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ethics are a central part of research
I’m working on a psychology question and need support to help me learn.
As you’ve seen in this class, ethics are a central part of research. The Stanford Prison Experiment was an egregious example of ethical violations, but all research projects have ways they can potentially violate ethical standards. It is important to consider in advance any ways your project may need to be adjusted or executed to ensure it adheres to the highest ethical standards.
- What are potential ways ethics may not be followed in your project?
- How could you mitigate the potential ethical problems?
RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 How Does Work Burnout Impact Nurse Turnover Retention? Los Angeles University PSYC 300 Research Methods Dr. Josh Morgan 01/20/2023 Research Question: How Does Work Burnout Impact Nurse Turnover Retention? 2 RESEARCH PROPOSAL Article List Daouda, O. S., Hocine, M. N., & Temime, L. (2021). Determinants of healthcare worker turnover in intensive care units: A micro-macro multilevel analysis. PloS one, 16(5), e0251779. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251779 Gebregziabher, D., Berhanie, E., Berihu, H., Belstie, A., & Teklay, G. (2020). The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention among nurses in Axum comprehensive and specialized hospital Tigray, Ethiopia. BMC nursing, 19(1), 1-8. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12912-020-00468-0 Mengstie, M. M. (2020). Perceived organizational justice and turnover intention among hospital healthcare workers. BMC psychology, 8(1), 1-11. https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-020-0387-8 Ran, L., Chen, X., Peng, S., Zheng, F., Tan, X., & Duan, R. (2020). Job burnout and turnover intention among Chinese primary healthcare staff: the mediating effect of satisfaction. BMJ open, 10(10), e036702. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/10/e036702.abstract Sabety, A. H., Jena, A. B., & Barnett, M. L. (2021). Changes in health care use and outcomes after a turnover in primary care. JAMA internal medicine, 181(2), 186-194. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181(2):186-194. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6288 Woldekiros, A. N., Getye, E., & Abdo, Z. A. (2022). Magnitude of job satisfaction and intention to leave their present job among nurses in selected federal hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PloS one, 17(6), e0269540. 3 RESEARCH PROPOSAL Annotated Bibliography Ran, L., Chen, X., Peng, S., Zheng, F., Tan, X., & Duan, R. (2020). Job burnout and turnover intention among Chinese primary healthcare staff: the mediating effect of satisfaction. BMJ open, 10(10), e036702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036702 The authors of this article include Li Ran, Xuyu Chen, Shuzhen Peng, Feng Zheng, Xiadong Tan, and Ruihua Duan. The authors are scholars in healthcare sciences who have experience in the field and are, therefore, qualified to write this document. The authors’ purpose in writing the article is to investigate the connection between job burnout, satisfaction, and turnover intention in nursing. The bias/assumptions upon which the rationale of the literature has been written is the influence of demographic characteristics on turnover intention. The authors have used a cross-sectional quantitative study as the preferred methodology to obtain the data. The participants included primary medical staff from Huangpi District in China. The data was collected using electronic questionnaires to all the eligible participants. Statistical analysis was used as the analytical approach in this research. The conclusions drawn in this scenario were that job burnout positively predicted turnover intention, and this conclusion has been expressly stated. Research carried out by the authors has justified the conclusions in this particular reading. Additionally, they are in sync with the original purpose of the research and supported by data, and they are not skewed by bias. The work is current (carried out in the last few years), relevant to the topic at hand, and does not conflict with established research. 1 Research of Religion Methodologies Name University Name Course Professor Date 2 Research of Religion Methodologies Research on religious issues attracts unique methodological challenges and problems not associated with other research topics. Although modern researchers consider religion a cultural phenomenon that scientific methods can study, they do not state the specific techniques and approaches for examining religious phenomena. As a research subject, religion is found at the intersection of quantitative and qualitative research. With the growing interest in religious research, selecting a suitable methodology and corresponding research paradigm is a key challenge. However, the qualitative methodology has demonstrated greater efficiency in analyzing religious phenomena due to its interpretive research paradigm. Analysis of Readings on Qualitative Research The first applied method in qualitative research that surprised me is the interview method. After going through the readings, I noted that interviews do not simply involve preparing questions on the research topic and posing them to the respondents. Instead, the interview technique in religious research must adhere to several strategies for success. These strategies include seeking permission, assuring respondents of confidentiality, familiarizing themselves with them, asking open-ended questions, and gaining clarification (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2015). Besides these strategies, I was also surprised to learn of the unique interview questions applicable to religious research. The questions highlighted in this reading are biographical, guided tour, and grand tour. Utilizing all the questions will offer a detailed understanding of the religious subject. Besides interviewing, another applied method that surprised me is the application of participant observation. Like other research, religious research encompasses deep immersion in people’s religious rituals and practices. Religious researches using this technique are more 3 demanding due to the need for the researcher to participate in practices and rituals, including those to which they do not subscribe. Moreover, researchers using participant observation must record their feelings and reactions during the research process (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2015). Although uncomfortable, especially when the religious practices and rituals appear weird, it is essential in interpreting the findings Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Methods The qualitative technique has several strengths in respecting and capturing multicultural diversity within religion. First, participant observation allows the researcher to take locally informed and context-sensitive notes about the experiences and observations (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2015). This will enable them to appreciate the diversity of religious practices. Second, the researcher must pay attention to the composition of the religious community based on identifiable markers like race, age, ethnicity, and gender. This ensures they respect diversity in collecting and analyzing data. Researchers using the qualitative technique be perceptive of the sacred experiences of the members of the religious community (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2016). Lastly, a qualitative technique like interviewing requires the researchers to avoid negative or positive feedback from respondents. Doing so will insinuate approval and disapproval of some practices, undermining multiculturalism. However, qualitative techniques have several weaknesses in upholding multicultural diversity in religion. First, scholars have argued that participant observation cannot be used as a standalone method in religious research (Denton & Smith, 2001). This is due to its failure to capture vital cultural aspects within religion. Based on this, the method must be used alongside interviews or focus groups. Second, researchers may be affected by biases during the interviews and participant observation. This will adversely impact the interpretation of the findings. Lastly, 4 respondents may be uncooperative, especially with people they consider unfamiliar with their religious practices and rituals. This may force researchers to discontinue the study. Conclusion Qualitative and quantitative approaches can be applied to religious research. However, the choice of the most appropriate approach must be based on the research findings’ generalizability, validity, and reliability. In some cases, religion can be studied using a mixed methodology, which combines qualitative and quantitative research methods. In light of these developments, religion should be studied as a phenomenon linked to human physiology rather than as a cultural construct. 5 References Denton, M. L., & Smith, C. (2001). Methodological Issues and Challenges in the Study of American Youth and Religion. National Study of Youth and Religion. https://youthandreligion.nd.edu/assets/102503/methodological_issues_and_chal lenges_in_the_study_of_american_youth_and_religion.pdf Gajaweera, N., & Johnson, A. (2015). What methodologies can I use to study religious groups? Center for Religion and Civic Culture. https://crcc.usc.edu/report/studying-faithqualitative-methodologies-for-studying-religious-communities/what-methodologies-cani-use-to-study-religious-groups/ Gajaweera, N., & Johnson, A. (2016). Studying faith: Qualitative methodologies for studying religious communities. Center for Religion and Civic Culture. https://crcc.usc.edu/report/studying-faith-qualitative-methodologies-forstudying-religious-communities/ 1 PART 3 | RESEARCH PROPOSAL APPLIED METHODOLOGY Part 3 | Research Proposal Applied Methodology Los Angeles Pacific University PSYC 300 Research Methods Josh Morgan 02/11/2023 2 PART 3 | RESEARCH PROPOSAL APPLIED METHODOLOGY Part 3 | Research Proposal Applied Methodology Research Question for Qualitative Research The research question for this research is “How does work burnout impact the nurse turnover intention?” Qualitative Methodology Description of the Methodological Approach The qualitative methodological approach is based on the collection and analysis of data that is non-numerical, and it involves understanding concepts, opinions, or experiences. This is used to gather in-depth insights into the research problem and generate new ideas for the research. It focuses on studying the nature of phenomena and why certain occurrences happen (Pandey & Pandey, 2021). The research methodology includes observation and assessment of complex and multi-component interventions while also focusing on improvement. Using qualitative study, different methods can be used to collect data, including participant or non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. The research question can best be answered using qualitative methods (Pandey & Pandey, 2021). It will help to discover the reasons for observed patterns, mainly because the complex topic requires a detailed understanding. Qualitative research for this study emphasizes providing a holistic understanding of the social settings in which the research is conducted. This includes a detailed description and reflection of the reality of everyday life. Qualitative research for this study is flexible and iterative, and it will allow the discovery of important information concerning the topic of concern. The Method to Collect the Data 3 PART 3 | RESEARCH PROPOSAL APPLIED METHODOLOGY The collection of data for this qualitative study will include the use of semi-structured interviews. The interview will help to gain insight into the subjective experiences of the individual as well as opinions and motivations (Pandey & Pandey, 2021). Interviews include a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked to gain information from the interviews. The use of semi-structured interviews for this research will include open-ended questions based on the broader areas of interest. Interviews are an effective method of connecting with the participants, but they will require time to set up and conduct (Vindrola-Padros & Johnson, 2020). In the semi-structured interview, flexibility is critical, and new questions will be brought forward concerning the topic, which needs to follow a structured format. For the qualitative study to be practical, relevance will be critical and especially since the research study involves a sensitive research-based issue. Description of Method to Analyze the Data The approach to analyzing qualitative research for this study is the Grounded Theory, where the qualitative researcher will reach a more robust hypothesis through induction. This is the process of collecting qualitative research data and forming connections. The researcher will gain a hypothesis based on evidence and inquiry. It will be critical to code the data, including assigning a descriptive label allowing the researcher to identify related content across the data (VindrolaPadros & Johnson, 2020). The data coding method used for this research is open coding. This will include segmenting the data into meaningful expressions and describing them in a single word to a short sequence of words. This will include sorting through the data and categorizing events and concepts based on their properties and dimensional range. In the analysis of data, it will be broken up into distinct ideas, events, or objects and labeled the critical information in the process (Vindrola-Padros & Johnson, 2020). In open coding, group conversations between the researcher 4 PART 3 | RESEARCH PROPOSAL APPLIED METHODOLOGY and other professionals in the field will be made to make crucial decisions concerning the research. The research will ensure the realization of a descriptive, multi-dimensional preliminary framework for later analysis. References Pandey, P., & Pandey, M. M. (2021). Research methodology tools and techniques. Bridge Center. 5 PART 3 | RESEARCH PROPOSAL APPLIED METHODOLOGY Vindrola-Padros, C., & Johnson, G. A. (2020). Rapid techniques in qualitative research: a critical review of the literature. Qualitative health research, 30(10), 1596-1604. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732320921835