NRS 433V Topic 3 DQ 2 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

NRS 433V Topic 3 DQ 2 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

NRS 433V Topic 3 DQ 2 Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition

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Topic 3 DQ 2

Aug 8-12, 2022

Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition. Discuss generalizability as it applies to nursing research.

Krishna Turner

Aug 12, 2022, 11:52 PM

Replies to Krishna Turner

A sampling theory is a set of data collected from the population of interest or target population. The samples are information that are accessible in units, such as people, events, or other subjects of interest. The purpose of the sampling is to target a larger population on characteristics relevant to the research questions. Example of sampling theory will be a study conducted by researcher collecting information from 600 people in a population of 6,000 people. There are two main type of sampling methods, probability sampling involves random selection, each person in the group or community has an equal chance of being chosen. Then there is non-probability sampling does not involve random selection and so cannot rely on probability theory to ensure that it is representative of the population of interest. (nim.nih.gov)

Generalizability as it applies to nursing research is evidence-based practice. This helps the nurses to make critical decisions when caring for patients. Example: in critical care nursing research involves assessment and intervention related to perioperative heart transplant population. (Kamper, 2020) Implementing treatments such as therapy, medications, will provide a better outcome for the patient and reduce the length of stay in the hospital.

Reference:

Kamper, S. J. (2020). Generalizability: Linking evidence to practice. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 50(1), 45–46. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.0701

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Sampling. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/stats_tutorial/section2/mod1_sampling.html

Francis Umukoro

replied toKrishna Turner

Aug 13, 2022, 5:21 AM

• Replies to Krishna Turner

Hello Krishna,

Generalizability is a very important concept in research, nursing research most especially because wrong generalizations of results across illnesses may result in life-threatening mistakes and/or permanent damages to health. In medical research, there is a lot more to consider as the situations are almost always very subjective and cases may differ drastically even if the patients are suffering from the same illness. For example, a patient’s allergies or even previous treatment may negate the general use of a good research result even though it may apply to the majority of patients who are suffering the same conditions as in the research result (Yarkoni, 2022).

Reference

Yarkoni, T. (2022). The generalizability crisis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 45.

• Sheranda Fesler

replied toKrishna Turner

Aug 13, 2022, 6:05 AM

Replies to Krishna Turner

Thanks for your posting. In the example you provided on generalizability, how would those findings be spread to the larger population?

• Krishna Turner

replied toSheranda Fesler

Aug 14, 2022, 11:42 PM

• ·

Replies to Sheranda Fesler

Hi Dr. Fesler,

Generalizability ensure that the survey respondents include relevant groups from the larger population in the correct proportions by age, race, and gender. For instance, Covid 19 was/is a epidemic that affected a large population. In the United States it affected mainly those in Urban areas, non- hispanic black, asian, and hispanic, but a smaller percentage of non-hispanic white.(2022) Age of the individuals varied meaning from younger individuals to older individuals. The survey or study for groups tend focus on race, age, or gender pending on the focal point of the subject at hand.

Reference:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, August 10). Covid-19 provisional counts – health disparities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/health_disparities.htm#:~:text=Adjustments%20to%20the%20population%20distributions,that%20are%20non%2DHispanic%20white.

Generalizability. Institute for Work & Health. (2006, August). Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/generalizability

• Hannah Haywood

replied toKrishna Turner

Aug 13, 2022, 10:51 PM

• Replies to Krishna Turner

Hello Krishna, I enjoyed reading your post. Since learning about generalizability, it has been interesting reading research studies due to them mentioning the generalizability of the study. I found an interesting study regarding open heart surgery and the potential for a “Erector Spinae Plane Block” that might help with pain control after surgery. The goal of the nerve block is to prevent the overuse of opioid medications after surgery. However, due to the limitations of the study, the generalizability was skewed due to “overemphasizing a positive result” (Noss, et al., 2019). The generalizability was thus inaccurate due to not enough information and lack of proper controls in the study.

References:

Noss, C., Anderson, K.J., & Gregory, A.J. (2019). Erector spinae plane block for open heart surgery: A potential tool for improved analgesia. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 33 (2). 376-377. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2018.07.015

• Misty Diaz

replied toKrishna Turner

Aug 13, 2022, 11:47 PM

• Replies to Krishna Turner

Hello Krishna!

I just wanted to elaborate on the sampling theory. For the non-probability sampling, there are convenience sampling which is just that, convenience; there is quota sampling, which is like convenience sampling but you finish off the sampling in order to fill a “quota” of what the researcher stipulates the sample should be, and then there is purposive sampling where the entire sample is hand-picked in order to get the perspective or action that is the target of the study; and snow-ball sampling, where you get some, then get more by word of mouth and more by word of mouth, in essence, snow-ball, more followed by more, followed by more; lastly is theoretical sampling in which the sample parameters continue to evolve with the evolution of the theory the researcher is trying to research or develop.

Also interesting, is the fact that all these types of sampling can be subject to bias. The researcher goal is to avoid bias being, or thought of as being bias, as it can ruin the sample validity, and ruin the entire project, and possibly the researchers reputation and career.

OK, here is a question: is qualitative research the same, or different than descriptive statistics? Just wandering…

Reference