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Health & Medical Question KINESIOLOGY Professional Organizations Assignment

Health & Medical Question KINESIOLOGY Professional Organizations Assignment

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KINESIOLOGY Professional Organizations Additional information ; im a walker I went to all girl’s school till high school and didn’t have PE class Required Textbook: Introduction to Kinesiology: Studying Physical Activity, 5th edition; Shirl J. Hoffman (ed) Chapter 05 History of Chapter 06 Sociology Chapter 08 Sport and Chapter 07 Motor Chapter 04 Chapter 9 Biomechanics of Physical of Physical Activity Canvas.pptx Exercise Psychology Canvas.pptx Behavior Activity (1).pptx Canvas.pptx Activity canvas ActivityCanvas.pptx Canvas.pptxPhilosophy of PhysicalPhysical Chapter 10 Physiology of Physical Activity Canvas.pptx Professional Organizations Part 1 Choose ONE of the professional organizations from Chapters 4-7 (Philosophy, History, Sociology or Motor Behavior). Provide a link to the organization and a description (about 200-250) words so that your peers can determine if it is an organization worth investigating further. You should discuss items like student memberships, professional networks, conferences, journals, scholarship opportunities, the target audience of the organization, benefits of joining, etc. Professional Organizations Part 2 Choose ONE of the professional organizations from Chapters 8-10 (Sport/Exercise Psychology, Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology). Provide a link to the organization and a description (about 200-250) words so that your peers can determine if it is an organization worth investigating further. You may want to discuss items like student memberships, professional networks, conferences, journals, scholarship opportunities, the target audience of the organization, benefits of joining, etc. KINESIOLOGY Required Textbook: Introduction to Kinesiology: Studying Physical Activity, 5th edition; Shirl J. Hoffman (ed) Additional information ; im a walker I went to all girl’s school till high school and didn’t have PE class Chapter One Journal CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO KINESIOLOGY Duane V. Knudson and Shirl J. Hoffman (with acknowledgment to Janet C. Harris) After reading the article in the this module, briefly respond to the following: (for full credit, you must reference the reading in your response) Describe your current level of experience with physical activity. Has it changed since you entered college? If so, why do you think it has, and has this change been for the better or worse? What motivates you to be physically active? How do you think we could increase physical activity levels of University students campus wide? Chapter Two Journal C H A P T E R 2 The Spheres of Physical Activity Experience Chapter 02 The Spheres of Physical Activity Answer the following questions: Give a brief example of how you use physical activity in each of the 7 spheres personally. Which sphere do you believe will be the focus of your intended career (personally/with those you interact with)? Addressing the reading about “gym class” and our class content on physical education, what are your memories of PE? Did you find it enjoyable? Do you feel your classes met the objectives of public school physical education programs (see notes or text)? Do you feel the program prepared you to be a physically educated person (see the six specific objectives in notes)? Chapter Three Journal C H A P T E R 3 The Importance of Physical Activity Experiences Chapter 03 The Importance of Physical Activity In 200-250 words, reflect on who (or what) has been an influence on your physical activity choices (current or past). Are there any factors that have been a barrier to be active? In addition to the textbook, please reference at least ONE of the additional readings provided to you. Think about someone who differs from you socially (not a specific person, think along lines of race, sex, gender, socioeconomic status)- what additional barriers (or facilitators) to physical activity do you think would be present? How are they similar or different to you own? In the future, how can you positively influence physical activity levels of those you work with? Chapter 4 Journal C H A P T E R 4 Philosophy of Physical Activity Chapter 05 Philosophy of Physical Activity Briefly reflect on the class philosophy discussion by answering the following: Which issues stood out to you? Did your views change on any issues? Were your views reinforced on any issues? Which issues do you want to learn more about? How can you go about this? Chapter 5 Journal C H A P T E R 5 History of Physical Activity Chapter 06 History of Physical Activity Please respond in 200-250 words. Based upon the timelines you created in class, what historical events had the biggest impact on you in terms of physical activity participation, and your current/ future profession and scholarly study? They do not have to be from the same time era, or the one you worked on. Look for an additional event that was not on the timeline that is relevant for you. Maybe this is related to your future career, the way you engage in physical activity or something related to your social identity. For example, I may discuss the first woman to run the Boston Marathon. Identify the event and its significance for you personally as well as the field or sport. This part should include a reference. Chapter 6 Journal C H A P T E R 6 Sociology of Physical Activity Chapter 07 Sociology of Physical Activity In 200-250 words reflect on your own social identify from the identity wheel activity and how that has influenced your physical activity participation and cultural expression? How do you think it can influence your leadership capacity? Have you been in a position of power (using textbook definition of power)? Why or why not? Consider how being free from physical disability can put one in a position of power, particularly with physical activity. What can be done to make this more equitable? Please reference in APA, at least one of the readings OR one of the Ted Talks in this module in addition to the textbook. Chapter 8 Journal C H A P T E R 8 Sport and Exercise Psychology Chapter 09 Sport and Exercise Psychology In 200-250 words reflect on the Progressive muscle relaxation experience. How did you feel before, during and after completing this? Referencing at least one of the additional readings, (in APA format) discuss how PMR can be beneficial to you currently or of use in your future profession. How can any of the other psychological techniques we discussed benefit for yourself now in your physical activity practice or how could you incorporate into your future professional practice? C H A P T E R 10 Physiology of Physical Activity Chapter 11 Physiology of Physical Activity Chapter Objectives • Cover the key features of the subdiscipline of physiology of physical activity and employment opportunities available to exercise science professionals. • Explain how physiology of physical activity fits within kinesiology. • Review the history and development of physiology of physical activity as a subdiscipline. Chapter Objectives (continued) • Identify the research methods used by kinesiologists working in exercise physiology. • Examine how the body responds to physical activity and how these changes relate to physical performance and health. What is Physiology of Physical Activity? • The study of acute (immediate) physiological responses to physical activity and the changes in physiological responses to chronic (repeated over time) physical activity. • Exercise physiologists apply principles of biology and chemistry to understand how the body responds to physical activity; this serves as the foundation for conditioning, fitness, and rehabilitation programs. • Often referred to as exercise physiology, this is (along with biomechanics of physical activity) a subdiscipline of the biophysical sphere. Why Use Physiology of Physical Activity? • Enhance sport performance and training. • Improve _______________________________. • Promote health and _____________________with physical activity. • Understand physiological changes from physical activity. What Does a Physiologist of Physical Activity Do? • University professors • Researchers for the military or NASA • Employees of corporate fitness or hospitalbased wellness programs • Clinical exercise physiologists employed by hospitals in cardiac rehabilitation programs (continued) What Does a Physiologist of Physical Activity Do? (continued) • Exercise instructors • Personal trainers • Strength and conditioning professionals • Specialization with a particular population (older adults, children, pulmonary patients) Goals of Exercise Physiology • Understand how to enhance physical performance • Understand how to improve physical function in a particular environment such as high temperature or altitude • Understand how PA and exercise improve health and fitness • Understand how exercise can be used in treating and preventing disease and alleviating symptoms of disease • Understand adaptations in anatomy and physiology in response to PA Enhance Sport Performance and Training • Sport physiology: applications of the concepts of exercise physiology to enhance sport performance and optimally train athletes – Prepare for competition- concerned with the training, environment • Some of earliest responses to physiological responses to strenuous exercise came from Harvard Fatigue Laboratory • Sport physiologists use info and techniques from other disciplines – Nutrition; biomechanics Improve physical fitness • Understand the physiological determinants of physical fitness and how training improves fitness • Develop recommendations on _____________ (optimal intensity, frequency, duration of exercise programs) • Adapt programs to make them safe for children, older adults, special populations • Linked to psychology- why some adhere; behavior change theories Promote health through therapeutic PA • Exercise physiology is foundation for understanding why PA and exercise are beneficial in reducing risk of disease and in treating some forms of diseases • “significant health benefits can be obtained by including moderate amount of PA on most, if not all days of the week” – Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans – 2008 called for at least 150 mins (5 days) mod or 75 mins (3 days) vigorous each week; 2-3 days of strength training – New Guidelines released 2018. Similar to above. Excluded the need for 10 minute bouts. • Exercise physiologists are interested in the big picture= how physical fitness can prevent disease in large populations • Clinical Exercise Physiologists study the role of PA in disease management – Cardiac Rehab= requires knowledge of cardiovascular system, EKG interpretation, how to adapt mode, intensity, duration for those with known disease and recovering from MI or surgery Anatomical and Physiological Changes from PA • Examine the functional responses and structural adaptations of the cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, and endocrine systems to different types of PA • Examine fuel sources used by muscles for exercise – Use biochemical techniques to develop understanding of lactate production and use of energy stores during PA History of Physiology of Physical Activity • Early beginnings evolved from physiology – Antoine Lavoisier-discovered animals consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide – August Krogh- developed cycle ergometer to study physiological response to exercise – A.V. Hill- won Nobel Prize in 1921; presented many basic concepts concerning oxygen consumption, lactate production and oxygen debt • Early laboratories (1920s-1940s) – Harvard Fatigue Lab: D.B. Dill (studied environmental effects- lab had treadmill, gasometer, climatic room) – Springfield College: Peter V. Karpovich (effects of ergogenic aids) – University of Illinois: Thomas K. Cureton, Jr. (research of physical fitness) Significant Events Since 1950 • 1950s: Morris Coronary Heart Disease study in England (London bus drivers) – ACSM founded • 1970s: ACSM certification program; publications • 1980s: amenorrhea related to low bone density • 1990s: NIH and surgeon general’s reports – Physical inactivity is major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases – Moderate levels of PA confer significant health benefits • Regular PA reduces risk of Heart disease, diabetes, HBP, colon cancer and helps control weight Research Methods in Physiology of Physical Activity • Laboratory – ______________________: treadmills, leg and arm cycles, and swimming flume – Oxygen uptake: gas analyzers – Body composition: underwater weighing, calipers, BIA and DEXA (continued) Research Methods in Physiology of Physical Activity (continued) • Laboratory (continued): • Biochemical methods: blood samples and muscle biopsies • Animal models: mammals that match humans as closely as possible; can control the subject and environment more easily and specifically • Fieldwork (outside the laboratory): Technological advances have made fieldwork more practical. • Estimate maximal oxygen uptake based on walk or run times or distances • Use heart rate monitors, accelerometers, pedometers Overview of Knowledge in Physiology of Physical Activity • How physiological systems (cardiovascular, muscular and respiratory) respond and adapt to physical activity (single and repeated bouts) • Factors that influence physiological responses (e.g., temperature, diet, and altitude) • The relationship among fitness, activity, and ______________ Skeletal Muscles • Contain myofibrils with contractile elements that allow for shortening and force development • Muscle fiber types- classified by speed of contraction, fatigability, force production abilities – ________________(Slow oxidative) – Fast twitch • Fast oxidative glycolytic • Fast glycolytic • Muscle strength vs muscle endurance – ________: maximal amount of force exerted by a muscle group – ________: ability to repeatedly exert force over a prolonged period – _______: product of force and time Skeletal Muscles • Types of actions – _____________: static; joint angle specific • ie: plank – _______________: muscle changes length without changing tension • ie: free weights, – _____________:muscle changes length at constant rate of velocity • Specialized equipment that allows setting speed of movement; used more in rehab settings Skeletal Muscle • Training principles, including ___________________ and specificity • Adaptations: – Hypertrophy: increase of size of muscles – Neural: recruitment of additional motor units, better synchronization of muscle fiber contractions, reduction in neural inhibition Cardiovascular System • Transports oxygen to all tissues of the body • Cardiac output: heart rate and ______________ – Resting Q is about 5 L/min; increases with increasing workloads of PA – HR and SV increase acutely during exercise • SV will plateau around 40% of maximum oxygen consumption, further increases in Q are due to increasing HR • Blood flow distribution – At rest most blood flow is distributed to brain and organs – During exercise, more blood is distributed to working muscles and shunted from organs Cardiovascular System • Cardiorespiratory adaptations to training – Improvements in VO2 max – Increased stroke volume at rest and during exercise – Lower _________________________ exercising heart rate • No change in HR max – Increased size and contractibility of heart • Heart can pump more blood with less effort – Increased capillarization in skeletal muscles • More blood an oxygen delivered to muscles Respiratory System • The respiratory system regulates the exchange of gases (including oxygen) between the external environment (air) and the internal environment (inside the body). – Ventilation – Minute ventilation (VE): amount air exhaled each minute • Product of ____________________________ • Ventilation increases rapidly at the onset of physical activity and also as a function of exercise intensity. – Increase in respiratory rate and tidal volume – Tidal volume increases with training- able to move more air with less breaths – Increases steadily at first, and then more rapidly= this point is called ventilatory threshold • Occurs around 50-75% of max • Increases with training • Effects of exercise Temperature Effects – _________ has little affect (to a point): frostbite, wind • For cold dress in layers: first moisture wicking, second insulating, third if necessary should wind or water proof – Warm, humid temperatures can be dangerous: heat cramps, heat exhaustion heat stroke • Effects of acclimatization- allows us to gradually adjust to changing environment • Effect of increased internal heat related to increased physical activity and its impact on vasodilation of skin blood vessels and sweating – When exercising blood vessels near surface of skin __________ to allow for____________ and evaporation. In hot, humid weather sweat does not evaporate= results in higher body temp – Sweat that drips off of body does not produce cooling effect – Higher HR for same workload in hot environments Nutritional Intake • We have enough ____________ to sustain low-intensity PA for many days • Need short-term energy sources (Carbohydrates) for moderate-vigorous endurance activities – Daily _______________ intake is crucial to athletic performance Nutritional Intake • Carbohydrates: stored as glycogen in skeletal muscles and liver – Main fuel at high intensity – Normal muscle glycogen stores are depleted in about ____ mins at 75% VO2 max – Maintaining carbohydrate levels during prolonged exercise is important because low blood glucose levels lead to _______________ • Consumption of carbohydrates immediately before and during can hold off fatigue – carbohydrate loading: increasing CHO intake after CHO depletion days before important competition will increase CHO stores • No advantage for events lasting less than one hour • Always practice before big competition Nutritional Intake • Fluids – ___________ makes up 55-60% of human body – Sweat loss decreases body fluids within and between cells and decreases _______________ • Decreases amount of blood returned to the heart, decreases stroke volume, increases heart rate to meet demands • If fluid not replaces will increase body temperature= leads to heat illness • Decrease _________________ Nutritional Intake • Fluids – Weigh yourself before and after activity – If ______ or more body weight loss dehydration could cause performance declines or risk of illness – Replace fluids every 15-20 mins • During activities lasting less than 1 hour, no advantage to consuming CHO beverages • Risk of _____________________ in long duration endurance events in heat Nutritional intake • Iron – Blood _______________________ with help of iron – Oxygen “rides” on iron atoms in hemoglobin – Anemia: decreased hemoglobin concentrations • Reduces endurance capacities • Common among female athletes PA, Fitness and Health • Engaging in moderate-intensity PA on a regular basis confers health benefits • Activity does not need to be continuous= can be accumulated in bouts as short as 10 mins or even less – New guidelines eliminated need for 10 minutes; • ________mins/ week moderate intensity will confer health benefits • _____________: greater volumes of exercise will result in additional health benefits • Exercise programs designed to improve health and fitness should begin slowly and progress. Increases adherence and decreases injury risk PA, Fitness and Health • Effects of Age on Fitness – VO2 max declines with age- about 10% per decade – Can be held to about 5% per decade with regular activity PA, Health and Fitness • PA, Fitness and CHD – Higher levels of fitness are associated with improved health status – Most fit individuals have lower relative risk of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease or (some) cancer than those less fit – Participation in PA _________________________________________________, colon cancer, hypertension, and diabetes PA, Health and Fitness • PA and Weight Control – Daily PA helps control weight – Weight gain and loss determined by interplay between calories consumed and expended • PA _____________________________ • Higher intensity activity increases energy expenditure – Metabolic rate remains elevated during recovery from PA (EPOC) • Total energy expenditure from a single bout of exercise is __________________________ than the exercise itself PA, Health and Fitness • PA and Weight Control – ExRx for weight loss includes 30-60 minutes of daily PA • Sedentary individuals are more likely to be overweight or obese= increases risk for CHD and diabetes • Reducing body weight also helps lower BP and serum triglycerides • Decreasing obesity rates is a pressing problem for exercise physiologists currently Body Mass Index • BMI = body mass in kilograms  the square of height in meters. • BMI assessment is easy and noninvasive; elevated values are indicative of obesity-related disease risk. • A BMI of >30 is classified as obese (in 2011-12, 35% of adults, 21% of adolescents 12-19, and 17% of children 6-11 were obese). Professional Resources • Organizations – American College of Sports Medicine – American Council on Exercise – American Society of Exercise Physiologists – Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology – Exercise & Sports Science Australia – National Strength and Conditioning Association • Journals – ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal – American Journal of Sports Medicine – Clinics in Sports Medicine – Exercise and Sports Science Reviews – International Journal of Exercise Science – Journal of Exercise Physiology Online – Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport – Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness • Journals: – Journal of Sports Sciences – Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research – Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science – Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise – Pediatric Exercise Science – The Physician and Sportsmedicine – Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport – Sports Medicine – Strength and Conditioning Journal Check out • What type of exercise establishes tension in the muscle without changing length? • a. isokinetic • b. isometric • c. isotonic • d. hypertrophic ___________________ refers to an increase in size of skeletal muscles, an adaptation of training. • a. hypertrophy • b. hypotrophy • c. atrophy • d. rhabdomyolysis • Cardiac output is a product of heart rate x _______________________. • When body temperature rises during physical activity, which thermoregulatory response is stimulated? • a. shivering • b. sweating • c. vasoconstriction of skin blood vessels • d. redirecting blood to the visceral organs Muscular ______________is a product of force and time a. strength b. endurance c. power d. agility Health-related benefits of exercise can occur by accumulating bouts of at least _____ minutes of exercise three times per day. a. 5 b. 10 c. 150 d. according to new PA Guidelines for Americans, any amount can add up Preparing for Part III C H A P T E R 9 Biomechanics of Physical Activity Chapter 10 Biomechanics of Physical Activity Chapter Objectives • Describe what biomechanics is and what it encompasses. • Explain how biomechanics is useful to you and in careers in kinesiology and related areas. • Address what biomechanists and related specialists do. • Explain how biomechanics emerged in the field of physical activity. • Introduce biomechanical concepts and the processes by which biomechanists and professionals in physical activity and related fields answer questions of interest in professional settings. Goals of Biomechanics of Physical Activity • To understand how basic laws of mechanical physics and engineering affect and shape the structure and function of the human body • Mechanics: a branch of physics that documents motion (kinematics) and the causes of motion (kinetics) • To apply this understanding to – improve the outcomes of our movements (i.e., performance effectiveness) and – increase or maintain the safety and health of our tissues. Application of Biomechanics • Improve movement techniques for sport performance, locomotion, and motor skill acquisition. • Improve _______________. • Prevent ________________. (continued) Application of Biomechanics (continued) • Guide rehabilitation and treatment • NOTE: Biomechanics of human movement must account for additional factors influencing movement that include sensations such as pain, other performers, the environment, emotions, prior experience, cultural expectations, socioeconomic class, gender, and anatomy. Why Use Biomechanics of Physical Activity? • Our structures help us to function—for example, to breathe, run, text, and eat. • Conversely, our movement (i.e., our functioning) affects our structure. • Forces are needed to accomplish any task with movement; they also help maintain health of our body structures. Why Use Biomechanics of Physical Activity? (continued) • A force consists of a push or a pull on an object or body • Some forces that influence body structure and function: – Forces applied to us by another object (see figure 9.1a) – Forces we apply to another object to manipulate its motion (see figure 9.1b) – Forces acting on a bone (see figure 9.1c) Figure 9.1a Figure 9.1b Figure 9.1c What Is Biomechanics of Physical Activity? • Biomechanics applies the ____________ principles of physics and engineering to the motion, structure, and functioning of all living systems. • Biomechanists in the field of physical activity study how these principles affect human movement and the structure and function of the human body. What is Biomechanics? • Human movement biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of human beings using principles and methods of mechanics of physics and engineering • Two themes: • _____________ is our anatomy – How forces (ie: gravity) affect our body tissues • ___________ is how we move to accomplish some purpose – How we produce forces to generate, maintain or slow down movement Biomechanics in Action • http://www.nbclearn.com/summerolympics/cuecard/59560 Improving Performance Through Understanding Mechanical Laws • The performance of any person can be improved in almost any situation that involves physical activity—for example, repetitive work tasks, activities of daily living, exercise, occupational or sport training, sport performance, music playing, dance, and even lying in bed. • If we understand how living organisms can best exploit the mechanical laws that govern how motion is controlled, then we can intelligently select the best movement techniques for a given performer to use in completing a certain movement task. Newton’s Laws of Motion • _________ (First Law of Motion) – Our body will not begin moving (or stop if already moving) unless a force is acted upon it • Third Law – For every action there is an ______________________________ – Ex: when a runner pushes down against the ground with some force (action) the ground will push an equal amount of force (ground reaction force) back on the runner in upward and forward direction to propel the runner Newton’s Laws in the NFL • http://www.nbclearn.com/science-of-nfl-football • Forces are important when dealing with structure – When we are moving or resting, forces are acting on the outside and inside of our bodies – These forces affect the structure- the health of muscles, bones, connective tissues • Ie: astronauts lose bone density in space due to lack of gravitational force • When we apply force to our bones, muscles or connective tissue we can ______________________ them (or injure if force is too great) What Does a Biomechanist Do? • Researcher • Clinical biomechanist • Performance enhancement specialist • Ergonomist or human factors engineer (industrial task analysis specialist) • Forensic biomechanist • University professor • Certified orthotist or prosthetist Goals of a Biomechanist • ________________________in sport and dance • Reduce or prevent injuries at work, at home, and during exercise and sport tasks • Improve the movements of people with pathological conditions (clinical settings) • Increase performers’ health with exercise or training regimens • Assist with the design of equipment, artificial limbs, and orthoses for safety History of Biomechanics Early beginnings: • Aristotle (380-320BC)- observed animal motion and walking patterns in humans • Leonardo da Vinci (1400-1500s)-credited with developing first systematic examination of mechanical principles of human and animal movement • Biomechanics applications begin in late 1800s • Industrial revolution provided inventions like measuring instruments and cameras for observing movement • Posse and Skarstrom: first use of the term kinesiology in the United States in late 1800s • Interested in gymnastics History of Biomechanics (continued) Early beginnings (continued): • 1920s and 1930s: researchers such as • Ruth Glassow- began to categorize movement in physical ed and applied fundamental principles of mechanics and physics to the skills of each category • Thomas Cureton- began teaching mechanics of sport and PA • Charles McCloy-identified specific principles that influence movement • World events shape biomechanics (WW I, WW II, polio, prosthetics, physical therapy) • 1950s: anthropometry, human factors design • Designs for automotive, space and aviation transportation- seats, cockpits, instrument panels based upon size and proportion History of Biomechanics (continued) Era of contemporary biomechanics • 1960s: conferences, organizations, graduate-level programs, Kinesiology Section (1965) • 1970s: rapid expansion, sport medicine, dance kinesiology (biomechanics) • Late 20th century: continued expansion of university programs and organizations, switch from the term kinesiology to biomechanics to identify this subdiscipline Research Methods in Biomechanics Model of Analysis: Systematic Process 1. I____________________________. 2. State ____________________. 3. Consider _________________. – Physical, emotional, etc 4. Understand _______________________used to perform the activity studying (continued) Research Methods in Biomechanics (continued) Model of Analysis: Systematic Process 5. Determine ________________________________________. 6. Observe or____________________________. – Qualitative: observation – Quantitative: obtain numerical data using biomechanical instrumentationtools that measure force, speed, time, motion 7. ____________________________________? Assessment, evaluation, and interpretation. – Share your results – Provide ______________________ In Action… • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3pfjvlk2hA Biomechanical Instrumentation and Other Tools • Stopwatches, metronomes, protractors, barbells, and free weights • Computer simulations • Motion measurement devices: cameras, video, light-emitting diodes (LED) • Attach reflective markers on points of the body to track motion in various segments • _____________________ measurement devices: • transducers: measures how much force is placed on a joint, ligament, etc; device attached to tissues or place artificial implants inside body • Platforms- measure ground reaction force; metal plate with force transducers attached to beams that hold the plate up • ________________-estimating muscle forces via measuring electrical activity of the membranes of the muscle cells when nerve cells are stimulated to contract – Place electrodes on the bellies of the muscles where the muscle fiber membranes are most likely to be stimulated by nerve cells – Nerve cell sends electrical signal to muscle fibers to tell the muscle fiber to generate force – EMG can also identify which muscles are active during a particular movement, which indicates which muscles to target for strength, power, or endurance training – EMG can be used clinically to determine whether a muscle is functioning correctly Overview of Knowledge in Biomechanics • How external forces (gravity, ground reaction forces, friction, fluid resistance) act on performers. • How internal forces act on performers. • How biomechanical laws of nature shape our movements (law of inertia, law of action–reaction, torque or moment, propulsive forces, fluid forces, and so on). • Why do we move in certain ways and not others? • Is there such a thing as the perfect movement technique? Biomechanists • Biomechanists as well as other physical activity specialists can apply the principles of mechanical laws to enhance performance, reduce injury, evaluate the effectiveness of a movement, or select the proper sport equipment, tool, or occupational equipment. Equipment Improvements • Evolution of Golf Club Professional Resources Organizations: – International Society of Biomechanics – International Society of Biomechanics in Sports – American Society of Biomechanics Journals – – – – – – – – – – Clinical Biomechanics Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research Gait & Posture International Journal of Experimental and Computational Biomechanics Journal of Applied Biomechanics Journal of Biomechanics Journal of Dance Medicine and Science Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics Sport Biomechanics Ted Talk • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDsNZJTWw0w • https://www.ted.com/talks/david_epstein_are_athletes_reall y_getting_faster_better_stronger Check out A golf ball stays on the tee until the golf club hits it. Which of the following principles best describes why this occurs? • a. Newton’s law of action-reaction • b. An object will gain more momentum if more force is applied to it across a period of time. • c. Newton’s law of inertia • d. law of projectile motion • When an athlete is running across a field, _________ allow(s) for the person to be propelled forward (the runner pushes down on the ground, and the ground pushes the person in the opposite direction). • a. lift forces • b. ground reaction forces • c. inertia • d. acceleration List the steps to the movement analysis model from biomechanics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. C H A P T E R 7 Motor Behavior Chapter 08 Motor Behavior Chapter Objectives • Explain what a motor behavior researcher does. • Present the goals of motor behavior, including motor learning, motor control, and motor development. • Explain the research process used by scholars in motor behavior. • Present some of the principles of motor learning, motor control, and motor development. What Is Motor Behavior? • The study of how motor skills are learned, controlled, and developed across the lifespan. Applications often focus on what, how, and how much to practice. • Motor behavior guides us in providing better situations for learning and practice, including the selection of effective of cues and feedback. (continued) What Is Motor Behavior? (continued) • Valuable to performers and those who teach motor skills (e.g. physical education teachers, adapted physical educators, gerontologists, physical therapists and coaches) – Practice improves performance, but some types of practice are superior to others – Motor behavior allows for determine __________________________ – “specificity” – Aids in providing appropriate feedback What is Motor Behavior • Began as a branch of _________________ that used movement or PA to understand cognition – Info from biology is incorporated into motor behavior as heredity, aging and growth influence PA • Closely associated with _____________________ – Also linked to psychology and_______________ of PA • Can be studied with people of all skill levels- including elite athletes What Does a Motor Behaviorist Do? • Colleges or universities – Teaching – Research – Service • Other research facilities: hospitals, industrial, military – Research with applications related to setting – Grant writing Goals of Motor Behavior • To understand how motor skills are _______ • To understand how motor skills are _____________ • To understand how the learning and control of motor skills change across the life span • Three subdisciplines – Motor learning – Motor control – Motor development Three Subdisciplines of Motor Behavior • Motor Learning • Motor Control • Motor Development Three Subdisciplines of the Subdiscipline 1. Motor learning (acquisition of skilled movements as a result of practice) 2. Motor control (the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement) 3. Motor ___________________ (developmental view of motor learning and motor control across a lifespan) • Contrasting motor learning and motor control – Shift from learning a skill versus “automatic” skill – Motor control essential for every movement—from poorly skilled to well skilled – Motor learning responsible for shift to well skilled Goals of Motor Learning • To explain how processes such as feedback and practice improve the learning and performance of motor skills • To explain how response selection and response execution become more efficient and effective Goals of Motor Control • To analyze how the mechanisms in response selection and response execution control the body’s movement – How to coordinate muscles and joints during movement – How to control sequence of movement • To explain how ________________ and individual factors affect the mechanisms of response selection and response execution – How to use environmental information to plan and adjust movement Goals of Motor Development • To explain how motor learning and control improve during childhood and adolescence • To explain how motor learning and control __________________ with aging Why Use Motor Behavior? • The study of how motor skills are learned, controlled, and developed across the lifespan • Applications often focus on what, how, and how much to practice • Guides us in providing better situations for learning and practice, including the selection of effective of cues and feedback • Valuable to performers and those who teach motor skills (e.g., physical education teachers, adapted physical educators, gerontologists, physical therapists, and coaches) Motor Movements Studied Beyond Sport • Babies learning to use a fork and spoon • Dentists learning to control the drill while looking in a mirror • Surgeons controlling a scalpel; microsurgeons using a laser • Children learning to ride a bicycle or to roller skate (continued) Motor Movements Studied Beyond Sport (continued) • Teenagers learning to drive • Dancers performing choreographed movements • Pilots learning to control an airplane • Young children learning to control a pencil when writing or learning to type on a computer History of Motor Behavior Five themes have persisted over the years in motor behavior research • Knowledge of results (feedback) • Distribution of practice • ______________ of training • ____________________ • Individual differences (continued) History of Motor Behavior • 1800s and early 1900s researchers primarily interested in using motor skills as a means to understand the mind – Tool to examine cognition – Researchers now focus more on the skills themselves • 1960s and 1970s evolved into subdiscipline – Researchers were specialists in PA, not just neuro or psychology – Memory drum theory first major theoretical paper • Reaction time was slower for more complex movements because those movements took more planning time History of Motor Behavior • Current research in motor control and learning usually focuses on understanding how the neuromuscular system controls and repeats movement • Lines of motor development research: – Study of motor learning in children – Study of motor control in children – Influence of growth on motor learning, control and performance Research Methods for Motor Behavior • Types of studies (experimental designs) – Between group – Within group – Descriptive (participants receive no treatment) • Studying the early stages of learning (novel tasks) • Studying expert performers • Measuring movements (kinematics) • Movement task characteristics (continuous vs. discreet) • Measuring learning and transfer (retention and transfer) Research Methods in Motor Behavior • Types of studies (experimental designs) – _________________: compares two or more groups exposed to different interventions – Within-group: one group with changing variables – Descriptive (participants receive no treatment): uses observation of participants performing a task to measure changes • May be longitudinal Studying early stages of learning • _______________________: tasks created to use in experiments to eliminate the advantage that some participants might have because they have practiced the task before • Helps understand how movements are learned • Not helpful for research in sport or PA Studying expert performers • Asks “what do expert performers do during practice and competition” – Compares novice to experts – Knowledge and skills unique to sport Measuring movements • Examine the process of movement • Use observation, video taping • ________________: location, velocity, acceleration • Measure muscle activity through EMG Characteristics of movement • In addition to what to measure, consider the characteristics of movement studied – Continuous – ______________- short period with beginning and end – Open: respond to location, speed; hitting thrown ball with a bat – Closed: more _______________ environment; attempt to do the same thing each time- bowling, archery Overview of Knowledge in Motor Behavior • Information processing – Concept formed to help scientists understand how the central nervous system works. – Conceptualizes brain as a computer, master controller. – Commands sent from brain (CPU) through spinal cord (wiring), which reduces complexity of information for the muscles and muscle groups (printer, screen). • Goal of motor behavior is to explain response selection and response execution. Motor Behavior • Brain and CNS work to create movement • Brain is master controller in planning, organizing, selecting, and controlling movements • Information processing – General commands are sent from the brain through the spinal cord and to the muscles Motor Learning • Goal: understand the role of practice, feedback (intrinsic and extrinsic), and individual differences • Before practice: goal setting, instructions, modeling, and mental practice • During practice: scheduling practice and context of practice • “Practice is a necessary but not sufficient condition for learning” and “practice the results of which are known makes perfect” • Skill acquisition variables versus performance variables Learning and Transfer • Goal of most practice is learning and learning is defined as retention and transfer – ______________: remember how to do something – Transfer: do a ___________________version of the task – Riding a bike: remember how to after period of time not riding; transfer skills to new routes Motor Learning • Two principles: – Correct practice improves performance and learning – Augmented feedback enhances practice and learning • Skill acquisition is an orderly process – Learner begins by making many large errors while trying to understand the task – Early in learning cognitive demands are great – With practice error become more consistent rather than making new errors each trail • Orderly process – Demands become less cognitive and more motor – Errors are smaller and less frequent – When the learner can execute the skill with fewer errors and doesn’t have to think about the skill while performing it is automatic or learned – Think about a skill you have practiced and learned Motor learning • An effort to explain and predict conditions that will make skill acquisition easier or faster – Conditions include: individual differences in learner, speed of movement, coordination – Task differences: open vs closed – Environmental differences: practice, feedback, transfer • Expertise begins to emerge at 10,000 hours of practice Motor learning • Learning reflects successful acquisition of a skill, performance reflects the degree to which someone can demonstrate the skill at any given time – Performance is __________________________________ • Can be affected by variables such as fatigue – Performance variables have temporary effect, learning variables have relatively permanent effect • Learning a result of retention and transfer Practice • Repetition – More practice is usually associated with better performance and is a requirement for learning • Phases of practice – Before: • Goal setting; instructions; demonstrating or modeling; mental practice – During: • Scheduling of practice; context of practice – Read through page 233 to prepare for lab Feedback • Integral part of practice regimen • Guides learner towards performing task correctly and reinforces correct performance • __________________: – Information about performance you obtain yourself as a result of movement • __________________: – Information provided by outside source such as teacher or videotape Feedback • Knowledge of _______________ – Knowledge about the result (ie: missed target) – Helps advanced performers more than beginners; advances are better at correcting mistakes • Knowledge of performance • Goal of feedback is for performers to detect and correct their own errors Feedback • Frequency: how often – Performer can become too dependent if feedback is too frequent – Should be given more at beginning _______________________ Motor control • The brain uses the CNS to initiate and control muscles that make movements • Goal of most movements is to rely on the decision-making centers of the brain as little as possible once the movement is initiated • Motor programs are theoretical explanation of how we successfully produce and control movement Motor Control • Motor programs must: – Specify the muscles involved in the action – Select the order of muscle involvement – Determine forces of muscle contraction – Specify relative timing and sequences of contractions – Determine the duration of contractions • Motor programs allow us to store memory of movements in groups with similar characteristics- schema Motor Control • Motor programs are proposed memory mechanisms that allow movements to be controlled. – As motor programs are developed, they become more automatic, allowing the performer to concentrate on the use of the movement in performance situations. – _________________ • Dynamical systems theory has challenged the motor program theory. – Dynamical systems theorists believe that a more direct link (coordinated structure) exists between perception and action, bypassing the need for motor programs. • Dynamical systems (cont) – Another theory about motor control – More direct and less cognitive link between information the perceptual system picks up and motor action that occurs – “coordinated structure”: automated movement relies little on decision making or central control of the brain Motor control • Study of motor control addresses: – Degrees of freedom- coordination – Motor equivalency – Serial order of movements-coarticulation – Perceptual integration during movement – Skill acquisition: accentuates the relationship between motor learning and control Developmental Motor Learning and Control • Two key principles: – Children are ______________________________ • Movements are not scaled-down versions of adult movements • Children are relatively inefficient: lack of practice; cognitive processes of selecting and planning movements are weaker – Children are more alike than different • Order of change is the same, rate is different Developmental changes • Mechanics of movement are different at different ages – Body executing the skill is different size and proportions – Variance in size of baby vs adult and proportion of head and limbs to total size • Growth is factor in motor behavior – Three dimensions of growth: overall size, proportions, body comp – Children must contend with changes in their body – ________________ increases with increases in size Life span development • Aging effects motor performance – Changes in strength and motor coordination are most rapid at the extremes of the age continuum – ___________ processes change because of developing nervous system and experience • Children use fewer cognitive processes and use them less effectively than adults • Babies have less synapses, less myelin and fewer neurons than adults • Nervous system deteriorates with aging- lose neurons and motor neurons – Results in slowness and variability in motor control • Experience can be an advantage for elderly people Professional Resources • Organizations: – American Geriatrics Society – Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology – International Society for Motor Control – Motor Development and Learning Academy of NASPE – North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity – Society for Neural Control of Movement – Society for Neuroscience • Journals: – Journal of Motor Behavior – Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Kinesiology Review – Motor Control – Pediatric Exercise Science – Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Ted Talk • https://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_wolpert_the_real_reason_ for_brains Check out.. • The principle that practice should match the performance environment for maximal improvement is • a. quality of practice • b. specificity of practice • c. practice enhancement • d. speed of acquisition • ___________________ are tasks created to use in experiments to eliminate the advantage that some participants might have because they have practiced the task before. • a. motor tasks • b. novel learning tasks • c. practice tasks • d. transfer tasks Learning is defined by ____________________, remembering how to do something and ________________, doing a slightly different version of the task. • a. retention, transfer • b. retention, practice • c. transfer, practice • d. retention, memory • The principle that practice should match the performance environment for maximal improvement is • a. quality of practice • b. specificity of practice • c. practice enhancement • d. speed of acquisition • While his players are working out, a coach notices a mistake in an athlete’s form. The coach tells the player what might work better and how to do it. What type of feedback is the coach giving the player? • a. intrinsic feedback • b. extrinsic feedback • c. frequent feedback • d. expert feedback C H A P T E R 8 Sport and Exercise Psychology Chapter 09 Sport and Exercise Psychology Chapter Objectives • Discuss what scholars and professionals do in sport and exercise psychology. • Describe how sport and exercise psychology evolved within kinesiology. • See how professionals in sport and exercise psychology engage in research and practice. Chapter Objectives (continued) • Provide an overview of what research tells us about personality, motivation, arousal and anxiety, and group processes in sport and exercise settings. • Explain imagery, attentional focus, and mindfulness as examples of how mental skills training is used in sport and exercise. What Is Sport and Exercise Psychology? • Sport and exercise psychology involves the study of human thought, emotion, and behavior in physical activity. • The ABCs of physical activity – A______: emotions (moods influenced by exercise) – B_______: actions (why people behave differently) – C_______: thoughts (ex: why some choke under pressure, how PA can help improve self-esteem) Goals for Sport and Exercise Psychology • To understand the social-psychological factors that influence people’s behavior and performance in physical activity • To understand the psychological effects derived from participation in physical activity • To enhance the sport and exercise experiences for those who participate in physical activity Distinction Between Exercise and Sport Psychology • _______________ psychology focuses on the psychological aspects of fitness, exercise, health, and wellness. • __________ psychology focuses on the psychological aspects of competitive sport participation. What Does a Sport or Exercise Psychologist Do? • University professors • Sport psychology service providers working in athletic programs (work with athletes and coaches) – University – Olympic – Professional • Exercise psychology service providers working in worksite health promotion or fitness businesses Physical Activity Specialist vs. Clinical or Counseling Psychologist • Physical Activity Specialist Kinesiology-trained practitioners of sport and exercise psychology focus on education or the teaching of skills to enhance the performance or personal fulfillment of individuals involved in sport or exercise. • Clinical or Counseling Psychologists Licensed practitioners who provide psychotherapy and consultation for individuals with clinical conditions such as depression, phobias, or anorexia nervosa. These may include athletes and exercisers. Common Uses of Knowledge of Sport and Exercise Psychology All professionals in kinesiology use psychological knowledge and experience in their jobs every day. • Physical education teachers use different forms of motivation to “hook” students. • Coaches motivate players and nurture strong team chemistry. • Athletic trainers use psychology to help athletes recover from injuries. (continued) Common Uses of Knowledge of Sport and Exercise Psychology (continued) • Corporate and personal fitness coordinators use psychology to get people to start and continue physical activity programs. • Recreational and elite sport managers use strategies for effective leadership. History of Sport and Exercise Psychology • Late 1800s: Norman Triplett studied the effect of the presence of others on bicycling performance. • 1920s and 1930s: Coleman Griffith era. – First systematic examination of psychological aspects of sport – Established Athletic Research Lab at Illinois – Interviewed star athletes about the mental aspects of their sport – Sport psychology consultant for Chicago Cubs • Developed methods of building confidence and increasing motivation History of Sport and Exercise Psychology (continued) • 1960s: Trait personality studies were conducted related to sport participation and social facilitation or audience effects on motor performance; national and international organizations were formed. • 1970s: Sport psychology became a legitimate sub discipline; graduate programs originated; Rainer Martens pioneered the systematic study of competitive anxiety in sport. (continued) History of Sport and Exercise Psychology (continued) Modern Sport and Exercise Psychology • 1980s: Emergence of exercise psychology, the growth of field research, and an explosion of applied mental training with athletes. • 1990s: Growth of sport psychology and exercise psychology subdisciplines continued, professional training standards were implemented, consulting guidelines and ethical standards for exercise were approved, and the U.S. Olympic Committee registry of certified professionals was created. (continued) History of Sport and Exercise Psychology (continued) Modern Sport and Exercise Psychology 2000s: – The knowledge base of the field grew rapidly with an increase in published research, providing a sound foundation for sport psychology practice. – A tremendous increase in qualitative research, which typically involves interview data. – Expansion of consulting services and applied multimedia materials. (continued) History of Sport and Exercise Psychology (continued) Modern Sport and Exercise Psychology 2000s: – Rapid expansion of sport and exercise psychology practice, particularly consulting services and availability of applied materials (books, videos, websites). – Online access to websites including Peak Performance Sports, Virtual Brands sport psychology, and Sport Psychology Today by Mental Edge Athletics fostered the use of sport and exercise psychology. – A new journal dedicated to practitioners (coaches, consultants, athletes) titled the Journal of Sport Psychology in Action was established in 2010. Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology • Questionnaires: psychological inventories – Standardized measures of thoughts, feelings, behaviors – Measures amount of confidence, anxiety, motivation one feels about exercise or sport • Interviews: in-depth, more complex responses • Observations: behavior checklist or coding Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology (continued) • Physiological measures: heart rate or brain waves – Biofeedback on physical stress • Biochemical measures: analyze blood or urine – Can represent response to stressors or emotions • Content analysis: analyze written work such as activity journals Overview of Knowledge in Sport and Exercise Psychology Six main areas: • Personality • Motivation • Energy management • Interpersonal and group processes • Developmental concerns • Intervention techniques for physical activity enhancement Personality • Unique blend of characteristics that make individuals different from and similar to one another • Sport and exercise psychology examines the relationship between _______________________________________ Personality and Sport • ____________________________athletic personality exists • No research as shown consistent personality differences between athletic subgroups • Several different characteristics between successful and nonsuccessful athletes Personality and Sport • Successful athletes – More self-confident; better able to cope well with stress and distractions – Better able to control emotions and remain appropriately activated – Better at attention to ________________________ – Better able to view __________________________________ – More highly determined and committed to excellence in their sport Personality and Sport • __________________________: natural and developed psychological edge that enables one to cope with competitive demands and remain focused, confident and in control under pressure – Personality responses identified: • Loving pressure of competition • Adapting to and coping with distractions and sudden changes • Channeling anxiety, not being fazed by mistakes; learning from failure Personality and Sport • Research shows that competition _______________ prosocial behaviors such as helping and sharing and that losing magnifies this effect. • Sport participation has been shown to increase rivalrous, antisocial behavior and aggression and linked to lower levels of moral reasoning – Do you agree with this? Personality and Sport • Children’s morality and prosocial behaviors can be enhanced in sport settings when adult leaders structure situations to foster these positive behaviors – Any experiences with this? • Sport doesn’t build character-___________________ Personality and Exercise • _______________________________________ • Although two characteristics are strong predictors: – More confident in their physical abilities tend to exercise more – Self-motivation • Self motivated begin and continue exercise program; less motivated drop out Personality and Exercise • Obligatory exercisers: individuals who participate in exercise at excessive, even harmful levels – Becomes central focus of life – Behavior becomes ______________________ – Similar to anorexia nervosa Personality and Exercise • Self esteem: perception of personal worthiness • Fitness training improves self esteem in children, adolescents and adults – Comes from actual or perceived improvements in fitness Personality and Exercise • Cognitive functions respond positively to increased levels of PA • Many people report to “feel better” after vigorous exercise • Anxiety and tension decline following acute bout of PA – Greatest reductions occur in regular PA for 15 weeks or more • Fit individuals demonstrate reduced psychosocial stress response • Prolonged PA associated with _________________________ Motivation • Motivation: a complex set of internal and external forces that directs and energizes our behavior (choice, effort, and persistence) in sport and exercise • All humans, regardless of their individual goals, motivated to feel competent and self-determining • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation • Developing intrinsic motivation (flow, competence, autonomy, relatedness) • Using extrinsic rewards to enhance motivation Motivation • Extrinsic: people engage in PA because of some kind of _______________________________ – Examples? – This will only enhance motivation in the short term • Intrinsic motivation: engage in PA because of enjoyment, pleasure, satisfaction – ________________________ Motivation • Motivation and PA adherence – Best way to motivate people is to help them develop or increase ______________________________ – People who are more motivated than others typically have higher intrinsic motivation to achieve a certain activity Developing Intrinsic Motivation • Generally accepted that people are motivated to feel competent and self-determined • Competence means different things to different people – Understand how each person defines success • Exercise programs must assess the goals of participants to fuel individual motivation – People participate for many reasons: social affiliation, personal mastery or fitness, competition – If we enjoy something and are good at it= likely to do it more Using rewards to enhance motivation • Rewards (extrinsic motivation) can be used in positive way to enhance people’s feelings of competence, which then increases intrinsic motivation • Problematic if used to coerce or manipulate – Rewards should ___________________________athletes or exercisers – Use to make them feel they’ve earned praise and reward through their effort and competence • Reward the right behaviors Figure 8.1 Anxiety and arousal • ____________________: a state of physical and psychological activation or readiness • ______________: a negative response to a stressful situation characterized by apprehension and feelings of threat – When arousal becomes too high people interpret negatively and it is labeled anxiety • Stress: a process in which individuals perceive an imbalance between their response capabilities and the demands of the situation – Stress can create anxiety Anxiety and Arousal • Elite athletes to do not have less anxiety, but perceive feelings of nervousness and anxiety as positive and helpful – Try to think about this when you are anxious- use energy for positive • Stress may induce high levels of arousal and even anxiety but it often leads to positive performance • But chronic stress without adequate recovery leads to burnout Optimal level of arousal • People perform better at __________________________ • Optimal level is unique for each person – Varies due to coping abilities, and skill level – Differs according to situational demands of different activities • Arousal influences performance through its effect on muscular tension and the performer’s ability to focus his or her attention properly Social and group processes • Presence of others – Behaviors differs when we are alone vs others – Effects on an audience on human performance – Presence of others increases our arousal • My help or hurt • Generally negative on someone who is learning a skill; positive on someone who is very skilled – Not mere presence- perception that others are evaluating Presence of Others • Different in exercise vs sports • In exercise people represent ____________________ – Workout partners – People working out concurrently – Family support strong predictor of exercise persistence especially in women • Individuals who exercise with spouse more likely to adhere • Children tend to model parents – Decreases social isolation in older adults Group membership • Group dynamics: how being part of group influences behavior • ________________: tendency of groups to stick together and remain united in pursuing goals – Cohesive groups more satisfied, better adherence • Increasing cohesion: – Identity; uniqueness: give group a name – Roles for group members – Initial success Group membership • _____________: decrease in individual performance within groups – Individuals believe their performance is not identifiable and other group members will pick up slack – Not a conscious process – Increase identifiability of individuals to decrease social loafing • Monitor individual performances Aggression • Behavior directed towards inflicting harm or injury on another person • Main source is in competitive situations is the presence of frustration • A learned behavior that develops because of modeling and reinforcement (ie: hockey) • Research links aggression to levels of moral reasoning and athletes view aggression as more legitimate because of lower levels of moral reasoning • Most people believe competition or exercise reduces aggressive impulses by providing catharsis, _______________________________________ Mental Skills Training in PA • Mental skills training involves: – Goal setting – Relaxation training – Imagery – Self-talk – In conjunction with physical training Imagery • Mental technique that programs the mind to respond as programmed – Uses ___________________to create or recreate an experience in the mind – Images guide our beliefs and beliefs guide our performance – Anyone ever use imagery? Imagery • When used systematically enhances exercise or sport performance • Many elite athletes cite as important factor in success • Vividly imagine performing a well-learned skill – Your brain fires in very similar ways as when actually performing skills – Provides mental blueprint – “trains the brain” Tips to use imagery • Use ___________________________________ • Practice imagery using both internal and external perspectives • Load your images with productive behavioral, physical and mental responses • Practice imagery while in the specific performance posture and if applicable holding implement (equipment) • Use simple, verbal triggers to prime the image you want • Practice daily Attentional Focus • Focus is important skill for any type of physical activity • Can be trained • Affected by one’s state of arousal – Attentional focus too broad at low levels of arousal – Moderate levels of arousal are optimal for focus – High levels of high arousal and attention may be too narrow- miss peripheral cues Attentional Focus • Arousal and anxiety may lead to more self-focus and ________________ – Sudden or progressive deterioration of performance below the typical or expected level of expertise for a person performing under pressure • Self-focus problems – Focus on their perceived inadequacies or fear they won’t perform well • Distracts form external focus needed to fulfill task – Attempt to consciously control performance • Use conscious processing instead of relying on automatic gained from learning Choking • Increase in arousal brought on by stress and pressure makes an individual more self-focused. • None of us are immune to this phenomenon; we all face achievement situations in which we desperately want to perform well, only to have our need to do so derail us. • The pressure leads to two problems with self-focus: – Focus on perceived inadequacies creates inward focus. – Attempt to consciously control performance (common). • See sidebar titled “Choking: What Can We Do About It?” Which techniques do you like? What to do about choking • Get used to it- ___________________________________ • Just do it- don’t take too much time to think • Distract yourself • Direct attention out, not in • Use holistic trigger words to cue performance Mindfulness • Mindfulness is increasingly used by people in sport and exercise to enhance their performance and mental health. • Maintain a ________________moment in an open, nonjudgmental way. The intent of mindfulness is to engage fully in a present activity without being caught up in worries about the future or regrets about the past. • Often taught through the practice of meditation. • Other mental skills important for success in physical activity pursuits include confidence, energy management, self-awareness, and productive thinking. Relaxation Techniques • Use physical relaxation to control autonomic functions • Breathing exercises • Muscular-tension techniques – Progress Muscle Relaxation Burnout • Talking about this is more important because of pressure we feel to perform, excel, juggle many responsibilities • Involves feelings of mental, emotional and physical ____________ • Leads to negative moods and feelings of depression • Feelings of lack of accomplishment, which decreases level of performance and self-esteem • Burnout causes people to become disillusioned with their involvement in an activity • Burnout is _______________________ Burnout • To prevent burnout coaches and trainers should encourage challenge and variety – Engage in different types of activity – Focus on quality of training – Know when to push and when to ____________________ Professional Resources • Organizations: – American Psychological Association – Association for Applied Sport Psychology – International Society for Sport Psychology – North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Professional Resources • Journals – International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Journal of Applied Sport Psychology – Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Journal of Sport Psychology in Action – Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology – The Sport Pyschologist Check out • Research on the effects of sport participation on personality has shown that • a. sport builds character • b. competition reduces antisocial behaviors • c. sport participation increases aggression • d. sport participation teaches higher levels of moral reasoning • What are the ABCs of sport psychology? • a. affect, behavior, cognitions • b. attitude, behavior, control • c. athletes, behavior, competition • d. applied, behavior, conditions What is the key to reducing social loafing in groups? • a. setting individual goals • b. monitoring and evaluating individual performance • c. asking group members to focus on group performance • d. increasing group size • The optimal arousal level for an individual’s performance is • a. the highest level of physiological “psych-up” attainable • b. the same for all individuals • c. the same for all types of tasks in sport and exercise • d. moderate and differs according to situational demands of various activities • _________________________ is a mental process that uses one’s senses to create or recreate an experience in the mind. • a. arousal • b. imagery • c. goal-setting • d. positive reinforcement PMR • http://media.dartmouth.edu/~healthed/p_muscle_relax.mp3 • Short form: • https://mainlinecounselingpartners.com/progressivemuscle-relaxation/ C H A P T E R 6 Sociology of Physical Activity Chapter 07 Sociology of Physical Activity Chapter Objectives • Explain what a sociologist of physical activity does. • Identify the goals of sociology of physical activity. • Discuss the origins of sociology of physical activity. • Explain how research is conducted in sociology of physical activity. • Examine what research tells us about inequitable power relations relevant to physical activity, especially gender relations, ethnic and racial relations, and socioeconomic relations. Why use Sociology of PA? • Through our social practices we have come to have beliefs or understandings that we share with others • Sociology of PA primarily focuses on sport, there has been increasing interest in exercise as well Why use Sociology? • Process to intellectually unpack patterns, beliefs, values and power relationships that will reveal human physical activity as a crucial organizing component of all social system What Is Sociology of Physical Activity? • Sociology of physical activity focuses on the shared beliefs and social practices that constitute specific forms of physical activity (such as sport or exercise). • Sociological information adds to the breadth of knowledge of a well-educated kinesiologist. • Set of intellectual tools that one may develop in order to look at human PA as more than physicalcultural as well What is Sociology of PA? • Tools include an understanding of theoretical perspectives, knowledge about research methods and ability to identify and think through social problems as the relate to social spaces of human PA – _____________ of professional practice also provide insight into sociology of PA • Recognition that there are varied social and cultural contexts for PA and different forms of sport, exercise, and recreational activities may hold diverse values across time and cultural groups Goals of Sociology of Physical Activity • To look at physical activity with a penetrating gaze that goes beyond our common understanding of social life – Must be developed – Requires some _____________________________________ – Ex: exercise appears to be a personal choice, but many external social conditions impact PA – Respond to the PA needs of ever-changing, diverse society Goals • To identify and analyze _______________and stability in physical activity – Ex: Olympic success continue to privilege large, economically advanced countries – Ex: more and more women currently participate in Olympics than before – Any closer to home examples? • To critique physical activity programs in order to identify problems and recommend changes leading to the enhancement of equality and human well-being – Sociologist claim constant stream of social interaction that occurs in a society is most important source of societal problems – Not oriented towards supporting or reinforcing status quo PA such as present exercise and competitive sports programs • Advocates for change in structure • Questions the status quo What Does a Sociologist of Physical Activity Do? • Teach • Research • Service – Do not carry out research in labs – Study subjects ____________ – Community participatory research – Foster civic responsibility in students History of Sociology of Physical Activity • Early beginnings: Late 19th century to mid1960s – Began in North America – Peter McIntosh (1963) Sport in Society • Identifying the subdiscipline: Mid-1960s to early 1980s – International Committee for Sport Sociology – North American Society for Sociology of Sport History of Sociology of Physical Activity (continued) Expanding the subdiscipline: mid-1970s to present – Socioeconomic inequities in sport – Gender inequities in sport – Racial and ethnic inequities in sport – Global, national, and local relations in sport – Exercise and societal conceptions of human bodies – _______________________ – Obesity Research Methods of Sociology of Physical Activity • Research in sociology of physical activity involves collecting quantitative and qualitative data using a variety of methodologies. – ________________: things you can measure; standardized; numbers – Qualitative: texts, direct observations; measured in a more deep manner • Mixed methods Research Methods in Sociology of Physical Activity Methods • _______________questionnaires; collect data from larger samples • Interviewing- collect deeper information – One-on-one – Focus groups: gain insights into shared understanding – Open-ended questions and probe for more details • Thematic analysis- content or textual analysis – Investigate cultural materials such as magazine and newspaper articles, photos, verbal and visual content of television programming, interview data, sporting events – Examine materials and categorize the content into themes Research Methods • ________________- spend many months or years observing particular social setting – Take part in everyday life themselves – Talk with people – Take careful field notes – May also look at local documents and use interviews and questionnaires – Use thematic analysis • Societal analysis- goal is to examine the sweep of social life, usually from the perspective of a broad social theory – Attempt to explain how society operates • Historical analysis- large scale social change Overview of Knowledge in Sociology of Physical Activity • Power relationships • Gender relationships • Sexuality and sports • Participation patterns • Leadership roles (continued) Overview of Knowledge in Sociology of Physical Activity (continued) • Cultural differences • Ethnic (cultural heritage) and racial relations • Sport and politics (local, national, international, and transnational) • Mass media (e.g., television, newspapers, magazines, the Internet) and sport Power and Power Relationships • Ways in which external, dominant cultural beliefs about social life, morals, valued behaviors, influence everyday choices for PA • ____________: ability to do what you want without being stopped by others • Sources of power: money, ___________, body size, strength, information • What are some dominant power structures in PA? Power • Power reinforces the way societal members think things “ought to be” – Ex: males not engaging in group fitness – Females lifting heavy free weights; playing football • Power inequalities sometimes affect our participation as performers of PA and opportunities for influential leadership – People with more access to power can get involved more easily – Examples? Power • What are the social structures that reinforce social privilege of particular groups/individuals? – Laws, policies, school curricula, knowledge • How do kinesiology professionals contribute to (or resist) these processes of privilege? – Strive to create equity in experiences – Focus on participation, leadership, cultural expression Gender • ____________________, difference from sex (biological) – Set of norms or expectations about how we should behave – Linked to societal understanding of sexuality and procreation • __________ typically have power in gender hierarchy – This can change when race, social class, and sexual orientation are considered • In PA inequalities prevail because of beliefs about appropriateness of certain forms of PA for recognized gender groups Gender • Participation – Passage of Tit_________________required that women be provided with equitable opportunities to participate in sport – Significant factor in increased participation of females in sports – 1 out of 2.4 high school girls play a varsity sport • In North America sports are deemed important avenues for exploring and confirming masculinity – Toughness, aggressiveness, competitiveness • Many sports are still gender specific in who they attract – Examples- common factors? For Discussion • Although many more females engage in physical activity today than they did several decades ago, they tend to participate in sports considered socially appropriate (e.g., involving less body contact, prominent aesthetic dimensions, and less strength development). • Why is this? • Do you see evidence of this changing? Explain. • What role do beliefs, actions, and societal definitions of masculinity and femininity play? Gender • Leadership – Increasing but still limited opportunities for women in coaching, telecasting and officiating – _________________are coaching and administrating female teams and programs • Larger number of males in the qualified applicant pool • Men tend to occupy the decision-making/hiring positions Gender • Cultural Expression – PA with elements of expression display gender inequalities – Ex: men lead in dancing – ________________________________are men’s sports • 90% of sports on television focuses on men’s athletics • Less than 15% of sports in newspapers focuses on women’s athletics Ethnic and Racial Relations • Race: ______________ defined difference marked by phenotypical variance among people – Skin color, body shape, facial features, hair type – Race is socially defined, not biologically – Ethnicity: ________________ • Language, dialect, religion, music, art, dance, games, styles of dress – Sometimes race and ethnicity overlap – In US, members of racial and ethnic minorities typically have held less power than white majority Ethnicity and Race • Participation – Elite team sports and track and field African American men are _____________________ in relation to their proportion of general population – May relate to American social structure: role models – Have lower participation in other sports • Tend to be more visible in sports with easy access to facilities and coaching- in schools and community programs • Sports requiring private coaching and expensive equipment less popular • Disproportionate number of African Americans live at poverty level Ethnicity and Race • Leadership – African American males make up _____of D1 male athletes, but only ____of athletic directors and head coaches – Low numbers in professional sports as well • Coaching and officiating – Why? • Racial stereotypes and institutional racism cause African Americans to be passed over • Its Who you know- white males are already occupying leadership positions Ethnicity and Race • Cultural Expression – The sports that make African American males heroes can also contribute to racial and ethnic stereotyping – “brain vs brawn” manner of describing athletic performances Socioeconomic Relations • Socioeconomic status: social position based on ________, ___________, and _______________ prestige • Social categories of race, class, and gender operate not independently but interdependently. • Participation – Types and amounts of physical activity among people at different socioeconomic levels – Likelihood of becoming a professional athlete is very slim (but privileged in society are often better prepared for alternatives) SES Relations • Wealth, education, occupation, income make up SES – More money, better jobs, higher education=higher SES • Higher SES= ______________________________ – Income gap is widening= barriers for low SES to be active • Disparities in health, education, recreation, PA • Growth in private fitness clubs that cater to upper and middle class • Pay to play in schools • Decline in publicly funded programs in schools and communities SES Relations • Participation – Level of education linked to PA participation – Availability of time and economic resources for sport participation – Income linked to types of PA people engage in • High SES= __________________ • Lower SES= __________________ SES Relations • Leadership – People who control elite sports are wealthy – Team owners – Top coaches are well paid – Few opportunities exist for less affluent to occupy important leadership roles – Goal is to make money SES Relations • Cultural expression – Participation in some sports is used to mark high SES – Examples? – Fit bodies serve as status symbols in white, US society – Merit: American concept that if we work hard and have talent we will be successful • Winning is associated with hard-work and talent • If someone losses (or doesn’t succeed) it must be because they didn’t work hard enough – Ignores societal barriers The Challenge for Kinesiologists • Kinesiologists must identify the underlying causes at play and understand how to work through social conditions and inequalities in order to make meaningful physical activity available to all societal members. • How can these inequalities be changed to enhance equality and overall human well-being? • What are some examples of inequalities where a kinesiologist with an emergent sociological perspective might ask questions that lead to change in sport and physical activity? Unpack your own identity • Gender • Race/Ethnicity • SES • Others that impact PA? (or health?) • How has your identity impacted your engagement in PA? Thinking About Inequality • What inequalities do you notice in sport and physical activity? • How can these inequalities be changed to enhance equality and overall human well-being? Professional Resources • Organizations: – American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – International Sociology of Sport Association – National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education – North American Society for the Sociology of Sport Professional Resources • Journals – International Review for the Sociology of Sport – Journal of Sport and Social Issues – Sociology of Sport Journal Ted Talk • https://www.ted.com/talks/billie_jean_king_this_tennis_icon _paved_the_way_for_women_in_sports Check out • The term gender refers to • a. an individual’s sex • b. a genetic category • c. an individual’s heterosexuality • d. a set of norms and expectations about how we should behave based on society’s understanding of sexuality • The ability to do what you want without being stopped by others best defines which of the following terms? • a. prestige • b. power • c. control • d. social status • Researchers have found that there are several potential reasons that there are more men coaching and administrating women’s athletics. These reasons include all of the following EXCEPT • a. the larger number of male players constitutes a larger pool of qualified candidates • b. male administrators favor applicants with stereotypical masculine qualities that qualified female applicants may not possess • c. qualified women are still playing sports professionally, so they are not able to take on these leadership roles as coaches and administrators • Sociologists gain information about physical activity through all of these methods EXCEPT • a. observing and giving insight • b. interviewing • c. thematic analysis • d. ophthalmology • • Which of the following is a major influence on female participation in collegiate athletics? • a. more female coaches • b. more college teams available • c. high school teams more available now than in the past • d. Title IX legislation C H A P T E R 5 History of Physical Activity Chapter 06 History of Physical Activity Chapter Objectives • Explain what a physical activity historian does. • Describe the goals of history of physical activity. • Describe the development of the subdiscipline of history of physical activity. • Explain how research is conducted in history of physical activity. • Explain what research tells us about physical activity in U.S. society from the Industrial Revolution to the present. Why Study the History of Physical Activity? The history of physical activity teaches us about ___________ as well as ___________ in the past, which helps us understand the past as well as the present and make reasonable decisions for the future. Comparing Sport: Then and Now • Read the sidebar “Comparing Sport: Then and Now.” What movies have you seen that show a sport being played from a different time period? • What is your reaction when you see the changes in familiar sports through the years? • What role could a sport historian play in ensuring the artistic and historical integrity of the production? What Does a Historian of Physical Activity Do? • College or university faculty members – Teaching – Research – Service • Others – Librarians – Consultants to publishing companies – Library archivists – Museum curators History and Physical Activity • Kinesiologist interested in history would interpret things like fitness trends, popularity of sport across racial, ethnic and gender lines differently than someone without knowledge and interest • Athletic coaches create new playing strategies and training techniques by adapting and modifying those of earlier generations • Scholars in research rely on work of earlier researchers in their field History and Physical Activity • Helps us make better decisions today • Current information about physical activity is available mainstream – Yet somehow obesity rates are still rising • Understand where interest in physical fitness developed – Cold war, President Eisenhower’s heart attack, competition with EuropeAmerican children were less fit Goals of History of Physical Activity • Identify and describe patterns of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods. • Analyze patterns of change and stability in physical activity in particular societies or cultures during specific periods. • Examines relationships between PA and other social institutions such as economics, politics, business and education History of the Subdiscipline • Early beginnings: Late 19th century to 1960s – Edward Hartell On Physical Training • Believed professionals charting the future should understand the past and a textbook was needed – Fredric Paxton “The Rise of Sport” • Disappearance of American frontier spurred the increased popularity of sport – Seward Staley (1937) suggested courses in physical education should have a focus on the history of sport – Foster Rhea Dulles America Learns to Play: A History of Popular Recreation • Recreation satisfying to American public Early Beginnings • John Betts (1952) “Organized Sport in Industrial America” – Sport plays an active role in society by helping bind people together • Identifying the subdiscipline: 1960s to 1970s – Sport history section in professional organization College of Physical Education Association • Expanding the subdiscipline: 1970s to present – New analytical frameworks: • Modernization: emphasized rise of modern sport during Industrial Revolution • and _______________: people actively involved in developing or constructing their own sports – Greater focus on _______________ – New focus on exercise and health – North American Society for Sport History established 1972 – Journal of Sport History published in 1974 Research Methods in History of Physical Activity • New analytical frameworks developed in 1970s-80s • Modernization Theory – Rise of modern sport during Industrial Revolution as U.S. society shifted away from agricultural economies to city-based industries rooted in science and technology – Guttmann: From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports (1978) • Human agency – People actively involved in developing or constructing their sports – Expanded to include gender issue Research Methods in History of Physical Activity • Finding sources of evidence – Primary sources: produced in the society and _____________________ – _____________ sources: reports written by people in later periods • Critiquing sources- scrutinize carefully – Authenticity- determine who wrote the piece and when it was written – Credibility • Rule of context: make sense of document’s language in relation to the words meant to the people in the society it was produced • Rule of perspective-examine author’s relationship to the events described how the other obtained the information • Rule of omission or free editing- reminder you always have partial records of events; locate multiple sources Research Methods • Examining, analyzing, and synthesizing the evidence (after you locate authentic and credible sources) – Examine evidence to find information that addresses tentative hypotheses or research questions – Goal is to describe in detail the events and then analyze to determine why they took place – Place events in analytical framework that uses: • Trends and relationships in the events themselves • Theoretical models from the social sciences History of Physical Activity in North America • Critical time periods – 1840-1900: industrialization and westward expansion – 1900-1950: consumerism, immigration, and democratization – 1950-2007: electronic communication and globalization • Focus – Participation in physical activity – Physical activity professions – Scholarly knowledge about physical activity Professional Resources • Organizations: – American Historical Association – Australian Society for Sports History – British Society of Sports History – International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sports – National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education – North American Society for Sports History – Organization of American Historians Professional Resources • Journals: – American Historical Review – Journal of American History – Journal of Sport History – Olympika: The International Journal of Olympic Studies – Quest (National Association for Kinesiology in Higher Education) – Sport History Review – Sport in History – Sporting Traditions Check out.. • Which of the following is a primary source of historical evidence? • a. a book written in 1992 by a journalist born in 1965 about the Mexico City Olympics in 1968 • b. a poem about the first modern Olympic Games held in Athens in 1896, written in 2000 by an American poet who has a graduate degree in history • c. a tape-recorded interview conducted in 1987 with a famous sport historian about the ancient Greek Olympic Games in the 5th century B.C. • d. a newspaper article about the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics written at the time the Games were in progress • What are the two analytical frameworks used by historians to make sense of data they have collected in their research of history of physical activity? • a. modernization theory and rehabilitation theory • b. rehabilitation theory and human agency • c. rehabilitation theory and social facilitation • d. modernization theory and human agency One of the overall goals in studying the history of physical activity is to • a. learn about events that took place more than 100 years ago • b. interview older people to learn what physical activities were like when they were young • c. identify and describe patterns of change and stability in physical activity • d. engage in teaching, research, and service in a university setting Your Turn • Create a timeline of the important events in physical activity • Share you timeline with the class – Group one: 1840-1900 – Group two: 1900-1950 – Group three: 1950-2012 – Include events from each focal area: participation, professions, scholarly knowledge. Look up events/policies on inclusive PA/PE and adaptive aquatics and include if applicable to your timeline C H A P T E R 4 Philosophy of Physical Activity Chapter 05 Philosophy of Physical Activity Chapter Objectives • Examine the nature of philosophical thinking. • Describe how philosophy fits into the field of kinesiology. • Review the history of the philosophy of physical activity. • Describe research methods used in the philosophy of physical activity. • Provide an overview of knowledge in this domain by focusing on three issues: the nature of the person, the nature and value of play, and the ethics of sport. Philosophical Thinking in Physical Activity • __________________ is the key. • Philosophers learn a great deal by living in the world and experiencing it – Tools used are related to different ways of reflecting, using logic, speculating, imaging or thinking • Decisions are based on good judgment and logic. • Valid and reliable results are expected – But do not typically include gathering data from controlled experiments – Various types of reflection are used Philosophical claims • Range from personal opinion (low amount of supporting evidence) to claims that seem patently true ( have high amounts of supporting evidence) Philosophical Claims • Personal opinion – Lowest level of truth claim – Indication of ____________________________________ – True for that person but not necessarily others – Example? Claims • Speculation – Not merely opinions – Still hard to support with evidence – We may believe a person’s claim is _____________, but typically still have reasons to doubt – Example? Claims • Probable assertion – Claim around which a _______________________can be gathered – Conclude it is ______ to be true or at least partly true – Example? Claims • Truth assertion – Those claims that are ___________________ – Example? Goals of Philosophy of Physical Activity in Kinesiology 1. To understand the scope of the field 2. To understand how confident we can be about our claims in kinesiology – ____________________: examines how we know things and with what assurance we can claim something is true – Deals with bias, perspective, objectivity, socialization, enculturation or other issues related to strength of conclusions Goals 3. To learn how we ought to behave in sport and in our professional lives as kinesiologists – Ethics: examines how we o____________________ – Focuses on right and wrong, good actions and bad actions, what morally responsible people do 4. To determine what matters- health? Knowledge? Skill? – Axiology: examines the __________________________ – Make judgments about the relative worth of things Philosophers and Scientists Working Together • Alter the “jigsaw puzzle” analogy. • View philosophy and other subdisciplines as interdependent, not independent. • If so, validity of scientific and philosophic discoveries depends on collaboration before puzzle pieces are made. • If so, philosophers and scientists have moral obligation to …

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    Health & Medical Question KINESIOLOGY Professional Organizations Assignment

    Health & Medical Question KINESIOLOGY Professional Organizations Assignment

      1. Information 5 3 2 0
        Cover Page Given in proper APA formatting Issues with spacing or missing information Issues with spacing and missing information APA formatting is not followed.
        Abstract Between 150 – 250 words Contains slightly more or less than required range. (+/- 10 Words) Contains more or less than range allowed Did not include an abstract
        Introduction Expanded on all points from the outline Expand on most points Expanded on some points Restated listed points on outline
        Thesis Statement Has a clear thesis statement in introduction Thesis statement either has errors and/or is not in the introduction Thesis statement is not in proper format No thesis statement present in the paper and/or is not in the introduction
        Body Contains proper information to back up the respective main point of the thesis statement Contains some information to back up the respective main point of the thesis statement but could use more Contains very little information to back up the respective main point of the thesis statement Contents goes off topic of what the thesis statement is discussing
        Conclusion Restates the thesis statement and wraps up the paper. Restates the thesis statement and/or wraps up the paper but with some loose ends Does not restate the thesis statement and/or has lots of loose ends in the paper Contains new information in the conclusion and/or does not summarize the paper
        Person Contains no First or Second person perspective Has an instance of First or Second person perspective  






        Contains more than one instance of First or Second Person perspective
        Max: 35


        Student Earned:





        Structure 10 5 3 0
        Formatting Paper follows all guidelines as stated in the syllabus, Paper is in full APA formatting Contains 1-2 Errors Contains 3-5 Errors Did not proofread or Edit paper
        Mechanics & Grammar No errors 3-5 Errors 6-8 Errors Did not edit or proofread.
        Max 20 Student Earned:
        APA Style 15 10 5 0
        Paper Length 5-7 Pages not including Cover page, Abstract, References, etc. 4 pages not including CP, Abs, and Ref 3 pages not including CP, Abs, and Ref 2 or less pages of content OR contains more than 8 Pages
        Reference No errors Has few to little errors Has many errors Not in APA Format, contains less than 7 references, or has any amount of references older than 10 years
        In-text Citations No errors Has few to little errors Has many errors Not in APA Format or missing two or more in-text citations
        Max 45 Student Earned:
        Totals from Each Section:
        Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Final Grade:

        uNotice: Each day that the assignment is late there is a 5 point reduction on the overall grade.

        uWhen error is stated it is in reference to the instances of the error not the type of error.  Example: In-text citation for multiple authors occurs for two of the references that counts as two errors not one.

        uAny mention of the paper within the paper will result in a FIVE (5) point deduction per instance. Example: “In this paper…; In conclusion….; In summary…; In this essay…

        Also Read: Gender and Health Action Brief Assignment

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