November 15). Reproductive health: Teen pregnancy. Retrieved February 9, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/

 

Chung, H., Kim, E., Lee, J. (2018). Comprehensive understanding of risk and protective factors related to adolescent pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review. Journal of adolescence, Vol 69, pg. 180-188. http://https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30390598/

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