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NRS 428: Investigate a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. health care delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

NRS 428 Investigate a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. health care delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

Assessment Description
Research public health issues on the Climate Change Topics and Issues pages  of the American Public Health Association (APHA) website. Investigate a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. health care delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

The American Public Health Association identifies climate change as one of the public health issues affecting humanity and threatening its existence on the planet. Climate change is a public health issues because of its effects on health as advanced by APHA (2022) and entities like the World Health Organization (WHO). Climate change denote the changes in climatic conditions and patterns experienced due to increased emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels. Climate change affects different populations, especially children, who are exposed to different weather and climatic patterns which increases their susceptibility to health problems (WHO, 2021). The purpose of this policy brief is to offer a summary of climate change as public health issue, its effects on specific population, and propose a possible solution to the issue.

Summary of Climate change as a public Health Issue

The American Public Health Association (APHA) asserts that climate change is a public health emergency due to exposure to extreme weather and heat waves to increased and fatal air pollution and the spread of insect-borne diseases. Climate change is happening as more and more industrial activities release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere causing a shift in the average global temperature and weather. The shift shifts in climatic and weather conditions affects health, environment and the way of life for many population, especially children who have increased risk of respiratory diseases and infections because of these high levels of pollution, from air to water.

Extreme weather conditions like hurricanes and storms are lethal to public health and the health of individuals because they cause injuries, diseases; both airborne and waterborne, to humans as well as death (Fox et al., 2019). The greenhouse effect happens when greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane released due to human activities on earth’s surface form a layer in the outer atmosphere and traps heat absorbed by the earth leading to progressive increase in temperatures and unavoidable changes to weather conditions and patterns.

The World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that there has been a rise in global temperatures by close to 1 degree Celsius over the past 130 years. WHO advances that the world must limit the temperature rise to 1.5 degree Celsius. Emissions over one century have made the level of global temperature to rise making climatic changes inevitable (WHO, 2021). WHO asserts that climate change has strong effects on different aspects of life, including respiratory conditions on children and individuals with weak immunity.

Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health

Climate change has a direct health effect on social and environmental determinants of health, especially among the vulnerable

NRS 428 Investigate a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. health care delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

NRS 428 Investigate a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. health care delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

populations like children and individuals with comprised immunity due to chronic health conditions. Among these effects is increased prevalence of illnesses and premature deaths due to adverse weather conditions that causes hurricanes and storms. Children are the most affected by climate change because of their vulnerabilities as they have to depend on their parents and guardians for any effective decision (Ebi & Hess, 2020). Extreme heat and storms impact especially the less privileged or disadvantaged children and racial minorities whose access to healthcare is limited by a host of factors like low-income.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) opines that disruptions emanating from weather events lead to increased levels of pollution, especially air and water pollution that increases susceptibility to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, injuries and premature deaths. The other effects also include alterations in the prevalence and geographical distribution of food and water-borne diseases as well as threats to mental health and other infectious and emerging diseases (Harrington, 2019). Due to their weak and developing immunity, children are vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change and weather patterns.

Solutions to the Climate Change as Public Health Issue

Solutions to climate change as a public health issue affecting children and the general population lie in collaborative and collective efforts and actions by state and non-state actors to reduce the emission of carbon into the air. In his paper, Schumaker (2019) observes that it is not the planet that will suffer from the effects of climate change but its population, especially children as the future generation for this country and the rest of the world. As the earth warms, and extreme weather conditions occur, there is an increased risk of communicable disease and compromised health status and facilities.

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Disease-carrying insects and their habitats will spread as evidenced by the recent Zika virus that had detrimental effects on children and expectant mothers. Further, more heat and cold associated deaths due to extreme conditions, especially temperatures will happen (Fox et al., 2019). Therefore, the solution lies in coordinated efforts and declarations by the government to prioritize climate change issues as part of the threats to public health. State and federal government must focus on efforts to reduce air pollution through adoption of increased levels of clean energy by cutting down the use of fossil fuels in different areas of the living.


Climate change is a public health issue because it leads to premature deaths and injuries to populations. Children remain the most vulnerable population to climate change because of the weak immunity. Therefore, effective policies must address the need to cut down carbon emissions and other greenhouse gases through the use clean energy sources.



American Public Health Association (APHA) (2022). Climate Change: Why is climate change a

            public health issue? https://www.apha.org/topics-and-issues/climate-change

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2022 April 25). Climate Effects on Health.


Ebi, K. L., & Hess, J. J. (2020). Health Risks Due To Climate Change: Inequity In Causes And

Consequences: Study examines health risks due to climate change. Health Affairs, 39(12), 2056-2062. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01125

Fox, M., Zuidema, C., Bauman, B., Burke, T., & Sheehan, M. (2019). Integrating public health

into climate change policy and planning: state of practice update. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(18), 3232. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183232

Harrington, S. (2019) August 19). How climate change threatens public health.

How climate change threatens public health

Hollis, A. (2019 September 12). Climate Change Isn’t Just a Global Threat—It’s a Public Health

Emergency. https://time.com/5672636/climate-change-public-health/

Schumaker, E. (2019). Why climate change is also a public health problem.


World Health Organization (WHO). (2021 October 30). Climate change and health.


Topic 4 DQ 1

Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system. Evaluate the effectiveness of one or more of these areas on quality patient care and health outcomes. Propose a potential health care reform solution to improve effectiveness in the area you evaluated and predict the expected effect. Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders. Support your post with a peer-reviewed journal article.

The U.S. has a decentralized healthcare system with various private and public access points. The public health system includes government entities and collaborative efforts with community nonprofit organizations and faith-based organizations. Government agencies include state and local health departments, providing care such as laboratory services, health screenings, treatment of disease, and epidemiology surveillance (Quentin & Busse, 2018). Private health care is delivered in inpatient, outpatient, or ambulatory care; long-term or residential; mental health; home care; wellness center; and alternative medicine settings. Private institutions are either for-profit private facilities or nonprofit private facilities, with the latter being the largest component. The U.S. has poor health outcomes, including low life expectancy and high suicide rates, compared to our peer nations.

A relatively higher chronic disease burden and incidence of obesity contribute to the problem, but the U.S. health care system is also not doing its part. The analysis shows that the U.S. has the highest rates of avoidable mortality because of people not receiving timely, high-quality care (Saenz, 2021). The healthcare system in U.S. is greatly influenced by the health insurance system which does not adequately support right to health which every person residing legally in United States should be able to enjoy their right.

In trying to promote effective healthcare for all U.S. population, healthcare should be focusing on the care that can be afforded by all and strengthening the primary preventive care. The preventable diseases like diabetes, hypertension and cancers can be minimized by promoting access to effective and quality healthcare. For Americans to enjoy optimal health—as individuals and as a population—they must have the benefit of high-quality health care services that are effectively coordinated within a strong public health system (Colón, 2018). The greater attention should be placed on reducing health care costs. The U.S. could look to approaches taken by other industrialized nations to contain costs, including budgeting practices and using value-based pricing of new medical technologies. Approaches that aim to lower health care prices are likely to have the greatest impact, since previous research has indicated that higher prices are the primary reason why the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country.


Colón, K. A. (2018). Creating a Patient-Centered, Global, Decentralized Health System: Combining New Payment and Care Delivery Models with Telemedicine, AI, and Blockchain Technology. Blockchain in Healthcare Today, 1(9), 03-11. https://doi.org/10.30953/bhty.v1.30

Quentin, W., & Busse, R. (2018). The strongly decentralized Swiss health system achieves good results: Past research has addressed persisting challenges – but more is encouraged. Health Policy, 122(6), 565–567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2018.06.002

Saenz, S. R. (2021). High-Level Disinfection in Ambulatory Care: Overcoming the Barriers of a Decentralized System through Auditing and Education. Antimicrobial Stewardship & Healthcare Epidemiology, 1(S1), s11–s11. https://doi.org/10.1017/ash.2021.21

There are many different types of medical professionals working in a variety of groups, networks, and individual practices, including doctors, nurses, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities. Healthcare is another industry that can’t function well without revenue, yet it also offers services to people who can’t pay for them but still need them (Royce, 2021). In the US, financing medical care is a significant issue. Although people may have free access to healthcare in a variety of contexts, healthcare organizations and providers need to be paid in order to stay in business. Healthcare professionals work together to deliver healthcare through prevention, health promotion, and patient care. Professionals in healthcare management supervise and organize all facets of healthcare (Park, & Look, 2019). These managers make sure that healthcare facilities run efficiently for everyone involved, whether they are managing hospital operations or organizing the activities in a small private practice.

The best care is given when a facility is properly managed, and the personnel are happy as well. When the equipment in the building, the building itself, the technology, and the staff, that promotes patient care are effective then a healthcare system is sustainable. Along with the expectation that all nurses incorporate theory, research, clinical competency, and leadership development to address the evolving requirements of healthcare, increasing the proportion of nurses having doctorates is one step toward advancing nursing leadership (Lepore, 2020). With more nursing in a leadership role and an understanding of what it takes to provide exceptional patient care by ensuring staffing is accurate, equipment is functional and financial budgets are in order.





Lepore, M. (2020). Learning Lessons From Long-Term Care Policy Financing Efforts in the United States. Innovation in Aging, 4(Supplement_1), 680–680. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igaa057.2366

Park, J., & Look, K. A. (2019). Health Care Expenditure Burden of Cancer Care in the United States. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 56(9), 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958019880696

Royce, T. J. (2021). Financing of US Graduate Medical Education. JAMA, 325(6), 585–589. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.23979

Abigail Retana

Sep 21, 2022, 10:43 PM(edited)

Paying for health care insurance in the U.S can be complicated, growing up I remember my household didn’t have enough finances to cover health insurance, my parents applied for Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS). AHCCS’s mission “reaches across Arizona to provide comprehensive, quality health care to those in need.” (AHCCCS, n.d.). Thanks to coverage of this government aid, helped my family greatly. “The Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS), the State’s Medicaid Agency, uses federal state and county funds to provide health care coverage to eligible enrollees” (AHCCCS, 2022). This program is open to children and adults, offering services such as medical, vision, and dental care. It the importance for the community nurse to be informed and updated with the health care in the US the public and private access points are beneficial to the communities. Understanding how the public health system works will allow us to advocate for our patients, knowing how government entities and collaborative efforts with the community nonprofit organizations and faith-based organizations provide a better health outcome for the community (Grand Canyon University, 2018)



AHCCCS. (n.d.). About the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS). https://www.azahcccs.gov/AHCCCS/AboutUs/index.html. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.azahcccs.gov/AHCCCS/AboutUs/index.html

Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System. (2022, June 30). AHCCCS Fiscal Year 2023 Strategic Plan 2-pager. AHCCCS. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.azahcccs.gov/AHCCCS/Downloads/Plans/FY2023_2-Page_StrategicPlan.pdf


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Community & public health: The future of health care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/

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