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NRS 434V Week 2 Assignment 1  – Erickson’s Stages of Child Development: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet

NRS 434V Week 2 Assignment 1 – Erickson’s Stages of Child Development Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet

Assessment of growth and development in children provides healthcare providers, parents, and teachers with vital information regarding the different growth components, including cognitive, motor, language and learning, and socioemotional elements. Assessment of children is essential because it can help identify behavior and learning issues that might require special interventions  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). Children have different needs depending on theirage; thus, it is necessary to use growth and development milestones for appropriate age when conducting the pediatric assessment. The purpose of this paper is to explore assessment techniques used for school-going children of different ages and examine the growth and developmental stage of a five-year-old in respect of Erikson’s stages of development.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

The physical examination approach is the same for all school-going children, 5-12 years old. It startswith taking vital signs, weight, height, and a head-to-toe exam. However, different techniques are used for smaller children and the older ones and interactions also vary  with during the physical examination. For smaller children, 5-7 years, non-medical terms should be used to describe the different exams. Additionallythe nurse should engage the child to talk about school activities as she conduct the physical examination  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). When examining older school-going children, the nurse can use medical terms but explain what they mean. For older children, the nurse can engage them in conversation about school performance and challenges rather than activities.Additionally, the nurse should apply modesty when physically examining older kids as they are sensitive to privacy  (Lally & Valentine, 2021). One common strategy a nurse can use for all the school-going children is, being open to answering any questions they might have.

Older children are more attentive, intelligent, and cooperative than younger ones. According to Piaget’s Stages of Development, a five-year-old falls in the preoperational stage (2-7 years) while a 10-year-old belongs to the concrete operational stage (7-11 years). Hence, at ten years, a child has a better understanding, higher cognitive development and intellectual abilities thana six-year-old (Lally & Valentine, 2021). Similarly, when using games and questions to engage a child as a strategy for developing rapport, a nurse will use different approaches for a younger kid and an older one. Older kids from 8 years understand the difference between reality and fiction; thus, a practitioner can use more developed games/stories/trivia to engage with them.

Assessment of 5-year-old Child

My chosen case is a 5-year-old girl, Ellis. Ellis was 3 kg at birth and has had average growth throughout. She has never been hospitalized save the occasional outpatient visits. She has undergone all the recommended immunizations from birth to now. School performance is average, and she relates well socially with friends. According to CDC developmental milestone, at five years, the language/communication developments expected of Ellis include telling a story composed of at least two events, maintaining a back-and-forth conversation, and answering simple questions after reading a story (CDC, 2022). Similarly, the cognitive milestones that Ellis should achieve at age five include counting 1-10 and naming numbers when pointed. Ellis should also recognize letters and write some letters of her name. she should be able to use the time words including evening, yesterday, morning, tomorrow and so on. The movement milestones expected at this stage is hopping on a single foot and buttoning own clothes. Finally, the social/emotional milestone achievements are following rules, singing/dancing/acting, and helping with simple house chores.

Erickson Stages of Development

According to Erikson’s stages of development, Ellis falls in the locomotor stage (3-6 years), described as initiative vs. guilt. During this stage, the child becomes more assertive as they explore the world and their abilities (Chung, 2018).A child who goes through this stage successfully feels independent and secure in their abilities and making decisions. To achieve engagement and cooperation, I would ask Ellis about her friends, whom she likes, and the classmates she feels are mean to her. Additionally, Ellis is more attached to her dolls and imaginary plays at this stage. I will ask her the names of her dolls and her favorite play. The potential findings from the assessment will include a high level of cognitive development and understanding(Galotti, 2018). Another potential finding is either a girl with high confidence or lacks confidence symbolizing the success of the locomotor stage, or lacks confidence because of feelings of guilt. Additionally, another potential finding will be behavioral issues such as antisocial behavior, if present, signalling a possible mental health concern.

Conclusion

Assessment of school-age children is a highly engaging process that requires applying various strategies to gain cooperation depending on the age. For example, a child who is five years has a developed understanding but will still need guidance on answering questions. To engage a child who is five years old and gain cooperation, talking about her friends and favorite plays will do the trick since play and friendship are central to this stage. Erikson’s stages of development place a 5-year-old child in the locomotor stage. Success through this stage leads to the development of purpose, while failure causes a sense of guilt. Finally, cognitive and social/emotional development will potentially be observed through the assessment.

 

References

CDC. (2022, February 7). Important Milestones: Your Child By Five Years. Retrieved from CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/milestones-5yr.html

Chung, D. (2018). The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Protective Development: Developmental Psychology. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 8, 369-398. https://doi.10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024.

Galotti, K. M. (2018). Cognitive psychology: In and out of the laboratory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lally, M., & Valentine, S. (2021). Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. In M. Lally, & S. Valentine, Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective (pp. https://uark.pressbooks.pub/hbse1/chapter/cognitive-development-in-early-childhood_ch_14/). University of Arkansas.

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Replies to Ethel Kunaka

Ethel,

Having a baby with ELBW or premature effects is not easy for any parents. These babies go through so many health complications from birth to some problems lasting lifelong. If they live after their premature birth, then there is a huge chance of having intellectual and developmental disabilities for lifelong. They may need to be frequently hospitalized and need the help of a therapist to be able to function in their life. Parents go through so much emotional and physical exertion while taking care of their premature child. It is troubling for parents with financial problems as well. In this crisis, nurses need to find out ways to help the child and the suffering family by providing proper health education and encouraging them to join the support groups. “The advantages of meeting with a regular group are endless: You can bounce ideas off each other, share preemie tips, and ask questions that you think no one else will understand. You (and your preemie) may even make some life-long friends” (Merkoff, 2019).

Reference

Merkoff, H. (2019, January 13). Support for Parents of Premature Babies. What to Expect. https://www.whattoexpect.com/first-year/support-for-parents-of-premature-babies.aspx#:~:text=The%20advantages%20of%20meeting%20with,make%20some%20life%2Dlong%20friends

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Replies

Have you ever worked with Social Workers to help patients find resources?

 

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In my little experience here in the US I have not. I know in this everyday practice I will surely do and it would be such an experience.

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Low birth weight babies, or babies weighing <2500g, already have many challenges awaiting them upon birth. There is a fair bit of research suggesting many long-term impacts such as ongoing care and follow-ups, comorbidities, and even some socioeconomic implications felt by the family and healthcare systems alike. According to Hack M, Schluchter M, Andreias L, Margevicius S, Taylor HG, Drotar D, & Cuttler L. (2011), “Researchers defined a “chronic health condition” as something that affected a child’s functioning or that required the use of special equipment or assistive services and included asthma and obesity. The researchers found that overall rates of chronic conditions were higher in ELBW children than among their NBW peers at age 14 years.” Though these findings may seem common among these age groups, understanding and identifying such findings early on allows healthcare providers the opportunity to treat/ manage these disparities prior to the disease progression.

It is stated, “Maternal exposures to environmental hazards may result in abortion, fetal death, low-birth weight, prematurity, or congenital anomalies” (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2013; Stotland et al., 2014). Some cultural and ethnic groups experience environmental pollutants or toxic factors that may impact birthweights. Pollutants in drinking water in undeveloped countries, poor air quality and pollutants in oven industrialized countries, or drugs/ alcohol/ smoke in developed nations play a roll in rates of ELBW babies. Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (n.d) states it perfectly, “Infants explore the environment using their five senses, resulting in them touching and tasting most everything. This method of exploration exposes them to whatever toxins are present, such as lead-laden paint chips or pesticide residue. As a result of environmental exposures, an infant may develop disorders in any body system, but most often in the respiratory (particularly asthma), gastrointestinal/biliary, and neurological systems.” This should warrant everyone to think a bit harder and look at what each and every one of us are doing to our environment every day! Mothers do not always know harms is being done to the baby’s development, so let us do our part to change the environment around them which is out of their control.

One resource that is great and always available to the public is Healthy People 2020. This resource is easy to access, and gives people a large amount of information on varying topics.

References:

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

Obstetrics & Gynecology, 122(4), 931-935. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000435416.21944.54

Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units. (n.d.). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from

https://www.pehsu.net/faq.html

Scientific article: Hack M, Schluchter M, Andreias L, Margevicius S, Taylor HG, Drotar D, & Cuttler L.

(2011). Change in prevalence of chronic conditions between childhood and adolescence among

extremely low-birth-weight children. JAMA, 306(4), 394-401. PubMedID: 21791688.

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Hello Thomas, thank you for sharing. I agree that extremely low birth weight babies bring stress to the family. The family spends days, sometimes months, at the hospital, and as nurses, it is essential to support the family to ensure they understand the care during and after the hospital stay. Understanding and knowing how to take care of short-term and long-term complications with extremely low birth babies will help the family prepare for future occurrences such as congenital abnormalities and hearing loss. The environment one lives in, such as maternal exposure to environmental hazards, affects pregnancy and can lead to preterm birth or abortion (Green, 2018). What is your opinion on this?

Reference

Green, S. Z. (2018). Health assessment of the infant. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Dynamics in nursing: Art and science of professional practice. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/1

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I completely agree with you that the impact of low birth weight (LBW) babies can be detrimental to the families involved. The family can become overburdened with financial expenses related directly to the specialty care involved with the child. The family may not have the knowledge to know what they need to do with the child. The effects of an extremely low birth weight baby can be on family and extended family. I haven’t witnessed firsthand the emotional toll it takes; however, I have heard horror stories and the amount of time the infant spends in the NICU to be big enough to take home (Cutland, Lackritz, Mallett-Moore, Bardají, Chandrasekaran, Lahariya, Nisar, Tapia, Pathirana, Kochhar, Muñoz, & Brighton Collaboration Low Birth Weight Working Group (2017). I feel for those who have to experience that. WOW, I didn’t realize how much it costs for babies to be born premature or underweight especially when there’s nothing a mother can do sometimes. It hurts my heart that this happens to some people although it’s up to us to inform and educate mothers to be about the good and sometimes sad part of giving birth and the after effects. I believe that is a great resource and very easily accessible and definitely easy for the reader to understand and get the advice and help they need! Thank you so much for the read and Goodluck on your journey!

References

Cutland, C. L., Lackritz, E. M., Mallett-Moore, T., Bardají, A., Chandrasekaran, R., Lahariya, C., Nisar, M. I.,

Tapia, M. D., Pathirana, J., Kochhar, S., Muñoz, F. M., & Brighton Collaboration Low Birth Weight Working Group (2017). Low birth weight: Case definition &

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