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NRS 433 EBP Presentation Healthcare Associated Infections

NRS 433 EBP Presentation Healthcare Associated Infections


What Four Infections Were Studied?

Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality identifies four types of common Healthcare-Associated Infections and some of the interventions for dealing with them. The four infections studied include ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and surgical site infections. According to AHRQ, these four types of infections are responsible for over eighty percent of all healthcare-associated infections (AHRQ, 2019).

What Was Shown To Be Effective Against Prevention Of Healthcare-Associated Infections And To What Strength Of Evidence?

The several adverse effects of healthcare-associated infections have led to several research efforts to come up with evidence-based practice strategies for preventing the infections as they are the most effective routes to fighting healthcare associate infections (Lorden et al., 2017). Some of the most effective means include removal of unnecessary indwelling catheters, cleaning patient’s skin with chlorhexidine, application of full-barrier precaution when inserting central venous catheters, and handwashing and hygiene. These evidence-based methods of preventing healthcare-associated infections were obtained from systematic reviews, implying that the level of evidence is I.



Locate An Evidenced-Based Research Paper (Less Than Five Years Old). Describe The Following About The Study:

The Title?

The evidence-based research paper that will be considered for the review using guiding questions is an article by Caselli et al. the title of  the article is “Reducing healthcare-associated infections incidence by a probiotic-based sanitation system: A multicentre, prospective, intervention study.”

What Is The Study About?

The Probiotic Cleaning Hygiene System (PCHS) was previously shown to be able to abate surface pathogens without the selection of antibiotic-resistant species. So the study wanted to dig deeper into this cleaning system and try and apply it in the control of healthcare-associated infections. The cleaning system replaced conventional chemical-based (chlorine products.

Purpose Of The Study?

The purpose of the study to determine whether the application of the Probiotic Cleaning Hygiene System (PCHS) can impact the incidence of healthcare-associated infection.


What Was The Framework Of The Study?

The study was not based on any specific framework as the authors failed to identify any.

Protocol development?

The researchers developed a protocol for the study, which was a prospective, multicentre and pre-post interventional research. The study simultaneously analyzed surface contamination and the incidence of healthcare-associated infections was done in six Italian public hospitals for eighteen months. The hospitals’ sizes were from medium to large. Having come up with the trial protocol, the trial protocol was then approved by the institutional ethics committees of every recruited hospital.


Describe How The Project Began.

After identifying the research gap of the possibility of using the Probiotic Cleaning Hygiene System in controlling healthcare-associated infections, the research team then established eligibility criteria for the hospitals to be enrolled in the study. One of the inclusion criteria was obtaining approval from the ethical committee prior to entering the research and having a size of more than one hundred in-patient beds. The intervention was then introduced to replace the conventional use of chlorine products for sanitation, with the hospitals agreeing not to introduce any other intervention which could have a potential impact on healthcare-associated infections.


Did The Topic Have Support From Leaders, Clinical Nursing Staff?

Yes, the topic has support from the leaders and the clinical nursing staff as the researchers were given the institutional ethical clearance to proceed with the research. Besides, the staff seemed to buy into the research since they agreed not to use any other intervention that could affect the incidence of healthcare-associated infections.


Describe The Members Of The Project Team.

The members of the project team included the researchers and dedicated healthcare professionals who were hired and trained in a particular way to help in data collection. The other members of the project team included a central team that was there throughout the period of the study to help in solving informatics problems, ensuring that the data is standardized, complete, and consistent.


How Long Did The Team Meet?

Even though no formal meeting has been described, the authors state that every team member was available throughout the research period. Meaning that even though the meetings are not described, they might have been meeting on a frequent basis to check in the progress of the project.


What Materials, Etc. Were Developed?

Some of the materials developed include electronic clinical records, bioburden data, and quantitative and qualitative characterization of the healthcare facility surface bioburden in the areas surveyed.


Describe The Evaluation Of The Study.

The study met its objectives as it was able to determine the efficacy of the use of Probiotic Cleaning Hygiene System in controlling the healthcare-associated infection


What Were The Findings And Conclusions?

Some of the findings include a significant decrease in cases of healthcare-associated infections upon the use of the Probiotic Cleaning Hygiene System, with incidence rates observed to reduce from 4.8% to 2.3 %. The use of the system also led to decreased amounts of surface pathogens. The study concluded that modulation of environmental microbiota for healthcare setting cleaning could be instrumental in controlling the healthcare-associated infection.


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019, October). Ending health care–associated infections. Rockville, MD: Author. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/haicusp.htm

Caselli, E., Brusaferro, S., Coccagna, M., Arnoldo, L., Berloco, F., Antonioli, P., … & SAN-ICA Study Group. (2018). Reducing healthcare-associated infections incidence by a probiotic-based sanitation system: A multicentre, prospective, intervention study. PLoS One13(7), e0199616. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199616

Lorden, A. L., Jiang, L., Radcliff, T. A., Kelly, K. A., & Ohsfeldt, R. L. (2017). Potentially preventable hospitalizations and the burden of healthcare-associated infections. Health services research and managerial epidemiology4, 2333392817721109. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333392817721109

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NRS 433 EBP Presentation Healthcare Associated Infections

NRS 433 EBP Presentation Healthcare Associated Infections

Topic 4 DQ 1

Aug 15-17, 2022

Compare independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables. Describe two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables. Support your answer with peer-reviewed articles.

Replies to Krishna Turner

The independent variable is the experimental or predictor variable, example is a person age, you cannot change someone age but what can be change is their lifestyle such as diets, career, or where they live. The independent variable is often manipulated in the research to observe the effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is considered the outcome variable. It brings on various standards in response to the independent variable. The extraneous variable is thought to be a variable that can impact the relationship between the independent and dependent variables which can be controlled either through research design or statistical procedures that were not anticipated or recognized at the beginning of the study (GCU,2018).


Experimental design is one-way to control extraneous variables this is done by designing an experiment in which individuals are randomly assigned to treatment groups and such that researchers are also blind to which persons belong to which group, this should diminish the problem of experimental favoritism (Zach, 2021).


Having an unchanging environment is another way to control extraneous variables. Every single person should be able to participate in an experiment in the specific same environment, examples such as the same lighting conditions, same noise levels, same temperature, and same number of potential distractions. This should minimize the effect of situational variables and stress attributes (Zach, 2021).


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1


Zach. (2021, February 19). Extraneous variable: Definition & examples. Statology. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.statology.org/extraneous-variable/

  • Replies to Krishna Turner

If you do not control the extraneous variables, they may influence the outcome s of the study, and you may not be able to demonstrate that your results are really an effect of your independent variable. Level of obedience can be influenced by the external circumstances rather than the personalities of the people involved tis is situational variables. Your example is of controlling the environment where the research takes place and keeping it consistent are correct

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