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Model Of Human Body Systems Interactions Lab Report
Model of Human Body Systems Interactions Your goal: Develop a model to show how the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems interact to provide energy for a whole organism. Model Requirements: -This model only needs to be 2D. -You can make your own drawing/poster. This can be on paper or digital (Ex. on a tablet). -You can use images that you find online, but you must use more than one image (for the design element of choosing combinations of images) and cite your source(s). -You can use whatever format you like (ex. PPT, Word, Prezi, etc.) Hint: Please be careful when reading the standard and rubric in noting the difference between function and process. Think of function as the purpose and process as how the purpose is achieved. Ex. Cellular respiration and fermentation are two different processes that have the same function (making ATP). Observable Features of Standard: Marking Directions You will be marked against nine categories with a top score of 3 for each them as it is indicated the rubric below. Rubric: Components of Model Three organ systems identified and described 0 1 2 3 No organ systems shown in a model meeting the requirements above. Some but not all organ systems relevant to the assignment shown in model and identified. All three organ systems relevant to the assignment shown in model. All three organ systems relevant to the assignment identified. Major organs of organ systems identified and described The model does not include any specific organs for the three organ systems relevant to the assignment. Between 1-3 of the following organs are 1. Included and identified by label in the model and 2. Stated to be part of the correct organ system At least 4 of the following organs are 1. Included and identified by label in the model And 2. Stated to be part of the correct organ system All three organ systems relevant to the assignment shown in model. All three organ systems relevant to the assignment identified. All three organ systems described in terms of overall structure. The following organs are 1. Included and identified by label in the model 2. Have a correct general description of their structure and 3. Stated to be part of the correct organ system Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Lungs Heart Blood vessels Tissues of organs in each system identified and described No tissues included in model Examples of at least one the types of tissues (connective, epithelial, and muscle) provided. Example provided is related to one of the three organ systems in the model. Processes of each of the three organ systems identified and descried. No processes included in model. Processes of at least one organ system identified Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Lungs Heart Blood vessels Examples of connective, epithelial, and muscle tissues provided. At least one tissue example provided from each of the three organ systems. At least one tissue connected to a specific organ from the list above. Processes of each of the three organ systems identified Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Lungs Heart Blood vessels Examples of connective, epithelial, and muscle tissues provided. Examples of all three types in each of the three organ systems. Example tissues are connected to a specific organ from the list above. Processes of each of the three organ systems identified and described. Relationships Identify and describe the overall function (contribution to the whole organism) of each of the three organ systems 0 No function is mentioned for any of the three organ systems. 1 The overall function of at least one of the three organ systems is stated, but it is incorrect or more based on processes than contribution to the organism as a whole. 2 The overall function of each of all three organ systems relevant to the assignment is identified. The function is described in some detail, but is not clearly distinguished between the three systems and/or is based more on processes than contribution to the organism as a whole. 3 The overall function of each of all three organ systems relevant to the assignment is identified. The overall function of each of all three organ systems relevant to the assignment is described with some detail. The function identified for each is the contribution of the organ system to the organism rather than the specific processes of the organ system. Describe how the three different functions of the three organ systems are related There is no description of how the functions of the different organ systems are related to each other. Each of the three organ systems is related to at least one other system. Explanation is focused on structures or processes rather than functions. Each of the three organ systems is related to both other systems. Explanation focuses on how functions, rather than structures or processes, are dependent on each other or complimentary. For one of the three body systems, describe the relationships between each organ and the system’s function and describe how the system’s function supports the overall function of an organism No relationships between organs and organ systems OR between organ systems and whole organisms described. There is one relationship between two organ system functions described. Explanation is focused on structures or processes rather than functions. At least one organ of the organ system in the list above is included. The function/ processes of the organ is generally described. The function/ processes of the organ is connected to the overall function of the organ system. At least one organ of the organ system in the list above is included. The function/ processes of the organ is described. The function/ processes of the organ is connected to the overall function of the organ system. Description of why the function of the organ system is important for the whole organism. Each organ of the organ system in the list above is included. The function/ processes of each organ are explained. The function/ processes of each organ is connected to the overall function of the organ system. Description of why the function of the organ system is important for the whole organism. Connections Use the model to show a specific example of parts of two different systems interacting to perform a specific function 0 Model only shows systems separately. Evaluate the accuracy of the model. No evaluation of accuracy. 1 Model shows where at least two organ systems are in the same part of the body. The function used as an example is a connection between the functions/ processes at the system rather than a specific function. The function shown is only somewhat accurate and demonstrates interaction of at least two organ systems. There is a general disclaimer that the model might not be completely accurate. 2 General interaction is shown in model (not just described without visual). The function used as an example is a connection between the functions/processes at the system rather than a specific function. The function shown is accurate and demonstrates interaction of at least two organ systems. 3 Specific function interaction is shown in model (not just described without visual). The function used as an example is more specific than the function or overall process of any organ system. The function shown is accurate and demonstrates interaction of at least two organ systems. Specific parts of the model are identified as inaccurate. Specific parts of the model are identified as possibly or definitely inaccurate. How/why the model is inaccurate is explained. 2-10-2022 MODEL OF HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS INTERACTIONS Introduction The process of energy production in the body is called respiration. It occurs in an organelle called Mitochondria. Mitochondria needs glucose and Oxygen for the production of energy. Glucose is supplied by the Digestive system as the end product of digesting carbohydrates, while the Respiratory system supplies Oxygen during inhalation. Both glucose and Oxygen are transported by the blood to various respiratory cells to be used for energy production. How the respiratory system contributes to energy production The respiratory system comprises the nasal passage, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli. During inhalation, Oxygen passes through the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi, then into the lungs, where there are alveoli where gaseous exchange occurs. Oxygen in the alveoli diffuses into the blood capillaries due to diffusion gradient, and carbon (IV) oxide diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli, ready to be exhaled… 2-10-2022 In the blood capillaries, Oxygen combines with hemoglobin in the red blood cells to form oxyhemoglobin that transports Oxygen to various respiratory cells. How the digestive system contributes to energy production in the body The digestive system is involved with the digestion of food into simple and soluble forms for absorption and assimilation. Carbohydrates are usually broken down to produce glucose which is typically oxidized in the Respiratory cells. Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, where starch is converted to Maltese using the ptyalin enzyme. Through peristalsis, the partially digested food moves along the digestive system Up To the duodenum, where more carbohydrates are broken down, i.e., pancreatic amylase digests the remaining starch into Maltese. Maltose is then moved to the ileum, where maltase converts maltose to glucose, ready for absorption and transportation to various cells for assimilation. The glucose is oxidized in the cells to release energy for various body activities. 2-10-2022 How the Circulatory system contributes to energy production in the body. The circulatory system is made up of blood and blood vessels. The blood contains red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin. Hemoglobin readily combines with Oxygen from the respiratory system to form oxyhemoglobin which is the form in which Oxygen is transported in the body. Oxyhemoglobin delivers Oxygen to all respiratory body cells for respiration. Blood also transports glucose from the small intestine and liver to all respiratory cells to be oxidized for energy generation in the body. 2-10-2022 Mitochondria The process of energy production in mitochondria is called Aerobic respiration. It involves the chemical breakdown of glucose in the presence of Oxygen in the living cells to provide energy. Referencing 1. https://ask.learncbse.in/t/draw-a-labelled-diagram-ofmitochondria-write-the-functions-of-mitochondria/26119 2. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0770_Respi ratorySystem_02.png 3. https://byjus.com/question-answer/a-draw-a-labelled-diagramof-the-human-digestive-system-with-the-help-of-this/ Reem Alnuaimi 12A Human Body Systems Interactions ALAN OOD ABDU LLA ALYA MMAH I 12B Respiratory System what is the respiratory system? The respiratory system is a collection of organs and tissues that assist in breathing. Your airways, lungs, and blood arteries are all part of it. The respiratory system includes the muscles that power your lungs. These components work together to transport oxygen throughout the body while also removing waste gases such as carbon dioxide. what does the respiratory system do? The respiratory system serves a variety of purposes. It allows you to communicate and smell in addition to helping you inhale (breathe in) and exhale (breathe out). Moisturizes air to the humidity level your body requires and warms it to match your body temperature. Transports oxygen to your body’s cells. When you exhale, it removes waste gases from your body, including carbon dioxide. Protects your airways from irritants and hazardous chemicals. Many different elements of the respiratory system work together to help you breathe. There are several individual components in each set of elements. Air is delivered to your lungs through your airways. Your airways are a complex system that comprises the following components: mouth and nose sinuses pharynx (throat) trachea bronchial tubes lungs Your circulation transports oxygen from your lungs to all of your organs and tissues. Muscles and bones aid in the movement of air into and out of the lungs. The following are some of the bones and muscles in your respiratory system: diaphragm ribs Respiratory structure with labels: Respiratory structure of lungs: Respiratory structure of lungs: We can breathe thanks to our lungs and respiratory system. They infuse our bodies with oxygen (inhalation) and expel carbon dioxide (exhalation) (called expiration, or exhalation). Respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Our bodies’ cells require oxygen to survive. Our bodies produce carbon dioxide as cells perform their functions. The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen from the air to enter the body while simultaneously allowing carbon dioxide from the air to leave the body. The diaphragm goes lower into the abdomen as you breathe in, while the rib muscles pull the ribs upward and outward. This expands the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs through the nose or mouth. The diaphragm rises upward and the chest wall muscles relax during exhalation, causing the chest cavity to shrink and air to exit the respiratory system through the nose or mouth. Each inhale fills a substantial percentage of the millions of alveoli with air every few seconds. Diffusion is the mechanism by which oxygen travels from the alveoli to the bloodstream via the capillaries (small blood vessels) that line the alveolar walls. The hemoglobin in red blood cells absorbs oxygen once it enters the circulation. This oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart, which delivers it to oxygen-hungry tissues throughout the body via the arteries. In the tiny capillaries of the body tissues, oxygen is freed from the hemoglobin and moves into the cells. Carbon dioxide, made by the cells as they do their work, moves out of the cells into the capillaries, where most of it dissolves in the plasma of the blood. Blood rich in carbon dioxide then returns to the heart via the veins. From the heart, this blood is pumped to the lungs, where carbon dioxide passes into the alveoli to be exhaled. Process/function of respiratory system: (how lungs work) To keep alive, our cells require oxygen. As cells perform their functions, carbon dioxide is produced. The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen from the air to enter the body while simultaneously allowing carbon dioxide from the air to be expelled. The diaphragm goes lower into the abdomen as you breathe in, while the rib muscles pull the ribs upward and outward. This expands the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs through the nose or mouth. The diaphragm rises upward and the chest wall muscles relax during exhalation, causing the chest cavity to shrink and air to exit the respiratory system through the nose or mouth. Air fills a substantial percentage of the millions of alveoli every few seconds with each breath. The capillaries (small blood vessels) lining the alveolar walls transport oxygen from the alveoli to the blood in a process known as diffusion. The hemoglobin in red blood cells absorbs oxygen after it has entered the circulation. This oxygen-rich blood then returns to the heart, which sends it to oxygen-hungry tissues throughout the body via the arteries. Oxygen is liberated from hemoglobin and transported into cells through the small capillaries of the bodily tissues. Carbon dioxide is produced by cells as they perform their functions, and it travels from the cells into the capillaries, where it dissolves in the blood plasma. The veins carry carbon dioxide-rich blood back to the heart. This blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is absorbed and expelled through the alveoli. The network of organs and tissues that help you breathe is known as your respiratory system. This system assists your body in absorbing oxygen from the air so that your organs can function properly. It also removes waste gases from your blood, such as carbon dioxide. Allergies, illnesses, and infections are common issues. tissues in the lungs: Pleura is a thin tissue layer that is both a component of the lung structure and a thin tissue layer. Epithelial cells, which line the airways and produce mucus to protect the lungs, make up the majority of the cells in the lungs. Over 40 kinds of epithelial cells, interstital connective tissue, blood veins, hematological and lymphoid tissue, and the pleura make up the lung. Circulatory system The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system, is a critical organ system that transports important chemicals to all cells in order for basic processes to take place. The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a network made up of the heart as a centralised pump, blood arteries that circulate blood throughout the body, and blood itself, which transports various chemicals. The circulatory system is split into two loops: the pulmonary circuit, which exchanges blood between the heart and lungs for oxygenation, and the systemic circuit, which distributes blood throughout the rest of the body’s systems and tissues. Both circuits start and finish in the heart. The circulatory (or cardiovascular) system’s primary job is to provide oxygen to bodily tissues while also eliminating carbon dioxide generated by metabolism. The oxygen in the blood is linked to molecules called haemoglobin, which are found on the surface of red blood cells. In conclusion, All cells in the body require oxygen and nutrition, as well as the removal of waste. The circulatory system’s major functions are as follows. The heart, blood, and blood arteries all work together to provide oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells. Blood transports carbon dioxide to the lungs (for expiration) and oxygen to the body via a network of arteries, veins, and capillaries. The blood collects dietary nutrients from the small intestine and transports them to all cells. Circulatory system with labels: Structure of heart and blood vessels in circulatory system: The pulmonary veins provide the left atrium with oxygen-rich blood. The human heart is the body’s hardest-working muscle. A healthy adult heart is the size of a clenched adult fist and is located practically in the middle of the chest. The human heart will beat more than 2.5 billion times by the age of 70. The heart is always at work. It circulates 2,000 liters of blood every day. The heart of a kid works just as hard as the heart of an adult. A baby’s heart may beat up to 130 to 150 times per minute at rest. The heart of an adult usually beats between 60 and 100 times per minute. From birth until adolescence, the pace at which the heart pumps goes down. The heart and blood arteries make up the cardiovascular system. It is responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body. The delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the body is dependent on a functioning cardiovascular system. How the Heart Functions The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood containing oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues via blood arteries. It’s made up of the following components: There are four compartments in all. The atria are the two upper chambers. They are in charge of receiving and collecting blood. The ventricles are the two lowest chambers. They circulate blood throughout your body. Here’s how it works: The right atrium is where the body’s blood is received. The oxygen level in this blood is low. This is the blood that flows through the veins. To pick up oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide, the right ventricle pushes blood from the right atrium into the lungs. Blood is pumped into the left atrium from the lungs. This blood contains a lot of oxygen. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping blood from the left atrium to the rest of the body, delivering oxygen-rich blood to all organs. There are four valves in all. The aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid valves are the four valves that make up the heart. They allow blood to flow forward while preventing it from flowing backward. Vessels of blood These transport blood to the lungs, where oxygen is absorbed, and subsequently to the rest of the body: The inferior and superior vena cava transport oxygen-depleted blood into the right atrium. The pulmonary artery transports oxygen-depleted blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, where it is oxygenated. The aorta transports oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body. An electrical mechanism that causes the heart muscle to contract. Blood is also carried throughout the body through a network of arteries and veins: Arteries carry blood from the heart to the tissues of the body. Blood is returned to the heart through veins. Tissues in the heart and blood vessels: The epicardium (other), myocardium (middle), and endocardium (end) are the three layers of the heart’s wall (inner). However, cardiac muscle tissue is exclusively present in the heart and is one of the three kinds of muscle tissue found in the human body. It makes it possible for the heart to circulate blood throughout the body. The thick outermost layer of a vessel termed (tunica adventitia) is comprised of connective tissue, whereas the middle layer called (tunica medium) is thicker and includes more contractile tissue in arteries than veins. Elastic fibers, connective tissue, and smooth muscle cells are organized in a circle. The inner layer is the thinnest, consisting of a single layer of endothelium separated by a sub endothelial layer. Process of circulatory system: Overall function of circulatory system: The heart, or more specifically the right atrium, the upper right hand chamber of the heart, is where the circulation process begins. The blood then travels through the heart, passing through the upper right, lower right, upper left, and lower left chambers. The blood makes a short detour via the lungs to expel carbon dioxide while taking up no oxygen. It then travels to the heart’s most significant chamber, the left ventricle, in the bottom left hand chamber. The blood then flows from the aorta to the capillaries through a succession of smaller blood arteries. Blood travels from the capillaries to the values, veins, and finally back to the capillaries. The human body’s cells require oxygen, nutrition, and the exchange of wastes. The circulatory system does this job. The system is in charge of blood, nutrients, oxygen, and a variety of other gases. The heart, blood, and blood arteries all collaborate to provide service to the body’s cells. The system transports oxygen and other nutrients to all of the body’s organs and tissues. Digestive system What is the digestive system and how does it work? The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, as well as your liver, pancreas, and gallbladder, make up your digestive system. From your mouth to your anus, the GI tract is a collection of hollow organs that are linked to one another. Your mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus are the organs that make up your GI tract, in order of connection. What is the significance of digestion? Your body need nutrients from the food you consume and the liquids you drink to be healthy and operate correctly. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water are all nutrients. Your digestive system breaks down and absorbs nutrients from the food and liquids you ingest so that they may be used for vital functions such as energy, cell development, and cell repair. The digestive system is made up of what organs? The mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus are the major organs that make up the digestive system (in order of function). The pancreas, gall bladder, and liver assist them along the process. Here’s how your digestive system’s organs operate together. -mouth -esophagus -stomach -small intestine -pancreas -liver -gallbladder -colon -rectum -anus The digestive system is affected by both acute circumstances and long-term, or chronic, illnesses and disorders. Constipation, diarrhea, and heartburn are among problems that people experience from time to time. If you’re having trouble with your digestion on a regular basis, make an appointment with your doctor. It might be a symptom of a more serious ailment that requires medical care. The following are examples of short-term or transitory disorders that affect the digestive system: -constipation -diarrhea -heartburn -hemorhoids -stomach flu -ulcers -gallstones : e r u t c u r t s h c Stoma e middle th , r e y la l a in d u it ide long ts u o e h T . d e w o ll h are: wa s ic h e b w , s to a d e o r a fo l s a it ic that perm e anatom v h fi c u s o in p ta g n in o d c n o a p ls scles. 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It starts in the pyloric sphincter, merges behind the peritoneum, then becomes retropertional and curves around the pancreatic head in a C shape. jejunum: is around 0.9 meters (3 feet) length. It connects the duodenum and ileum. In comparison to the ileum, the jejunum has a larger diameter. The villi of the jejunum are histologically recognizable structures that resemble long, finger-like extensions. ileum: The section of the small intestine that is the longest. It is around 6 feet long. It is thicker, has more developed mucosal folds, and is more vascular than the jejunum. The mesentery binds the jejunum and ileum to the posterior abdominal wall more tightly. Large: The large intestine begins in the iliac region of the pelvis, below the right waist, and connects to the small intestine at the bottom. The eccum, colon, rectum, and eanal are all part of it. cecum: The first section of the large intestine is located in the lower abdominal cavity and is a huge tubelike structure. colon: the biggest portion of the stomach and it located to the left of the cardia and beneath the diphagram, it includes the gastric glands. rectum: The biggest section of the sit runs parallel to the sigmoid colon and might be 5 to 6 inches long. anal-canal: It measures between 2.5 and 4 centimeters in length. The inner involuntary and outer voluntary sphincters surround it. Tissues in the stomach: The layers of it: the mucosa: first, and the stomach’s inner lining. It’s where the glands that secrete digestive juices are found. the submucosa: The mucosa is supported by a second layer. There are several blood arteries, lymphatic vessels, and nerves in this area. the muscularis: thick muscles. subserosa: has supporting tissues for the serosa. ————————————————————————–serosa: wraps around stomach. four layer tissues: mucosa: epithelium, lamina propria, and muscular mucosae. submucosa muscle layer adventitia ——————— tissues in small intestine: tissues in large intestine: lined with simple columnar epithelium, and there are four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa Process: Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical or physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and feces are the six functions of digestion. The first of these processes, ingestion, refers to the passage of food from the mouth into the alimentary canal. The meal is chewed and combined with saliva, which includes enzymes that start breaking down the carbohydrates in the diet as well as some fat breakdown through lingual lipase. Chewing increases the surface area of the meal, allowing for the production of a bolus of the proper size. When the tongue and pharyngeal muscles drive food into the esophagus, it leaves the mouth. The final deliberate act before defecation is swallowing, which is an example of propulsion, which refers to the passage of food through the digestive tract. It encompasses both the deliberate and involuntary processes of swallowing and peristalsis. Peristalsis is a process in which the smooth muscles of the alimentary wall contract and relax in a sequence to drive food forward. These waves are also involved in the mixing of food and digestive fluids. Foods and liquids you swallow enter your stomach even if you’re standing on your head because peristalsis is so strong. Overall Function: Your digestive system breaks down and absorbs nutrients from the food and liquids you ingest so that they may be used for vital functions such as energy, cell development, and cell repair. why do organ systems need to work together? Organ systems collaborate closely to carry out procedures that keep people alive. Each organ system has a purpose in the body. The many organ systems, on the other hand, collaborate to keep the body operating and preserve homeostasis. Organs in organ systems rely on one another to function properly. The respiratory system, for example, collaborates with the digestive system, the digestive system collaborates with the circulatory system, and the circulatory system collaborates with the breathing system. Digestive system + Respiratory system Large nutrition molecules are broken down into smaller ones during digestion, which the gut absorbs into the circulation. While the respiratory system gets oxygen from the atmosphere and the outside world and transports it into the circulation by enabling it to pass through the lungs’ membranes and into the blood vessels, the circulatory system takes oxygen from the atmosphere and the outside environment. It aids human breathing. The digestive system, on the other hand, is reliant on the respiratory system since the digestive tract works by breaking up food and moving it along with muscle contractions. The smooth muscle in the stomach that churns food into liquid and moves it through the system need oxygen to operate, since the digestive tract would stop operating without it. Furthermore, without digestive products, the respiratory tract would be unable to operate. The digestive tract’s efforts give fuel to the cells of the respiratory muscles, allowing them to contract. Circulatory system + Respiratory system Both the respiratory and circulatory systems work together to provide oxygen to all cells and remove carbon dioxide generated by the cells. The circulatory system, on the other hand, takes oxygen from the lungs, transports it, and deposits it in the tissues. After that, it conducts the carbon dioxide reverse function. The lungs subsequently expel the carbon dioxide and allow oxygen to enter. The oxygen and carbon dioxide may exchange properly between the cells when both systems operate together. digestive system + circulatory system The digestive and circulatory systems rely on each other to help the body operate, just as the other organ systems do. The digestive system gives nourishment to the heart to keep it pumping, while the circulatory system transports oxygen and glucose throughout the body to allow cells to collaborate, as well as wastes to be disposed of by the body. Evaluation To summarize, the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems all provide unique functions in the human body. They collaborate and rely on one another to maintain the human body healthy. The respiratory system takes in oxygen-rich air and exhales carbon dioxide. Water and nutrients from meals are absorbed by the digestive system. The circulatory system transports oxygen, water, and nutrients to all of the body’s cells. The respiratory system, on the other hand, uses the lungs to assist deliver oxygen into the body, while the digestive system uses the stomach to break down food. It is also dependent on the large intestine to absorb water and convert wastes into liquid, thus food must be broken down and sent to the small intestine. To transport blood through the body, the circulatory system relies on the heart and blood arteries. All systems have roles that help the body operate. 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