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NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment – Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment – Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

The American healthcare system is faced with the great challenge of inequality which displays a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, including people of color (Boyd et al., 2020). Such inequalities are the reason behind the gaps in the acquisition of health insurance coverage, leading to uneven access to care services and poor health outcomes among the minority populations. Additionally, studies show that African Americans are significantly impacted by these inequalities contributing to the high prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, in addition to the increased mortality rates among this minority population. This discussion provides an analysis of the health status of African Americans, as part of the minority population, in comparison to the national average.

Health Status of African Americans

African Americans make up approximately 13.4% of the United States population. The current health status of black Americans displays an increased prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and diabetes as compared to whites. Increased morbidity and mortality rates among African Americans have been associated with several economic and social factors. For instance, studies show that African Americans have a more likelihood of not seeing a doctor when they are sick, as a result of high healthcare costs (Yearby, 2018). Despite the significant advances in the current healthcare system in the U.S., there is still evidence reporting that racial and ethnic minorities such as black Americans still receive a lower quality of care services leading to poor health outcomes as compared to the whites. As of 2019 August, it was reported that approximately 68 million people had been covered by the Medicaid program, with black Americans accounting for 20%. Given that most black Americans have lower social and economic status, they tend to be poorer than other demographic groups, hence making it harder for them to enroll in health insurance programs like Medicaid.

Health Disparities

The death rate among African Americans has declined by about 25% over the past 17 years precisely for populations above the age of 65 years, as reported by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, studies also show that young African Americans have a higher probability of dying at an early age as a result of increased risks for stroke, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDs among other conditions, as compared to their white counterparts. Social factors common among this minority group contributing to the above-mentioned health disparities include unemployment, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poverty among others (Bell et al., 2020). Consequently, this group of individuals is also faced with nutritional challenges such as unfavorable nutritional environments, food deserts, food swamps, and food insecurities. For instance, black Americans are associated with poverty and a low level of education, which makes it hard for them to access quality and healthy foods as compared to the economically rich racial majorities. They end up consuming fast foods, among other unhealthy foods, which increases their risk of cardiovascular conditions and obesity.

Barriers to Health

            Various barriers to the accessibility of quality health care services have been identified for the African American population.

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment – Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment – Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

Predominating barriers include decreased understanding of care plans, inability to pay for care services, lack of transportation to care facility, and the inability of incorporating the recommended health care plans into their routine daily living pattern. These barriers are associated with several cultural, educational, socio-political, and socioeconomic factors. For instance, cultural beliefs among African Americans promoting unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle, in addition to failure to follow up on routine screening, negatively affects their overall health and utilization of healthcare services irrespective of their social or financial status (Lewis & Dyke, 2018). Consequently, the low socio-economic status among African Americans in terms of low income, unemployment, low education level, and occupation status is also a significant inhibitory factor towards accessibility to quality healthcare services. Lastly, as part of the minorities, blacks in the U.S have limited political influence towards the development of appropriate policies such as the “Obama Care,” to promote their access to quality care services.

Health Promotion Activities

With regard to the numerous health disparities affecting African Americans, several health promotion activities have been proposed over the years to help promote the health and well-being of this minority group. The self-help initiative was introduced among African Americans to promote taking personal responsibility for their health and improving their quality of life. Self-help health promotion practices among black Americans include routine screening for predominating health conditions, physical exercise, healthy diet plans, adoption of recommended care plans, and disease prevention practices at home (Fletcher et al., 2018). Consequently, for the religious members of the community, faith-basedorganizationslike churches have promoted structural health promotion activities including education, health fairs, and smoking cessation among others.

Approach for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

            One of the most effective approaches that can be utilized by African Americans in promoting their health as part of the care plan is the adoption of Pender’s health promotion model. According to the CDC, black Americans are at high risk of chronic diseases, with cardiovascular diseases being the leading cause of death among this group of individuals. Health promotion practices focusing on lifestyle modification have displayed great significance in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Pender’s health promotion model, on the other hand, provides a foundation promoting the examination of the background influences of this minority population, in line with the health promotion practices that can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Fletcher et al., 2018). At the primary level, this model encourages regular exercise and a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and promote healthy living. At the secondary level, the model promotes routing screening for hypertension, diabetes, and cancer among other common diseases. Lastly, at the tertiary level, the model promotes education programs and rehabilitation among the affected individuals.

Cultural Beliefs and Practices

Other than social and economic factors, several cultural factors among black Americans must be considered when developing the most effective care plan. Some of such cultural beliefs include lack of trust in complementary medicine, misconceptions about immunization, and strong religious beliefs against organ donation among other medical procedures. With the theory of cultural humility, clinicians can now come up with flexible care plans, while still upholding the patients’ cultural values and beliefs (Boyd et al., 2020). This theory is based on the importance of preventing cultural discrimination and promoting the equal provision of care to the culturally diverse population.

Conclusion

Health promotion practices are crucial among the general population in disease prevention and improved quality of life. Minority populations such as African Americans, are faced with numerous health disparities as compared to the whites, hence the need for more health promotion activities. However, when coming up with a care plan for this minority population, it is necessary to identify and respect their cultural values and beliefs to promote positive outcomes.

 

References

Bell, C. N., Sacks, T. K., Tobin, C. S. T., & Thorpe Jr, R. J. (2020). Racial non-equivalence of socioeconomic status and self-rated health among African Americans and Whites. SSM-population health10, 100561.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100561

Boyd, R. W., Lindo, E. G., Weeks, L. D., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). On racism: a new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog10(10.1377). https://doi.org/10.1377/hblog20200630.939347

Fletcher, G. F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., & Lavie, C. J. (2018). Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology72(14), 1622-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2141

Lewis, T. T., & Van Dyke, M. E. (2018). Discrimination and the health of African Americans: The potential importance of intersectionalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science27(3), 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721418770442

Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology77(3-4), 1113-1152. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12230

Details for Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations assignment:
Analyze the health status of a specific minority group. Select a minority group that is represented in the United States (examples include: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.)

In an essay of 750-1,000 words, compare and contrast the health status of the minority group you have selected to the national average. Consider the cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical barriers to health. How do race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education influence health for the minority group you have selected? Address the following in your essay:

1. What is the current health status of this minority group?

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NRS 429V Week 3 Discussion 2

Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.

DQ 3 OLD

Compare and contrast the three different levels of health promotion (primary, secondary, tertiary). Discuss how the levels of prevention help determine educational needs for a patient.

PARDEEP

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

The Life approach to Health promotion and disease prevention contributes to greater awareness and healthier lifestyle, and subsequently improves health and quality of life. A healthy diet, physical activity, the reduction of stress as well as access to preventive health care contribute to a healthier lifestyle. Preventive measures for all age groups reduce treatment and care cost throughout the life course, particularly in old age. One can distinguish between primary, secondary and Tertiary preventive care.

Primary Prevention– Primary prevention is the protection of health by implementing personal and community wide action such as practices good hand hygiene, adequate nutrition, regular check up or screening tests, proper immunizations, proper physical activity and exercise. This is done by preventive exposures to hazard that cause disease or injury, alternating unhealthy and unsafe behavior leading to disease or injury. Nurse can educate the people to get proper immunization, about hand hygiene practices, proper sanitation.

Secondary Prevention- Encompasses early detection of disease of departures of department from good health and for prompt and effective corrective action. Mainly secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of disease or injury that has already occurred. This is done by detecting and treating disease or as soon as possible to slow its progress. Example nurse can educate the people for regular mammograms for the women above age oof 50 and colonoscopy for the men above 55years old , papsmear for women after 30years of her age , patient with family history of heart disease can check their Blood pressure regularly at home.

Tertiary Prevention- consists of measures to reduce and eliminate the long term impairments and disabilities, minimize suffering caused by existing departure from good health and promote the patient’s adjustment to irremediable conditions. This is done by helping people manage long term health problems such as stroke patients or patient with arthritis, In this level Nurse can involve the family members in rehabilitation care. Various therapies can be involve in tertiary prevention such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, physical therapy.

Refernce.

Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. (n.d.). https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention

About. (n.d.). Who emro | health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity | public health functions | about who. http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html

RESPOND HERE

 

 

PATRICK

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Primary Health Promotion: Aimed at keeping those healthy people healthy, preventing problems down the line. This can encompass everything from health fairs, exercise programs, encouraging proper diet, vaccinations, washing hands, wearing a mask, to more general public health decisions like helping to pass a law requiring helmets or ban smoking (Falkner, 2018) (IWH, 2015).

Secondary Health Promotion: This level is more individualized and is based in early detection and treatment of a condition, which is where health screenings such as a prostate exam or pap smear come on, like when someone has their annual check up with their primary care physician. Prevention of and/or progression with the help of nurses is key (Falkner, 2018).

Tertiary Health Promotion: The patient has already suffered from an ailment and the goal is now to help them return as close to optimal health as possible, while keeping complications at a minimum. This is the involvement of most hospital level nurses. There may already be permanent changes to the patient’s way of life that the nurse must help educate and acclimate them to with help from the other hospital resources like physical therapy or occupational therapy (Falkner, 2018).

Again, primary is where a person will receive education on a subject or condition they may not necessarily be concerned about but is a preventable with the right effort put into place. If there is a family history of diabetes, the nurse explains how controlling caloric intake, eating nutrients, and not living a sedantary lifestyle will potentially help the patient avoid a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2. At the secondary level, this same patient may be further concerned about DMT2 and after being educated decides it is important to have continious healthcare checkups to check their A1C level and confirm their blood sugar is under control. On the tertiary level, this same patient may be admitted to the hospital with a newly diagnosed DM2 and diabetic ketoacidosis, requiring use an insulin drip. They will need education on their new oral medications during their stay along with demonstration of checking their blood sugar so they are fully prepared to go home.

Falkner, A. (2018). Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/health-promotion_health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum_1e.php

IWH Staff (2015). Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention#:~:text=Primary%20prevention%20aims%20to%20prevent,or%20injury%20should%20exposure%20occur.

RESPOND HERE

 

 

ROBIN

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

There are three different levels of health promotion, primary, secondary and tertiary. “Primary prevention refers to actions aimed at avoiding the manifestation of a disease” (About, 2018). This would include such things as vaccinations, healthy eating habit or educating on the importance of not smoking. “Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of a disease or injury that has already occurred” (Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health, 2000). In order to do this, it is imperative to detect the problem early on in order to halt the disease process. Secondary prevention would include regular mammograms and pap smears or taking low dose aspirin to prevent a second heart attack or stroke. “Tertiary prevention aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects” (Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health, 2000). This is when the damage is already done and care is aimed at lessening the long term effects of the problem. This would include things like physical or occupational therapy following a stroke or heart attack. The levels of prevention can help determine the educational needs for each patient. For instance you would want to educate young people on the dangers of smoking to include primary prevention in your education. Education of secondary prevention would include teaching women how to give themselves breast exams for early detection of breast cancer. Tertiary prevention education would be aimed at individuals following a stroke on how to rehabilitate themselves.

About. (2018). WHO EMRO | Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity | Public health functions | About WHO. Who.Int. http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html

Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health. (2000). Iwh.on.Ca. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention

 

RESPOND HERE

 

Rubric Criteria

Total 200 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges for Minority Group

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges for Minority Group

0 points

Health disparities and nutritional challenges for this group are not presented.

22.5 points

A summary of the health disparities and nutritional challenges for this group is presented. Significant details have been omitted. Summary lacks evidence to support statements.

23.7 points

A discussion of the health disparities and nutritional challenges for this group is generally presented. Most significant findings related to the ethnic minority group have been included. A general comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Some support is needed to support statements.

26.7 points

A discussion of the health disparities and nutritional challenges for this group is presented. The significant findings related to the ethnic minority group have been included. A comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Some detail is needed for clarity.

30 points

A thorough discussion of the health disparities and nutritional challenges for this group is clearly presented. All relevant findings related to the ethnic minority group have been included. A well-developed comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented.

Mechanics of Writing

Includes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, language use, sentence structure, etc.

0 points

Errors in grammar or syntax are pervasive and impede meaning. Incorrect language choice or sentence structure errors are found throughout.

3 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors are present. Inconsistencies in language choice or sentence structure are recurrent.

3.16 points

Occasional mechanical errors are present. Language choice is generally appropriate. Varied sentence structure is attempted.

3.56 points

Few mechanical errors are present. Suitable language choice and sentence structure are used.

4 points

No mechanical errors are present. Appropriate language choice and sentence structure are used throughout.

Health Promotion Activities Practiced by Minority Group

Health Promotion Activities Practiced by Minority Group

0 points

Health promotion activities practiced by minority groups are not presented.

15 points

Health promotion activities practiced by minority groups are partially summarized. There are significant inaccuracies. Summary lacks evidence to support statements.

15.8 points

Health promotion activities practiced by minority groups are generally described. There are minor inaccuracies. A general comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Some evidence is needed to support statements.

17.8 points

Health promotion activities practiced by minority groups are described. A comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Minor evidence is needed to support statements.

20 points

Health promotion activities practiced by minority groups are accurately identified and described in detail. A well-developed comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Compelling and accurate evidence is provided to support statements.

Thesis, Position, or Purpose

Communicates reason for writing and demonstrates awareness of audience.

0 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is not discernible. No awareness of the appropriate audience is evident.

7.5 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is unfocused or confused. There is very little awareness of the intended audience.

7.9 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is discernable in most aspects but is occasionally weak or unclear. There is limited awareness of the appropriate audience.

8.9 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is adequately presented. An awareness of the appropriate audience is demonstrated.

10 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is clearly communicated throughout and clearly directed to a specific audience.

Three Levels of Health Promotion Prevention

Three Levels of Health Promotion Prevention

0 points

A care plan, with at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention, is not presented.

22.5 points

A care plan, with at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention, is partially presented. It is unclear how this plan meets the unique needs of the ethnic minority group selected. There are inaccuracies.

23.7 points

A care plan, with at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention, is summarized. A general explanation of how this plan meets the unique needs of the ethnic minority group selected, and why it is the most effective choice, is presented. Some support or rationale is needed.

26.7 points

A care plan, with at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention, is described. An explanation of how this plan meets the unique needs of the ethnic minority group selected, and why it is the most effective choice, is presented. Minor support or rationale is needed.

30 points

A care plan, with at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention, is thoroughly described. A well-supported explanation of how this plan meets the unique needs of the ethnic minority group selected, and why it is the most effective choice, is presented. The discussion demonstrates a clear understanding of the three levels of health promotion prevention and their application to a unique group.

Barriers to Health for Minority Group

Barriers to Health for Minority Group

0 points

Barriers to health for ethnic minority group are not presented.

22.5 points

Barriers to health for ethnic minority group are partially presented. The summary is not consistent with the assignment criteria. There are significant inaccuracies. Summary lacks evidence to support statements.

23.7 points

Barriers to health for ethnic minority group are summarized. The summary includes barriers resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors. There are some inaccuracies. A general comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Some evidence is needed to support statements.

26.7 points

Barriers to health for this ethnic minority group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors are discussed. A comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Minor evidence is needed to support statements.

30 points

Barriers to health for this ethnic minority group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors are thoroughly discussed. A well-developed comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented. Compelling and accurate evidence is provided to support statements.

Evidence

Selects and integrates evidence to support and advance position/purpose; considers other perspectives.

0 points

Evidence to support the thesis, position, or purpose is absent. The writing relies entirely on the perspective of the writer.

7.5 points

Evidence is limited or irrelevant. The interpretation of other perspectives is superficial or incorrect.

7.9 points

Evidence is used but is insufficient or of limited relevance. Simplistic explanation or integration of other perspectives is present.

8.9 points

Relevant evidence that includes other perspectives is used.

10 points

Specific and appropriate evidence is included. Relevant perspectives of others are clearly considered.

Identification and Description of Selected Minority Group

Identification and Description of Selected Minority Group

0 points

Description and health status for ethnic minority group is not presented.

15 points

Description of ethnic minority group is partially presented. Health status for this group is vague. It is unclear how race and ethnicity influence health for this group.

15.8 points

Summary of ethnic minority group is partially presented. Health status for this group is generally discussed. Explanation of how race and ethnicity influence health this group is generally presented. It is unclear how the health status of this ethnic minority group compares to the national average. A general comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented.

17.8 points

Description of ethnic minority group is partially presented. Health status for this group is discussed. Explanation of how race and ethnicity influence health for this group is presented. A comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented.

20 points

A detailed description of ethnic minority group is partially presented. Health status for this group is thoroughly discussed. Explanation of how race and ethnicity influence health for this group is clearly presented. A well-developed comparison for how the ethnic minority group compares to the national average is presented.

Format/Documentation

Uses appropriate style, such as APA, MLA, etc., for college, subject, and level; documents sources using citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., appropriate to assignment and discipline.

0 points

Appropriate format is not used. No documentation of sources is provided.

4.5 points

Appropriate format is attempted, but some elements are missing. Frequent errors in documentation of sources are evident.

4.74 points

Appropriate format and documentation are used, although there are some obvious errors.

5.34 points

Appropriate format and documentation are used with only minor errors.

6 points

No errors in formatting or documentation are present.

Development, Structure, and Conclusion

Advances position or purpose throughout writing; conclusion aligns to and evolves from development.

0 points

No advancement of the thesis, position, or purpose is evident. Connections between paragraphs are missing or inappropriate. No conclusion is offered.

7.5 points

Writing lacks logical progression of the thesis, position, or purpose. Some organization is attempted, but ideas are disconnected. Conclusion is unclear and not supported by the overall development of the purpose.

7.9 points

Limited advancement of thesis, position, or purpose is discernable. There are inconsistencies in organization or the relationship of ideas. Conclusion is simplistic and not fully aligned to the development of the purpose.

8.9 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is advanced in most aspects. Ideas clearly build on each other. Conclusion aligns to the development of the purpose.

10 points

The thesis, position, or purpose is logically advanced throughout. The progression of ideas is coherent and unified. A clear and logical conclusion aligns to the development of the purpose.

Cultural Competent Health Promotion for Ethnic Minority Population

Cultural Competent Health Promotion for Ethnic Minority Population

0 points

Cultural beliefs, practices, and relevant cultural theory significant to supporting a culturally competent health promotion for this population are not presented.

22.5 points

Cultural beliefs and practices to be considered are presented but are incomplete or inaccurate. The cultural theory or model proposed is partially presented; or, the model is not relevant. Overall, the content does not support a culturally competent health promotion for this population. There are significant inaccuracies.

23.7 points

Cultural beliefs and practices to be considered are summarized. A relevant cultural theory or model is proposed. Overall, the content generally supports a culturally competent health promotion for this population. There are some inaccuracies. More evidence or rationale is needed.

26.7 points

Cultural beliefs and practices to be considered are discussed. A relevant cultural theory or model is proposed. Overall, the content generally supports a culturally competent health promotion for this population. Some evidence or rationale is needed.

30 points

Cultural beliefs and practices to be considered are thoroughly discussed. A relevant cultural theory or model is proposed. Overall, the content strongly supports a culturally competent health promotion for this population. Strong evidence and rational are provided for support. The discussion demonstrates aptitude for understanding cultural competence and developing culturally competent health promotions.

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