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NRS 433 Assignment Critical Analysis of Qualitative Study Part 1

NRS 433 Assignment Critical Analysis of Qualitative Study Part 1


Introduction to Nursing Research    Theory, Design, and Sampling

Prepare a critical analysis of a qualitative study focusing on the problem statement, study purpose, research question, literature review, and theoretical framework. This can be one of the selected articles from your previous literature review or a new peer-reviewed article.

The completed analysis should be 1,000-1,250 words and should connect to your identified practice problem of interest.

Refer to “Research Critique Part 1.” Questions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative, in the structure of a formal paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

The emergent nature of qualitative research that results from the interaction between data collection and data analysis requires that investigators not prespecify a sample for data collection in strict terms, lest important data sources be overlooked. In quantitative studies, the ideal sampling standard is random sampling. Most qualitative studies use purposeful (or purposive) sampling, a conscious selection of a small number of data sources that meet particular criteria. The logic and power of purposeful sampling lie in selecting information rich cases (participants or settings) for indepth study to illuminate the questions of interest.14 This type of sampling usually aims to cover a range of potentially relevant social phenomena and perspectives from an appropriate array of data sources. Selection criteria often evolve over the course of analysis, and investigators return repeatedly to the data to explore new cases or new perspectives.

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Readers of qualitative studies should look for sound reasoning in the description and justification of the strategies for selecting data sources. Patton offers a succinct, clear, and comprehensive discussion of the various sampling strategies used in qualitative

NRS 433 Assignment Critical Analysis of Qualitative Study Part 1

NRS 433 Assignment Critical Analysis of Qualitative Study Part 1

research.14 Convenience sampling is one of the most commonly used, yet one of the least appropriate, sampling strategies. In convenience sampling, participants are primarily selected on the basis of ease of access to the researcher and, secondarily, for their knowledge of the subject matter. Purposive non-probability sampling strategies include (1) judgmental sampling, where theory or knowledge points the researcher to select specific cases: (a) maximum variation sampling, to document range or diversity; (b) extreme or deviant case sampling, where it is necessary to select cases that are unusual or special in some way; (c) typical or representative case sampling, to describe and illustrate what is typical and common in terms of the phenomenon of interest; (d) critical cases, to make a point dramatically; and, (e) criterion sampling, where all cases that meet some predetermined criteria are studied (this sampling strategy is commonly used in quality improvement); (2) opportunistic sampling, where availability of participants guides on-the-spot sampling decisions; (3) snowball, network, or chain sampling, where people nominate others for participation; and (4) theory based operational construct sampling, where incidents, time periods, people, or other data sources are sampled on the basis of their potential manifestation or representation of important theoretical constructs. Participant observation studies typically use opportunistic sampling strategies, whereas grounded theory studies use theory based operational construct sampling.

Sample size is a critical question for all research studies. A study that uses a sample that is too small may have unique and particular findings such that its qualitative transferability or quantitative generalisability becomes questionable. In qualitative research, however, even studies with small samples may help to identify theoretically provocative ideas that merit further exploration. Studies with samples that are too large are equally problematic. Whereas quantitative research has specific guidelines that frame researchers’ decisions about adequate sample size, there are only general principles, reflective of judgment and negotiation, for qualitative researchers. Examination of several areas will help readers to identify the adequacy of sample size in qualitative studies. Firstly, references about the specific method used may offer some guidance. For example, sample sizes in phenomenological studies are typically smaller than those in grounded theory and ethnographic studies.

Secondly, the trade off between breadth and depth in the research affects sample size. Studies with smaller samples can more fully explore a broader range of participants’ experiences, whereas studies with larger samples typically focus on a more narrow range of experiences. Thirdly, readers can review published studies that used similar methods and focused on similar phenomena for guidance about sample size adequacy. Qualitative researchers judge the adequacy of a sample for a given study by how comprehensively and completely the research questions were answered. Readers of qualitative studies are encouraged to review the researcher’s documentation of sample size and selection throughout the course of the study.

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