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NRS 433 Week 2 Discussion Question 1

NRS 433 Week 2 Discussion Question 1

 

The theoretical foundations of qualitative and quantitative methods are very different, but many researchers believe both methods should be used in the research study to increase validity and reliability. What advantages or disadvantages do you see in using both types of methods in a nursing study? Support your answer with current evidence-based literature.

The emergent nature of qualitative research that results from the interaction between data collection and data analysis requires that investigators not prespecify a sample for data collection in strict terms, lest important data sources be overlooked. In quantitative studies, the ideal sampling standard is random sampling. Most qualitative studies use purposeful (or purposive) sampling, a conscious selection of a small number of data sources that meet particular criteria. The logic and power of purposeful sampling lie in selecting information rich cases (participants or settings) for indepth study to illuminate the questions of interest.14 This type of sampling usually aims to cover a range of potentially relevant social phenomena and perspectives from an appropriate array of data sources. Selection criteria often evolve over the course of analysis, and investigators return repeatedly to the data to explore new cases or new perspectives.

Readers of qualitative studies should look for sound reasoning in the description and justification of the strategies for selecting data sources. Patton offers a succinct, clear, and comprehensive discussion of the various sampling strategies used in qualitative research.14 Convenience sampling is one of the most commonly used, yet one of the least appropriate, sampling strategies. In convenience sampling, participants are primarily selected on the basis of ease of access to the researcher and, secondarily, for their knowledge of the subject matter. Purposive non-probability sampling strategies include (1) judgmental sampling, where theory or knowledge points the researcher to select specific cases: (a) maximum variation sampling, to document range or diversity; (b) extreme or deviant case sampling, where it is necessary to select cases that are unusual or special in some way; (c) typical or representative case sampling, to describe and illustrate what is typical and common in terms of the phenomenon of interest; (d) critical cases, to make a point dramatically; and, (e) criterion sampling, where all cases that meet some predetermined criteria are studied (this sampling strategy is commonly used in quality improvement); (2) opportunistic sampling, where availability of participants guides on-the-spot sampling decisions; (3) snowball, network, or chain sampling, where people nominate others for participation; and (4) theory based operational construct sampling, where incidents, time periods, people, or other data sources are sampled on the basis of their potential manifestation or representation of important theoretical constructs. Participant observation studies typically use opportunistic sampling strategies, whereas grounded theory studies use theory based operational construct sampling.

During the assessment phase of the nursing process, data are gathered to determine a patient’s state of health and to identify factors that may affect well-being. This activity includes eliciting a health history to identify previous illnesses and injuries, allergies, family health patterns, and psychosocial factors affecting health. Environmental health components of history taking can be integrated into

NRS 433 Week 2 Discussion Question 1

NRS 433 Week 2 Discussion Question 1

the routine assessment of patients by including questions about prior exposure to chemical, physical, or biological hazards and about temporal relationships between the onset of symptoms and activities performed before or during the occurrence of symptoms. During an assessment, the nurse should be alert to patterns of co-morbidity among patients, family members, and communities that are indicative of environmental etiologies. Nurses also conduct assessments during visits to patients in their homes and places of work, gaining first hand information about environmental factors that may adversely affect health.

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Diagnosis occurs with the culmination of objective and subjective data collection. In this phase of the nursing process health problems are identified and described. Depending upon their practice setting, nurses may use the diagnostic terms established by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) or medical diagnostic terminology, as is often the case with APNs who are nurse practitioners. Routine consideration of environmental factors that affect health is essential in the diagnostic phase of the nursing process; without knowledge of such factors, problems may be misdiagnosed and subsequent interventions will address environmental issues haphazardly, if at all.

Planning/outcomes is the phase of the nursing process in which optimal outcomes are identified. A range of interventions are identified to address the health problem, and plans for implementing those interventions are developed. The ability to establish interventions that address environmentally related illnesses depends on a nurse’s ability to formulate diagnoses that include consideration of environmental factors. Without attention to environmental factors, intervention plans are likely to focus on secondary- and tertiary-level activities (care and cure) rather than primary prevention strategies.

What similarities and differences can you identify between the nursing process and the research process? Explain your answer. Please support your response with a peer reviewed article.

The theoretical foundations of qualitative and quantitative methods are very different, but many researchers believe both methods should be used in the research study to increase validity and reliability. What advantages or disadvantages do you see in using both types of methods in a nursing study? Support your answer with current evidence-based literature.

Nursing research is used to study a dilemma or a problem in nursing. Examine a problem you have seen in nursing. Why should it be studied? Justify your rationale.

The three types of qualitative research are phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. What are the differences and similarities between two of the three types of studies?

Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. In what ways could a researcher manage and organize the data?

Extraneous variables may have an influence on the dependent variable. In what ways do researchers attempt to control extraneous variables? Support your answer with current literature.

Using established guidelines, critique the data collection, analysis, and implications of a published quantitative study.

According to the textbook, nurses in various settings are adopting a research-based (or evidence-based) practice that incorporates research findings into their decisions and interaction with clients. How do you see this being applied in your workplace

The research problem can be developed from many sources. What is a source of nursing research? Identify a potential research study example from that source.

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