NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment – Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations
The American healthcare system is faced with the great challenge of inequality which displays a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, including people of color (Boyd et al., 2020). Such inequalities are the reason behind the gaps in the acquisition of health insurance coverage, leading to uneven access to care services and poor health outcomes among the minority populations. Additionally, studies show that African Americans are significantly impacted by these inequalities contributing to the high prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, in addition to the increased mortality rates among this minority population. This discussion provides an analysis of the health status of African Americans, as part of the minority population, in comparison to the national average.
African Americans make up approximately 13.4% of the United States population. The current health status of black Americans displays an increased prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and diabetes as compared to whites. Increased morbidity and mortality rates among African Americans have been associated with several economic and social factors. For instance, studies show that African Americans have a more likelihood of not seeing a doctor when they are sick, as a result of high healthcare costs (Yearby, 2018). Despite the significant advances in the current healthcare system in the U.S., there is still evidence reporting that racial and ethnic minorities such as black Americans still receive a lower quality of care services leading to poor health outcomes as compared to the whites. As of 2019 August, it was reported that approximately 68 million people had been covered by the Medicaid program, with black Americans accounting for 20%. Given that most black Americans have lower social and economic status, they tend to be poorer than other demographic groups, hence making it harder for them to enroll in health insurance programs like Medicaid.
The death rate among African Americans has declined by about 25% over the past 17 years precisely for populations above the age of
65 years, as reported by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, studies also show that young African Americans have a higher probability of dying at an early age as a result of increased risks for stroke, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDs among other conditions, as compared to their white counterparts. Social factors common among this minority group contributing to the above-mentioned health disparities include unemployment, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poverty among others (Bell et al., 2020). Consequently, this group of individuals is also faced with nutritional challenges such as unfavorable nutritional environments, food deserts, food swamps, and food insecurities. For instance, black Americans are associated with poverty and a low level of education, which makes it hard for them to access quality and healthy foods as compared to the economically rich racial majorities. They end up consuming fast foods, among other unhealthy foods, which increases their risk of cardiovascular conditions and obesity.
Various barriers to the accessibility of quality health care services have been identified for the African American population. Predominating barriers include decreased understanding of care plans, inability to pay for care services, lack of transportation to care facility, and the inability of incorporating the recommended health care plans into their routine daily living pattern. These barriers are associated with several cultural, educational, socio-political, and socioeconomic factors. For instance, cultural beliefs among African Americans promoting unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle, in addition to failure to follow up on routine screening, negatively affects their overall health and utilization of healthcare services irrespective of their social or financial status (Lewis & Dyke, 2018). Consequently, the low socio-economic status among African Americans in terms of low income, unemployment, low education level, and occupation status is also a significant inhibitory factor towards accessibility to quality healthcare services. Lastly, as part of the minorities, blacks in the U.S have limited political influence towards the development of appropriate policies such as the “Obama Care,” to promote their access to quality care services.
Health Promotion Activities
With regard to the numerous health disparities affecting African Americans, several health promotion activities have been proposed over the years to help promote the health and well-being of this minority group. The self-help initiative was introduced among African Americans to promote taking personal responsibility for their health and improving their quality of life. Self-help health promotion practices among black Americans include routine screening for predominating health conditions, physical exercise, healthy diet plans, adoption of recommended care plans, and disease prevention practices at home (Fletcher et al., 2018). Consequently, for the religious members of the community, faith-basedorganizationslike churches have promoted structural health promotion activities including education, health fairs, and smoking cessation among others.
Approach for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
One of the most effective approaches that can be utilized by African Americans in promoting their health as part of the care plan is the adoption of Pender’s health promotion model. According to the CDC, black Americans are at high risk of chronic diseases, with cardiovascular diseases being the leading cause of death among this group of individuals. Health promotion practices focusing on lifestyle modification have displayed great significance in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Pender’s health promotion model, on the other hand, provides a foundation promoting the examination of the background influences of this minority population, in line with the health promotion practices that can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Fletcher et al., 2018). At the primary level, this model encourages regular exercise and a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and promote healthy living. At the secondary level, the model promotes routing screening for hypertension, diabetes, and cancer among other common diseases. Lastly, at the tertiary level, the model promotes education programs and rehabilitation among the affected individuals.
Cultural Beliefs and Practices
Other than social and economic factors, several cultural factors among black Americans must be considered when developing the most effective care plan. Some of such cultural beliefs include lack of trust in complementary medicine, misconceptions about immunization, and strong religious beliefs against organ donation among other medical procedures. With the theory of cultural humility, clinicians can now come up with flexible care plans, while still upholding the patients’ cultural values and beliefs (Boyd et al., 2020). This theory is based on the importance of preventing cultural discrimination and promoting the equal provision of care to the culturally diverse population.
Health promotion practices are crucial among the general population in disease prevention and improved quality of life. Minority populations such as African Americans, are faced with numerous health disparities as compared to the whites, hence the need for more health promotion activities. However, when coming up with a care plan for this minority population, it is necessary to identify and respect their cultural values and beliefs to promote positive outcomes.
Bell, C. N., Sacks, T. K., Tobin, C. S. T., & Thorpe Jr, R. J. (2020). Racial non-equivalence of socioeconomic status and self-rated health among African Americans and Whites. SSM-population health, 10, 100561.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100561
Boyd, R. W., Lindo, E. G., Weeks, L. D., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). On racism: a new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog, 10(10.1377). https://doi.org/10.1377/hblog20200630.939347
Fletcher, G. F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., & Lavie, C. J. (2018). Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(14), 1622-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2141
Lewis, T. T., & Van Dyke, M. E. (2018). Discrimination and the health of African Americans: The potential importance of intersectionalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721418770442
Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 77(3-4), 1113-1152. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12230
Details for Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations assignment:
Analyze the health status of a specific minority group. Select a minority group that is represented in the United States (examples include: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.)
In an essay of 750-1,000 words, compare and contrast the health status of the minority group you have selected to the national average. Consider the cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical barriers to health. How do race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education influence health for the minority group you have selected? Address the following in your essay:
1. What is the current health status of this minority group?
2. How is health promotion defined by the group?
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NRS 429V Week 3 Discussion 2
Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.
DQ 3 OLD
Compare and contrast the three different levels of health promotion (primary, secondary, tertiary). Discuss how the levels of prevention help determine educational needs for a patient.
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
The Life approach to Health promotion and disease prevention contributes to greater awareness and healthier lifestyle, and subsequently improves health and quality of life. A healthy diet, physical activity, the reduction of stress as well as access to preventive health care contribute to a healthier lifestyle. Preventive measures for all age groups reduce treatment and care cost throughout the life course, particularly in old age. One can distinguish between primary, secondary and Tertiary preventive care.
Primary Prevention– Primary prevention is the protection of health by implementing personal and community wide action such as practices good hand hygiene, adequate nutrition, regular check up or screening tests, proper immunizations, proper physical activity and exercise. This is done by preventive exposures to hazard that cause disease or injury, alternating unhealthy and unsafe behavior leading to disease or injury. Nurse can educate the people to get proper immunization, about hand hygiene practices, proper sanitation.
Secondary Prevention- Encompasses early detection of disease of departures of department from good health and for prompt and effective corrective action. Mainly secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of disease or injury that has already occurred. This is done by detecting and treating disease or as soon as possible to slow its progress. Example nurse can educate the people for regular mammograms for the women above age oof 50 and colonoscopy for the men above 55years old , papsmear for women after 30years of her age , patient with family history of heart disease can check their Blood pressure regularly at home.
Tertiary Prevention- consists of measures to reduce and eliminate the long term impairments and disabilities, minimize suffering caused by existing departure from good health and promote the patient’s adjustment to irremediable conditions. This is done by helping people manage long term health problems such as stroke patients or patient with arthritis, In this level Nurse can involve the family members in rehabilitation care. Various therapies can be involve in tertiary prevention such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, physical therapy.
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. (n.d.). https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention
About. (n.d.). Who emro | health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity | public health functions | about who. http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
Primary Health Promotion: Aimed at keeping those healthy people healthy, preventing problems down the line. This can encompass everything from health fairs, exercise programs, encouraging proper diet, vaccinations, washing hands, wearing a mask, to more general public health decisions like helping to pass a law requiring helmets or ban smoking (Falkner, 2018) (IWH, 2015).
Secondary Health Promotion: This level is more individualized and is based in early detection and treatment of a condition, which is where health screenings such as a prostate exam or pap smear come on, like when someone has their annual check up with their primary care physician. Prevention of and/or progression with the help of nurses is key (Falkner, 2018).
Tertiary Health Promotion: The patient has already suffered from an ailment and the goal is now to help them return as close to optimal health as possible, while keeping complications at a minimum. This is the involvement of most hospital level nurses. There may already be permanent changes to the patient’s way of life that the nurse must help educate and acclimate them to with help from the other hospital resources like physical therapy or occupational therapy (Falkner, 2018).
Again, primary is where a person will receive education on a subject or condition they may not necessarily be concerned about but is a preventable with the right effort put into place. If there is a family history of diabetes, the nurse explains how controlling caloric intake, eating nutrients, and not living a sedantary lifestyle will potentially help the patient avoid a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2. At the secondary level, this same patient may be further concerned about DMT2 and after being educated decides it is important to have continious healthcare checkups to check their A1C level and confirm their blood sugar is under control. On the tertiary level, this same patient may be admitted to the hospital with a newly diagnosed DM2 and diabetic ketoacidosis, requiring use an insulin drip. They will need education on their new oral medications during their stay along with demonstration of checking their blood sugar so they are fully prepared to go home.
Falkner, A. (2018). Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/health-promotion_health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum_1e.php
IWH Staff (2015). Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention#:~:text=Primary%20prevention%20aims%20to%20prevent,or%20injury%20should%20exposure%20occur.
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
There are three different levels of health promotion, primary, secondary and tertiary. “Primary prevention refers to actions aimed at avoiding the manifestation of a disease” (About, 2018). This would include such things as vaccinations, healthy eating habit or educating on the importance of not smoking. “Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of a disease or injury that has already occurred” (Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health, 2000). In order to do this, it is imperative to detect the problem early on in order to halt the disease process. Secondary prevention would include regular mammograms and pap smears or taking low dose aspirin to prevent a second heart attack or stroke. “Tertiary prevention aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects” (Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health, 2000). This is when the damage is already done and care is aimed at lessening the long term effects of the problem. This would include things like physical or occupational therapy following a stroke or heart attack. The levels of prevention can help determine the educational needs for each patient. For instance you would want to educate young people on the dangers of smoking to include primary prevention in your education. Education of secondary prevention would include teaching women how to give themselves breast exams for early detection of breast cancer. Tertiary prevention education would be aimed at individuals following a stroke on how to rehabilitate themselves.
About. (2018). WHO EMRO | Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity | Public health functions | About WHO. Who.Int. http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health. (2000). Iwh.on.Ca. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention