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During the past eight weeks, the class put together and conducted a research project. As well, each week you have been preparing your research report on that project. For this assignment, you need to compile the different parts into one paper and submit it for your final grade. Several sections have already been graded, and you have been provided feedback. You can submit what you originally submitted and rewrite the sections incorporating the suggestions of your classmates and the instructor. (Remember, your Turn It In Report will showcase anything that has been cut and pasted. You need to do a heavy edit on anything previously submitted.) You will add one new section, the discussion and conclusions. For this section, use your review of the literature and annotated bibliography to justify the results of your findings from the survey and to critically support what you found. This is the final product of what you have been working on for 7 weeks. The format of your paper is: Maximum page limits and order Content 1 Title, Author, and date 1 Abstract 2 Introduction 4 Review of Literature 2 Methods Unlimited Results 1-4 Discussion and Conclusions Unlimited References Formatting Guidelines for Research Paper • • • • • Double spaced Times New Roman font 12 font 1″ margin all the way around Reference list (minimum of five references, APA Format)–remember your references must be from scholarly and/or primary sources (the textbook is considered neither). Running head: BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Annotated Bibliography Jack Smith American Public University SPHS511 Dr. Lisa Miller September 17, 2022 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 Annotated Bibliography Arshad, Khan, N. K. N., & Ismail, I. A. (2021). Leadership Development Process: Positive Youth Development through Coaching among Youth Leaders. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(17). https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v11-i17/11390 This source reference is different than the others because while it does deal with coaching and youth it isn’t necessarily geared towards sport but rather coaching youth to mold them to become leaders. Coaching youth helps to build more competency for the level of understanding to be a leader. Concluding information shows that influence of coaches assist youth in forming leadership styles, and abilities. This helps to better show the impact that coaches can have on youth or shaping their leadership style or beliefs. Li, Sum, R. K. W., Wallhead, T., Ha, A. S. C., Sit, C. H. P., & Li, R. (2019). Influence of Perceived Physical Literacy on Coaching Efficacy and Leadership Behavior: A CrossSectional Study. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 18(1), 82–90. The study Li et. al. (2019) conducted for this source was in regards to the physical literacy between the coach and student athletes. Essentially based on the coaching and coaching styles this cross-sectional study allowed the researchers to gather data from the athletes to determine the perceived physical literacy based on the coaching efficacy BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 and the leadership behavior or style the coach used. This is a peer-reviewed study that helps to understand leadership in coaching. Li, Li, S., Hu, J., & Chen, R. (2021). Coaching by Age: An Analysis of Coaches’ Paternalistic Leadership on Youth Athletes’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior in China. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 622703–622703. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.622703U.S. This peer-reviewed study by Li et. al. (2021) studied various aspects of youth coaching using the social cognitive theory. Some of which included the coaches’ paternalistic leadership, youth athletes’ organizational citizenship behavior, and the effect of trust in coaches. This particular study was done in China with youth athletes ranging from age 13 to age 18. To gather data a self-report questionnaire was completed by 758 youth soccer athletes. As far as implications go, there’s evidence that as leaders coaches help shape youth athletes and their leadership qualities in the future. Newland, Newton, M., Moore, E. W. G., & Legg, W. E. (2019). Transformational Leadership and Positive Youth Development in Basketball. International Sport Coaching Journal, 6(1), 30–41. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2018-0002 This is an interesting peer-reviewed study in regards to coaching youth sports and transformational leadership style. This study explains that there is a wealth of information correlating youth sports participation with positive youth development. Between the youth sports coach and youth athlete relationship there’s potential for youth to positively be shaped into leaders in the future. This study seeks to gather information which correlates positive youth development and the coach characteristics. Vella, Oades, L. G., & Crowe, T. P. (2013). The relationship between coach leadership, the coach-athlete relationship, team success, and the positive developmental experiences BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 of adolescent soccer players. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18(5), 549–561. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2012.726976 The study from Vella, Oades, & Crowe (2013) dives into the coach leadership, the coach-athletes relationship, positive developmental experiences and team success. Rather than focusing on physical skills or assets that coaches instruct or that athletes learn from the coaches this helps to take another approach by determining what makes up positive developmental experiences. While instructing athletes to perform the skills and actions is important for coaches when dealing with youth athletes it is also important to figure out what is having an impact with them to learn the skills and allowing them to continue developing as a member of the team positively. Below are the 5 other references: The assignment requires 10 total references, 5 of which were required to be included in the annotated bibliography. The remaining 5 references are below. References: Cohen, Bovbjerg, V., & Wegis, H. (2020). Does coaching experience and coaching efficacy of untrained volunteer youth sport coaches influence children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity? International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 15(2), 135–145. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954120906675 Fry, Reid-Pinson, C., Iwasaki, S., & Thompson, J. (2020). Bridging Theory, Research, and Practice in Youth Sports: Sport Psychology’s Partnership with Positive Coaching BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 Alliance to Enhance Youth Sport. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 11(1), 6 –19. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2019.1649336 Hellinger, & Haibach-Beach, P. (2021). Developmental Perspective on Coaching Youth Soccer. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 92(4), 48–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2021.1886848 Lawrason, Turnnidge, J., Martin, L. J., & Côté, J. (2019). A Transformational Coaching Workshop for Changing Youth Sport Coaches’ Behaviors: A Pilot Intervention Study. The Sport Psychologist, 33(4), 304–312. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2018-0172 TOLGA, & GÜLFEM, S.-B. (2020). SPORTSPERSONSHIP COACHING BEHAVIORS FROM YOUTH ATHLETES’ PERSPECTIVE. i-Manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 13(4), 25–. https://doi.org/10.26634/jpsy.13.4.16947 1 Impact of Coaches on the Leadership style of their Youth Athletes Jack Smith American Public University SPHS511: (Critical Thinking in the Sports and Health Industries) Dr. Lisa Miller September 30, 2022 THE LEADERSHIP STYLE OF YOUTH ATHLETES 2 Impact of Coaches on the Leadership style of their Youth Athletes The immense influence the coaches have on their athletes, particularly the young ones, is often understated. For the youths in sports, a coach is an individual they strive to be like, look up to, and respect. Moreover, these youthful athletes tend to interpret and understand their sporting experiences based on the leadership provided and the relationship they develop with their coaches. Arshad et al., (2021) affirm that youth sport coaching is impacted by various factors since the coaches have to show hands-on leadership skills due to the fact they handle young children. Therefore, coaching in youth sports need coaches that possess farreaching, beneficial, and powerful influence not only on the athletic journey of these youths, but also on their daily life. However, Eisenmann, Till, & Baker, (2020) state that many coaches in youth sports do not go through professional training to equip them with skills to manage the young athletes. The result is that we have a small number of coach es in youth sports trained in injury prevention, CPR, concussion management, physical conditioning, and first aid administration. The inadequate training raises the risk to sustainability of both the personal and athletic life of the young athletes. The above evidence points to the hypothesis that youth coaches influence the style of leadership from their youth athletes. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of coach training/education, leadership style and traits have on both the athletes’ sport life and daily lives. The study will be undertaken through surveys. Survey questions will be sent to sampled youth athletes seeking answers on impact of THE LEADERSHIP STYLE OF YOUTH ATHLETES the coach’s leadership style, type of leadership style used by the coach, athlete-coach relationship, strictness and adequacy of the coach’s training. Similarly, survey questions will be sent to a group of coaches seeking answers to the following: style of leadership, impact of the coach on the youthful athlete, coach training and education, impact of the coach on the leadership style of the athlete, and the nature of coach-athlete relationship. 3 THE LEADERSHIP STYLE OF YOUTH ATHLETES References Arshad, Khan, N. K. N., & Ismail, I. A. (2021). Leadership Development Process: Positive Youth Development through Coaching among Youth Leaders. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(17). https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v11-i17/11390 Eisenmann, Till, K., & Baker, J. (2020). Growth, maturation and youth sports: issues and practical solutions. Annals of Human Biology, 47(4), 324– 327. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1764099 4 1 Leadership In Coaching Survey Jack Smith American Public University SPHS511 Dr. Lisa Miller October 7, 2022 2 Class Research Topic: Impact of Coaches on the Leadership style of their Youth Athletes Hypothesis for this study: My main hypothesis is that, youth coaches impact the leadership style of youth athletes. Problem Statement: From my previously mentioned problem statement in the Week 4 in the W4b discussion you can see my problem statement for this study is the following: “Youth sports coaching is affected by divergent factors considering it involves young children necessitating youth sports coaches to display practical leadership skills. Youth sports coaching requires the employment of experienced coaches with a powerful, beneficial, and far-reaching impact on the youths’ athletic and life journeys. However, most youth sports coaches fail to get professional training to learn how to manage the younger population of athletes (Eisenmann, Till, & Baker, 2020). In this view, a limited number of youth sports coaches with training in first aid, CPR, physical conditioning, injury prevention, and concussion management provides risks to the sustainability of the athletic and personal life of young athletes. This aspect challenges youth sports and coaching since it predisposes children to high-risk injuries that may cause sudden halts in athletic careers.” Link to Survey: I have done a survey for coaches to be able to take, however I believe this study could also benefit from having a survey that youth athletes also take. This would allow both sides coaches and athletes to be able to provide answers which could be beneficial to determining the impact of on the leadership style of their youth athletes. https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/HDRKWHQ Questions Included in this survey: 1. What leadership style do you use coaching youth athletes? 2. Have you had a positive impact on youth athletes? 3. Have you had any coaching training? 4. Have you had first aid and cpr training? 5. Do you believe that coaches can impact youth athletes leadership style? 6. Is your relationship with your youth athletes positive? 3 Reference: Eisenmann, Till, K., & Baker, J. (2020). Growth, maturation and youth sports: issues and practical solutions. Annals of Human Biology, 47(4), 324–327. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1764099 Retrieved from: https://apus.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?docid=cdi_informaworld_t aylorfrancis_310_1080_03014460_2020_1764099&context=PC&vid=01APUS_INST: 01APUS&lang=en&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&adaptor=Primo%20Central&tab= Everything&query=any,contains,Growth%20%20maturation%20and%20youth%20spo rts:%20issues%20and%20practical%20solutions&offset=0 Survey Methods and Results Jack Smith American Public University SPHS511 Dr. Lisa Miller October 18, 2022 Survey Methods and Results Method used The data collection method used to conduct the survey was the use of a survey questionnaire presented to five respondents. This enabled the researchers to engage the various targeted audience and gain individual and personal perspectives that could fairly represent the entire population. Data collected from the respondents were then graphically represented for further analysis. Results According to the survey’s findings regarding the leadership style used in coaching athletes, most of the sampled participants have to combine multiple coaching techniques to significantly impact their team. Of the five survey participants, as shown in the graph, three of them use a mixture of various techniques in their coaching. From the representation above, eighty percent of the participants felt that they had impacted positively on their players, even though there were a few who were uncertain of their impact. As shown in the graph above, all the coaches have undergone coaching training, which means they are qualified for the positions. The majority have further advanced into first aid and CPR training. As in the graph below, only twenty percent of the participants have not pursued first aid training. Most of the coaches, eighty percent of the survey respondents, felt that they greatly influence the leadership skills of their team members. Twenty percent do not believe they impact the leadership skills of their athletes in any way, as depicted in the graph below. Eighty percent of the coaches maintain a positive relationship with the team of athletes, as shown in the graph below. This creates a rapport making it easy for them to coach them. However, twenty percent of the respondents were unsure of their involvement in their student leadership skills or their relationship with the athletes. Conclusion From the findings, it is safe to conclude that all coaches in the survey have undergone training. Most of them opt to go for further first aid training, possibly in order to be able to attend to the athletes urgently if need be. It is safe to also conclude that the coaches make it their goal to impact and help the athletes grow their leadership skills and also improve in their personal lives, which allows them maintain a positive relationship with the athletes.