neuroscience behind adult development and aging

neuroscience behind adult development and aging




by listing two specific things you have learned during module 2 . These things might be facts, topics you find interesting, or the like.

Next, in at least 100 words, summarize what you have learned about those two things during that Week.

Lastly, in at least 100 words, discuss how you will apply to your life or the life of someone you know what you have learned about those two things.

module 2 lecture notes the neuroscience behind adult development and aging part 1 neuroimaging ( two major branches) • structural x rays = a type of radiation electromagnetic waves • • computerized tomography ( CT) = combines a series of x-ray imagine taken from different angles around your body. (Use a computer software processing to create cross-sectional imaging of the bones and soft tissues inside our body’s) CT scans use these to diagnose various diseases cancers and different types of infections CT scans have a wide range of uses they can diagnose abnormal blood vessels aneurysms , bone infections , brain damage, brain swelling brain, tumors or even a stroke. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) = strong magnetic field and radio waves to created detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body. • • • • • Functional neuroimaging= provides brain activity Single photon emission computerized tomography ( SPECT) Positron emission tomography ( PET) Functional magnetic resonance Imaging (fMRI) Magnetoencephalography (MGE) Near infrared spectroscopic imaging ( NIRS) SPECT- a type of nuclear imaging test Uses a radioactive Substance and a special camera TO CREATE 3-D pictures PET- measures metabolic activity of the cells of body tissues The difference between what we would consider normal or average brain metabolic activity versus mild cognitive impairments and ultimately Alzheimer’s disease. Imagines highlight the lack of metabolic activity that’s happening in regions of the brain when an individual is experiencing cognitive impairment or decline. FMRI- measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow use them to determine which parts of the brain are handling critical functions to identify that a certain area of the brain is responsible for a certain function. we can also use them to evaluate the effects of stroke or other diseases. MEG – Measures the filed generated by the electrical activity of neurons Uses to look at the electrical currents throughout our brain, we use meg to map out the brain and brain functions and we use meg to identify the exact location and source of things like epileptic seizures. NIRS- Measure light absorbance to calculate oxy- hemoglobin and deoxy hemoglobin Neuroscience perspective ( 3 different approach) neuropsychological approach • technique that compares brain function of healthy older adults with adults displaying various pathological disorders in the brain nonrecreational approach • technique that relates measures of cognitive performance to measure of brain structure or function activation imaging approach • technique that attempts to directly link functional brain activity with cognitive behavioral data Age related changes in neurons • the number of neurons in the brain declines • the size and number of dendrites decreases • also, tangles occur in the in the fibers of the axon, and proteins becomes deposited • the number of synapse decreases • these changes occur in greater numbers in diseases such as Alzheimer disease age related changes in neurotransmitter neurotransmitter • chemical that carries information signals between neurons across the synapse dopamine: neurotransmitter associated with higher level cognitive functioning. Serotoninacetylcholine Brain structure • considerable shirking • white matter degenerates what do structural changes mean? • Theory of mind Linking structural changes with ; • Executive functioning – difficulty focusing solely on relevant information • Memory – specific structural changes the hippocampus results in memory decline Emotional changes • Increased processing of positive emotion information with age • Better emotion regulation with age • Age related increases in connections between prefrontal cortex and medial temporal cortex Socio- emotional cognition • Older adults may rely more on automatic judgment processes than reflective processing Prefrontal cortex • The positivity effect: older adults are more motivated to derive emotional meaning from life and to maintain positive feelings than youngers adults • Older adults show increased activity in the middle protein of the prefrontal cortex, the way amygdala, and the cingulate cortex brining additional areas of the brain into play Neuroscience research and brain plasticity part 2 lecture: • How cognitive aging differs from disease? Changes in brain behavior relations The Prieto frontal integration theory • Proposes that intelligence comes from a distributed and integrated network of neurons in the parietal and frontal Ares of the brain Compensating for change • When presented with similar task, younger adults exhibit focal, unilateral activity in left prefrontal region and older adults exhibit bilateral activity ( both left and right pe( prefrontal Ares) • Older adults are compensating • However, research separating cognitive process found consistent patterns in the brain activity in younger and older adults challenging the conventional view. • Bilateral activation in older adults plays a supportive role in older adults’ cognitive function • Neural stem cells Give rise to new neurons • Persist in adult branches • Can generate new cells through adulthood The role of exercise = brain plasticity is enhanced by aerobic exercise • Nutrition = research are beginning to understand the relations between categories of nutrients and brain structure Brain health – warding off aging • Generally, take care of physical health • Keep the mind active • Stay connected • Manage stress Modul 2 neuroscience as a basis for adult development ( homework notes ) Antioxidant= compound that protects cells from the harmful effect of free radicals Free radical • substance that can damage cells, including brain cells , and plays a role in diseases neuroscience= study of the brain/ neuron= brain cells neuroimaging • set of techniques in which pictures of the brain are taken in various ways structural neuroimaging • sets of techniques that provides highly detailed images of anatomical features I the brain functional neuroimaging • capture of brain images low in anatomical detail compensatory change • adjustments that allow older adults to adapt to inevitable behavioral decline dendrite • structural feature that acts like an antenna to receive signals from other nearby neurons axon= structure that contains neuro-fiber neuro-fiber • structure that carries information inside the neuron from the dendrites to the terminal branches terminal branch: endpoint in the brain cell that helps transmit signals across the synapse neuroanatomy ; study for the brain neural stem cell: cell that persists in the brain and can generate new neurons through the life span dopaminergic system: set of neuronal systems that use dopamine as their major neurotransmitter white matter: neuron that serves to transmit information from one part of the cerebral cortex to another hemispheric asymmetry reeducation in older adults ( HAROLD) model • concept that explains the empirical finding of reduced lateralization in prefrontal lobe activity in older adults posterior anterior shift in aging (PASA) model • concept of cognitive aging reflecting from occipital to frontal processing that is thought to reflect age related compensation age effect • fundamental influence which reflects the influence of time dependent processes on development time of measurement effect • fundamental influence which results from the time at which the data are collected prefrontal cortex: part of the frontal lobe that is involved in making plans and maintaining attention and focus